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Full text of "Arabic-Englsih Dictionary__Part2-new"

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427 



^JJ 



?jj rau c fright, alarm, dismay, fear; 
— ru f heart, mind, soul | liipjj J$-u 
(haddi) and dbjj «jSC** (sakkin) take it 
easy I relax! a&jj j (J*-^i) JJI to persuade 
s.o., make s.o. believe, talk s.o. into be- 
lieving (jl that), inspire (a s.th.); Ja+- 
is-jj it occurred to him, it came to his 
mind 

9jj ravxC beauty 

4&jj rau*a fright, alarm, fear; awe; as- 
tonishment, surprise; perplexity; charm, 
beauty, magnificence, splendor 

?jj\ arwcf 2 more wonderful, more 
marvelous; more charming, more delight- 
ful; more magnificent; more obvious, 
clearer 

9-LJjl irtiya* alarm, dismay, shock 

*jlj rai v splendid, admirable, wonder- 
ful, marvelous, glorious, magnificent; 
charming, delightful; awesome, imposing, 
impressive, thrilling; see also *jj 

4*j!j rai'a pi. «j!jj rawai* 2 an im- 
posing thing; great work of art, master- 
piece | j^l aj\jj r. al-fann masterpieces 
of art ; see also £> j 

?jj* murawwV terrible, dreadful, fright- 
ening 

fjj* muratvwa* frightened, terrified, 
alarmed 



&S 



rmirV dreadful, terrible, horrible 



9\lj* murtd* frightened, terrified, a- 
larmed 



(fjj) f}j to®® u {rang, uUjj rawagan) to 
turn off, swerve; to dodge, evade (jp, 
^ s.o., s.th.), get out of the way of 
(0*> o*)'> furtively to turn away; to go 
away (J! to), depart, leave (Jl for) III to 
deal in an underhanded, fraudulent man- 
ner (a with s.o.), double-cross (a s.o.); 



to dodge, engage in low trickery, play 
fast and loose; to fight with unfair means 

(a s.o.) 

f\jj rawdg dodge, shift, artifice, sly 
trick 

f]j J ruwwag sly, wily, insidious, crafty 

**ijj ruwaiga dodge, shift, artifice, 
sly trick 

9jj\ arwag 2 more cunning, more in- 
sidious 

OIpjj rawagan turning off; swerving; 
dodging, evasion 

**j\j* ^^Tdwaga sly, underhanded deal- 
ings; humbug, trickery; artifice, cunning; 
pi. -at distortions, prevarications, lies; 
tricks, wiles 

Jsjj (Engl.) ruj {eg.) roof garden 

(3jj) <ib raqa u {3jj rauq) to be clear, be 
pure (liquid); to surpass, excel (Jp s.o., 
s.th.), prove superior (Jp to); to please, 
delight, (« or J s.o., also ^ j jl 
'ainihi s.o.), give s.o. pleasure, appeal 
to s.o. (*, J, *uc j) II to clarify, pu- 
rify, filter (a a liquid) | <uj 3jj {dama* 
hu) to refresh s.o. (drink); to pacify, 
placate s.o., cool s.o. off; 4pL-SJ1 3jj to 
make a clearance sale IV to pour out 
(a a liquid); to shed, spill (a s.th.); to 
make (a a liquid) flow | <^-j »U Jb' 
(ma a wajhihi) to sacrifice one's honor, 
lose all respect, lose face V to have 
breakfast 

Jlj rag pL -at layer, stratum 

3jj rauq pi. Jljjl arwdq portico; horn 

IS j j ruqa beautiful, pretty, handsome 
(of persons; for both genders, sing, and 

P i.) 

Jsl j j riwaq, ruwdq pi. Sijjl arwiqa 
tent; curtain, screen; flap of the tent 



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JJJ 



428 



for protection against the wind (used by 
Syrian Bedouins) ; sun roof of mats over 
a bazaar (syr.); portico; open gallery, 
colonnade, loggia; porch, veranda (&yr>); 
pavilion of an exposition ; living quarters, 
dormitories and workrooms of the 
students of Al Azhar University in Cairo, 
divided according to provinces and na- 
tionalities | <wljj ^»jJ» to pitch one's 
tent, take up quarters, settle down; \* 
^S' Jp 4*1 j j (madda) to spread its pro- 
tection over all alike, be the same for all 
(e.g., justice) 

jljj riwdql stoic(al); (pi. -un) a stoic; 
friar 

iJljj riwaqiya stoicism (philos.) 

i5jjb rawuq filter 

Jijjtarunq filtration, clarification, pu- 
rification 

<ejjjr tarvnqa (syr.) breakfast 

4*1 j I iraqa pouring out; shedding, 
spilling | »LaJl 4*lj1 bloodshed 

JjIj ra'ig clear, pure; serene, unblem- 
ished | Jjlj Jta^ (jatnul) pure, perfect 
beauty; JlJI Jj\j at ease and content 



ilj^JI JU mdl ar-rok (eg.) public property, 
community property 

1 Jjj II to slaver, slobber, drool 
Jljj ruwdl slaver, slobber 

2 «Jjj (Ft. rdle) rol role 

Hrjj) fb rama u (raum, Aj* maram) to 
desire, wish, want, covet (a s.th.), crave 
(a for); to wish (a J s.o. s.th.); to look 
(a for) | Aj^ U Jp (yuramu) as well as 
one could possibly wish, in excellent 
order 



aii I A j rdmallah Ramallah (town in W 
Jordan, N of Jerusalem) 

j»jj raum wish, desire 

A j* mar&m pi. -at wish, desire, craving, 
longing; aspiration 

2 pJ\ at -rum the Romaeans, the Byzantines; 
Byzantium; pi. fljjVl al-arwdm (the ad- 
herents of) the Greek Orthodox Church | 
f jJ^ j*-. bahr ar-r. the Mediterranean 

(jjj ruml pi. Ajj\ arwdm Romaean, 
Byzantine; Greek Orthodox (Church); 
i^jjl the Byzantine Greek language | 
tjjj »iJLo (dlk) turkey (eg.); lOj 4^*- 
(gibna) a brand of cheese (eg.) 

L«jj romd and l*jj roma Rome 

Vjj rumiya Rome 

dl*jj\ ar~rumdn the Romans; the Ro- 
manic peoples 

JUjj rumdni Roman; Romanian; Ro- 



^^jj rumdniyd Romania 

rJ^JJ (Engl.) rumatizm rheumatism 

^Jij\-*jj romantiki, £^*jj romantilci, also 
jScajj rumantiqi romantic 

aJsLsI^jj romantilciija, XS^l*jj romam 
tikiya, also LaJsJ^jj rurnantlqlya roman- 



^^jj romansl romantic 

^L-JU j j romansiya romanticism 

^ j j riwand, JJj\j rdwand rhubarb 

ipjj see jjj 

1 <Jj j rawiya a (^j rayy, riyy) to drink one's 
fill, quench one's thirst; to be irrigated; 
— rawd i to bring (J* or J s.o.) water, 



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429 



^H.J 



give (* s.o.) to drink; — rawa i fejjj 
riwaya) to tell, relate (J * s.th. to s.o.), 
report (a s.th.), give an account of (*); to 
pass on, transmit (^ a s.th. on the 
strength of an authoritative source), 
quote (fjc- from a source) II to quench 
s.o.'s (a) thirst; to water, irrigate (a s.th.) 
IV to give (e s.o.) to drink, quench s.o.'s 
(*) thirst; to water (a flowers, etc.); to 
moisten, wet (a s.th.) V to draw, obtain 
(js a s.th. from); to ponder (j s.th.), 
reflect (j on) VIII to quench one's 
thirst; to be supplied with water for 
drink, be given to drink; to be watered, 
be irrigated; to draw (on a source, i.e., 
to obtain information from it) 

<SJ ra) JV watering, irrigation; moisten- 
ing, wetting 

L j rayyan aroma, fragrance 

jjj rawly thirst -quenching 

<£jj rawly final letter, rhyming letter 
(in Arabic verse); rhyme | ^>-\j ,jjj ji 
monotonous (song) 

*\jj rawa fresh (water) 

*\jj ruwa prettiness, comeliness, pleas- 
ing appearance 

hjj rawlya deliberation, reflection, 
consideration j \jj je- deliberately, on 
purpose, Sjjj js> ^ offhand, casually 

SjIjj riwaya pi. -at tale, narrative; re- 
port, account; story; novel; play, drama; 
motion picture, film | v*J>! "^}jj (bull- 
slya) detective story; 4JJ^ *j\jj (mtih- 
zina) tragedy; \*»-j~* H^JJ (masrahiya) 
play, stage play; i-jj^lu- SjIjj motion pic- 
ture, film; &**Jl* SjIjj (mudhika) comedy; 
LJLi <jIjj (gina'iya) opera; S^^a^ *j)jj 
{qisasiya,qasa$iya) novel; <ULic aj\jj (tam* 
tlliya) play, drama; aaLU ajIjj sound 
film; 5Jja *i\jj (hazliya) comedy 



jljj riwfil novelist; dramatist, play- 
wright; author, writer 

Ob j rayyan 2 , f. b j rayyd, pi. *\jj riwd* 
sated with drink; well- watered, well- 
irrigated; luxuriant, lush, verdant; full, 
plump (face); succulent, juicy, fresh, 
pretty; see also alphabetically 

4jjj tarwiya deliberation, reflection, 
consideration 

ijijjl irwcCl irrigational ; irrigated 

j j tarawwin deliberation, reflection, 
consideration 

j\j rawin pi. rawiyun, l\jj ruwah and 
aj jlj rawlya pi. bljj rawdyd transmitter 
(esp. of ancient Arabic poetry); relator; 
narrator, storyteller 

CjIj jj+ marwiydt tales, stories, reports 

2 «jlj see ^Ij 

3 b jj see tS^j 

\$j, obj, bj see fjjj 

2 n*Jj riyya — ZSj ria (see *j) 

3 »bj see J\j 

Jbj riydl pi. -at riyal, a silver coin: in Eg. = 
20 qirs sag (piasters); in Ir. = 200 fals; 
\j m j bjL JUj Maria Theresa dollar 

ub j Riyan (town and airport in S Hadhra- 
maut, on Gulf of Aden) 

{«--jj) >->\j rdba i {raib) to disquiet, alarm, 
fill with suspicion or misgivings (* s.o., 
a about s.th.); to give pause (» to s.o.), 
make (* s.o.) stop and think (ul that), 
make (« s.o.) uneasy; to cast a suspicion 
(* on s.o.), show {» s.o.) in a suspicious 
light; to doubt, question, suspect (a s.th.) 
IV to disquiet, alarm, startle, fill with 



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430 



suspicion or misgivings (» s.o.) V to 
have doubts or misgivings (t_>, j about), 
be suspicious (u or j of) VIII to be 
suspicious, smell a rat; to suspect, doubt, 
question (<-> or j s.o., s.th.), have doubts 
or misgivings (i-» or j about), waver 
doubtfully (<>j between) X to be in 
doubt, be skeptical (j about), be sus- 
picious, have misgivings, entertain doubts 

t-oj raib doubt; suspicion; uncertain- 
ty | «_-j j ^Aj (bi-la) no doubt, undoubted- 
ly, doubtless; «ui ljj V {raiba) there is no 
doubt about it; jjJ.1 ^-j j r. al-manun 
unpredictable turn of fortune, threaten- 
ing fate; misfortune 

Zjj riba pi, c*jj r%a& doubt, sus- 
picion, misgiving 

u^jj! aryab* more skeptical, more in- 
clined to doubt or suspicion 

»-*LjjI irtiyab doubt, suspicion, dis- 
trust, misgiving 

<_-j^ murib arousing suspicion, sus- 
picious 

<_jIj^> murtab doubting, doubtful, skep- 
tical; doubter, skeptic; (<u or <us) *~jIJj.- 
doubted, questionable, doubtful; suspect, 
suspicious [ *j*\ J *-jIjj-» (amrihi) sus- 
picious, suspect, under suspicion 

i^-j jw. mustarib doubtful, in doubt (j 
about); suspicious 

(<tj) Cjjljw. muslarab (jlhi) suspect, sus- 
picious 

^■Ujj-jj (Fr.) riburtaj pi. -a* news reporting 

(ijj) ilj rata i (rait) to hesitate, delay, 
tarry V to hesitate, tarry, be tardy; to 
give (cj or j s.th.) long and thorough 
consideration; to stop; to stay, linger 
(<j at a place); to be patient, bide one's 
time, temporize, wait 



I^jj raitama (conj.) as long as, while; 
when; until 






c u -^ 



£j ( G *) ™# see f m \j (alphabetically) 

<j*i-> r &yyi& captain (of a Nile boat), rais; 
(eg. ) common form of address to (head) 
waiters, taxi drivers, and the like 

4-*Lj riytisa see ^u-Lj 

^-L j riyasi see ^ly 

(crij) <j i '- ) r ** a * (rats) to provide with 
feathers, feather (a s.th.); to feather 
one's nest, become wealthy II to provide 
with feathers, feather (a s.th.); to fledge, 
grow feathers (bird) V to fledge (bird); 
to become wealthy 

^ijj ri$ (coll.; n. un. S) pi. J^bj riyds, 
(jib j I aryas feathers; feathering, plumage; 
clothes, attire, exterior; bristles (e.g., 
of a brush) 

iLijj risa (n. un.) pi. -at feather; quill; 
writing pen (also 3jbS3l iijj); brush 
(of a painter); plectrum; lancet; (eg.) 
reed (of certain wind instruments, e.g., 
of the oboe; mus.) \ <tsj (with foil, 
genit.) from the pen of ... , written by ... ; 
^IjJI J> fann ar-r. art of painting; ojj 
<L±J\ wazn ar-r. featherweight (athlet.) 

^jj rlsi feather (adj.), feathery, feath- 
ered, plumed, pinnate 

^b j riyds household effects; furniture; 
equipment 

J^y murayyas feathered 

oM,J> o^ - J » ***■*' »^» is* »->» *— 'W^'-dJ see u^JJ 

(^jj) jjj ra'a 4 (rai r , ^ j rayiT, 9 Lj «y<f , 
uU> j raya'dn) to increase, grow, flourish, 
thrive II to increase, augment (* s.th.) 



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431 



JL~> 



^jj rai" pi. £j±j ruyu t yield; returns, 
proceeds, income (accruing from an es- 
tate), interest; profit share, royalty; 
prime, choicest part | <_jLaJI «jj r. as- 
Sabdb the prime of youth 

oUu j rai'dn prime, choicest part | j 
tyLiJI oLwj ft r. a§-sabab in the prime 
of youth; jLjJI oLajj J /t r. an-nakdr 
in broad daylight 

**ij* jj^ji a^ marl* a productive land 

□ £»jl> ian" (e^.) cadastre; (also 5»-L* 
«ijLJI) land survey 

«jlj raY clear as daylight | «Ilj j, 
£j*>L»*^JJ (r. al-mustaMldt) a clear or 
obvious absurdity, absolutely impossible; 
see also 9jj 

a*j\j rd'Va: jL^i i*jl> j (r. an-nahdr) 
in broad daylight; 4; LA **?[; j (r. $a= 
bdbihl) in the prime of his years; see also 

<Juj rlf pi. »JsUji arya/ fertile, cultivated 
land; country (as opposed to city), 
countryside, rural area; »JujJl or^A* <Ju j 
Lower Egypt; seashore, seacoast; Er Rif 
(hilly coastal region of NE Morocco) 

Jjj rifi rural, rustic, peasant (adj.), 
country (used attributively); peasant, 
farmer; provincial, yokel, bumpkin; in- 
habitant of Er Rif (in Morocco) ; *j j JL- 

see JJL- 

VHj rifilJa rustic manner or origin; 
countrified nature (of s.o.) 

(&j) «3'-> rdqa i (Jj j mig) to shine, glisten, 
glow, burn; to flow out, pour forth IV to 
pour out, shed, spill (see also 3jj) 

Jjj riq and Uj j rlqa pi. Jb jl arydq 
saliva, spittle | Jj J\ Jp before break- 
fast, on an empty stomach; <ujj ^L and 
•ujj ^bl (riqaku) (lit.: to swallow one's 



saliva, i.e.) to catch one's breath, rest 
a while, take a short break; to hold back, 
restrain o.s. (of s.o. in a rage) ; <uj j <uL 
{baMcfahu riqahu) to allow s.o. a break, 
let s.o. catch his breath; jj Jl <£/*-! (ajrd) 
to make the saliva flow, i.e., to make the 
mouth water, stimulate the appetite; 
Jjj <I <Ju^V (yajijfu) he is untiring (in 
speaking), he talks incessantly 

iSiJ rayyiq: <_jLaJI Jj j j ft r. is-Sabdb 
in the full bloom of youth 

j^j^j j (Engl.) rikordar pi. -af tape recorder 

2 (Jdj) Jlj **afo * and II to slobber, slaver, 
drool 

<iL ^ maryala (string) apron 
Jjij* maryul bib 

2 JU j look up alphabetically 

x (fO) f mwa i (rtw'm) to go away, move, 
budge; to leave (a a place) | <ut£* ^lj L 
(maHwaM) not to budge, not to move 
from the spot II to stay, remain (Ot^iLj 
at the place); {eg.) to bluff (Jj> s.o.) 

£j rim {eg.) froth, foam 

£i j taryim {eg.) swaggering, bluffing, 
swindle 

2 £j rim {= p) addax, white antelope 

Hjo) «J I j rdna i to take possession (J*., c-> 
or a of s.th.), seize, overcome (J*, *-* or » 
s.o., said of passion) ; to descend or come 
upon s.th. (J*); to reign, prevail (Jp in, 
e.g., silence in a room) 

2 *J^J» *"• hj see tiJJ 

3 jb j look up alphabetically 



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432 



J 



»lj zcb name of the letter j 

Jjjij zd'uq quicksilver, mercury 

jZ\} zair 2 Zaire (country in Africa) 

fjJj zi'baq quicksilver, mercury 

»-IJ zaj vitriol 

lj^»-ij zdgora Zagora, a brand of Egyptian 
cotton 

jlj za'ara a i (zcfr, yuj za'ir) to roar, bellow 
juj za'ir roaring, roar, bellowing 

.Utj m'ata a (iUj zi'dt) to clamor, be vocif- 
erous 

jjj zag pi. OUj j zJjyatt crow 

j»ljj o^» TTzawi zu'am a sudden or violent 
death 

L-Jj zambiya Zambia (country in Africa) 

^IjJ zvian darnel (Lolium temulentum; 
hot.) 

2 6ij zdn (syr., eg.) beech | olj y: tamar z. 
beechnuts 

4JlJ zona pi. -o( spear; pole | <~JJ\ 
iiljJb (JaaJI) al-watb (al-qafz) bi~z-z. pole 
vaulting (aiAZetf.) 

3jj\j zavmq quicksilver, mercury 

^Ij zay name of the letter J 

\~>j zvhb pi. v^j' os&afi penis 

v^-w j za&ifr (coll. ; n. un. S) dried grapes, 



raisins; {eg.) a strong colorless liquor 
made of raisins, milky white when diluted 
with water 

*_->jl azabb 2 , f. *bj za66a' 2 , pi. <_jJ 2it&& 
hairy, hirsute, shaggy 

JjJ zabada u to churn (a milk) II to foam, 
froth, cream (milk) IV to froth, become 
foamy, foam (also, with rage) 

OjJ zabad pi. .sUjI azbad foam, froth; 
dross | j->-JI JjJ z. al-bahr meerschaum 

*bj 2it6d butter (= 2JjJ) 

Sju j zubda (fresh) butter (as opposed to 
jtf samn); cream; — (pi. -u j zvhad) 
choicest part, prime, cream, flower, 
elite; extract, quintessence; essence, sub- 
stance; gist, main point 

ajOjj zabdiya pi. ^bj zabadly bowl 

ab j zabad civet | ibjJl jj~» itnnur a«-z. 
civet cat 

tpbj zabadi and i^bj ^J (Zo6a«.) 
curdled milk (egr.) 

Aj^. mizbad, SOjJ- mizbada pi. Jbtj^ ma* 
zdbid 2 churn 



y j zabara u i to scold (o s.o.) 
j- j z«6r penis 

Ijj zvhra pi. _r J «w&ar piece of iron 
jjjj zabur (Book of) Psalms, Psalter 

ry j zi&n? ornament, ornamentation, deco- 
ration, embellishment 

J^j j zabarjad green jewels, cut from chryso- 
lite or peridot 

Jaj j zabata i (zabt) to quack (duck) 



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>rJ 



J*3j sabaf (eg.) mud, mire 
&IJ zwfca/a (eg.) bunch of dates 

i*jjj zauba'a pi. £»ljj zaimj** 2 storm, hurri- 



£ j «a&a£a « t (zabq) to tear out, pluck out 
(a hair) VII to slip in 

JjJ II to dung, manure 

Jjj zibl, UjJ zibla pi. Jbjl azbdl dung, 
manure; pi. JUjI waste, rubbish, refuse, 



Jbj zabbal street sweeper; garbage col- 
lector 

iJlj zubdla (now also pronounced zu 
bdla) refuse, rubbish, garbage, sweepings 

*ijj> mazbala, mazbula pi. JjIj- ma# 
zdbil 2 dunghill; garbage can 

^J\j zabun kicking (camel); hot, fierce, 
cruel (battle); stupid, foolish; fool; — 
(pi. JLj zaba'in 2 , ^ j zuburi) customer, 
client; buyer; guest (of a hotel, and the 
like) | f Ij Ojjj patron, regular customer 

by j zubun undergarment (nejd, ir.) 

*j b J zibdna clientele, patronage, custom 

jbj zubdnd pedipalpus or claw of a 
scorpion, of a crayfish (usually dual: 

»-J^A*Jl Liljj) 

4-SUj zabdniya myrmidons; angels who 
thrust the damned into Hell 

4;jj zvbya pi. <J j zuban elevated place 
above the waterline | tjj\ ( ] 1r J\ ib ba* 
laga s-sailu z-zubd, the matter reached a 
climax, things came to a head 

Oj zatta (syr.) to throw 

£J zajja (1st pers. perf. zajajtu) u (zajj) to 



throw, hurl { * s.th.) ; to push, shove, urge, 
drive (^ or a, * s.o. or s.th.); to press, 
squeeze, force, cram (i_> or a, « s.o. or 
s.th., j into) | jsyJ\ J <u £J (zujja, 
sijn) he was thrown into prison II to 
pencil ((>.-»- U- 1 al-hajibain the eyebrows); 
to glaze, coat with glass (a s.th.); to 
enamel (a s.th.) 

£J zujj pi. ^U-J zijdj ferrule; arrow- 
head; spearhead 

£ji azajf, f. »U-J zajja'*, pi. ^-j zujj 
having beautifully arched eyebrows 

£-Uj zujdj glass (as substance) | r-U-j 
^•U (amami) windshield (Eg.); r-Uj 
j*Vl «• al-amn safety glass 

i--Uj zujdja (n. un.) pi. -at piece of 
glass; (glass) bottle, flask; (drinking) 
glass, tumbler 

j^U-j zujdjl glass (adj.), glassy, 
vitreous 

i^-U-J zijdja glazier's work, glaziery 

^U-j za?/a; glazier 

£»-j* muzajjaj glazed, enameled ; ol^ y 
and ^ J* wUji^M enameled ware 

j^j zajara u (zajr) to drive back, drive 
away; to hold back, restrain, prevent 
(& o s.o. from); to rebuke, scold, upbraid 
(» s.o.) VII and VIII _^ijl izdajara 
pass, of I 

j*-j zajr forcible prevention; suppres- 
sion (of customs, abuses, crimes); re- 
buke, reprimand 

iSj^-J zajrl reformatory, penitentiary 
(adj.) | (^>-j Xt** (ma'had) reformatory, 
reform school 

jrj* mazjan «_J&I j>-}+ ^» -uS qa r ada 
minhu mazjara l-kalb to sit at a fitting 
distance from s.o. 



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-lj zajir handicap, impediment, ob- 



stacle 



ajir 2 check, 



VT^i ^djira pi. ^nr'jj zawajir 
curb; restriction, limitation 

Jsj-J zajala u {zajl) to let go, release (a a 
carrier pigeon) 

J>-J zajal pi, JU-jl azjal popular Arabic 
poem in strophic form; soft humming 
sound produced by the jinn at night 

J»-j zajall pertaining to zajal 

JU-J zajjdl reciter of azjal (see above) 

J^-tjJl fLs- hamam az-zdjil carrier 
pigeon, homing pigeon 

(j*-j) ^-J «*?« u to drive, urge on («, a s.th., 
s.o.) ; to squeeze, press, force, cram («, a 
s.th., s.o., j into) II to shove, push 
(a s.th., o s.o.); to drive, urge on (a s.th., 
o s.o.); to jostle, crowd, cram, jam («, a 
s.th., s.o., J' into); to take or bring 
(forcibly) (Jl a, » s.o., s.th. into); to 
make (a time) pass; to pass, spend 
(a time) IV to shove, push (a s.th., & 
s.o.); to drive, urge on (a s.th., « s.o.); 
to jostle, crowd, cram, jam (», a s.th., 
s.o., Jl into); to take or bring (forcibly) 
(Jl a, a s.o., s.th. into); to make pass, 
while away (a time); to extend (J a s.th. 
to s.o.; greetings, compliments, thanks); 
to bestow (J a s.th. on s.o. ; e.g., praise) | 
oi (^aaJI Jl^jt (dihn) to suggest (the idea 
or assumption) that . . . 

L>-> tazjiya; f\y& Vr> t. al-fardg 
pastime 

jrj* muzjan little, scanty, paltry, trivi- 
al, insignificant 

j>~j zahara a i (j^^j zahir, jU-J zuhar) to 
groan, moan 

j*~j zahir groan, moan(s) 



jUj zuhar groan, moan(s); dysentery 
(med.) 

r/-j zahzaha (*U-J>-j zahzaha) to move (a s.th., 
from its place) ; to tear, rip (j*> a s.th. off) ; 
to cause to waver, bring into decline (a 
s.th.) II tazahzaha to budge, move (& 
away from) 



zahafa a (zahf) to crawl, creep on the 
ground; to crawl about; to advance 
(army); to push on or ahead, go (Jl to a 
place; of people); to march, be on the 
march (Jp against or toward); to be on 
the increase 



-j zahf advance, march (of an army) ; 
(pi. «_Vp-j zuhuf) soldiery, army 

*J»U-J zahhaf creeping, crawling 

4»U-J zahhaf a pi. -at reptile; imple- 
ment for leveling the ground, leveler; ski 

ui>-U zahif creeping, crawling; pi. 
ijw-ljj zawahif* reptiles 

J*-j zahala a (zakl, Jj»-j zuhul) to move 
away, withdraw, retire (je- from a place) 
II to remove (a, s.o., s.th.) V — I 

J>-j zuhaP the planet Saturn 

jU-j zaUaqa to roll, slide (a s.th.) II tazah* 
laqa to glide, slide, slip, skid 

iib-J zahlaqa: iiia-jJi uIjl* maidan az-z. 
skating rink 

jU-J- tazahluq skating; skiing | »>l>->" 
J3 (fanni) figure skating, J* «^ j!>->" 
gtei\ (talj) speed skating (sport) ; Jp ji>-> 
*UI water skiing (sport) 

t£j$*-j zahldwi from Zahle (Lebanon), made 
in Zahle (e.g., arrack) 

j-J zahama a (zahm) to push, shove, hus- 
tle, jostle, crowd, press, beset (» s.o.) 



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VJJ 



III to push, shove, hustle, jostle, crowd, 
press, beset (« s.o.); to compete, vie 
(« with s.o. , J* for s.th.); to dispute or 
contest s.o.'s ( 6 ) right (J* to s.th.) VI to 
press together, crowd together, mill 
about; to be closely packed ( j in) ; to com- 
pete with one another VIII **ojl izdaha* 
ma to be crowded, teem, swarm (lj with) ; 
to be crammed or packed (<_j with); to 
crowd, throng, press (people); to jostle, 
crowd together, mill about (e.g., people); 
to stream in, flow (J* to) 

I*} zahma crush, jam; crowd, throng 

l»U^J zihdm crush, jam; crowd, throng; 
traffic jam 

4jt-\j* muzahama pi. -at competition; 
rivalry | 4>\jL\ JJu ^ (yaqbalu) un- 
rivaled, matchless, without competition 

f-\y tazdhum (mutual) competition 

/•U-jjl izdihdm crowd, crush, jam; over- 
crowdedness 

j>-\}* muzakim pi. -un competitor; rival 

i?-lj* muzdhima (female) rival 

f-sy* muzdahim overcrowded, packed, 
jammed; teeming, swarming, crowded, 
crammed (^ with), full (^ of); — muz* 
daham crowd, crush, jam 

<^j zakka pi. -at downpour, heavy shower 

j>-j zakara a (zakr, jj>.j zukur) to swell, 
rise (e.g., river); to be abundant, abound 
(^ in), overflow (^ with); to be overfull, 
brimful (^ of); to boast (^ of s.th.), 
vaunt (^ s.th.) V to swell; to rise; to 
abound (<-> in), be full (^ of) 

>^lj zdkir and jU-j zakkdr full, brim- 
ful, filled to overflowing; abounding in 
water (seas); excessive, profuse; exuber- 
ant (feeling) 



J>j>-j zahrafa to adorn, embellish, decorate, 
ornament (a s.th.) II tazakrafa to adorn 
o.s.; to be embellished, ornamented 

*_j^-j zukruf pi. <J>j U-j zakdrif 2 deco- 
ration, ornament, embellishment; make- 
up, getup (e.g., of a book); vain, trifling 
finery | ^UaiJ t_jjl»-j (lafziya) flowers of 
speech, rhetorical flourishes; LJ-JI <J»jU-j 
z, ad-dunyd the vanities of this world 

%^j zakrafa pi. -at decoration (also 
stage decoration); ornamentation 

tjj^j zukruf l ornamental, decorative 

<J»_^-J* muzakrif interior decorator; — 
muzakraf embellished, ornamented | JaA-*l 
tJ/>vi! dj&\ (al-katt al-kufl) floriated 
Kufic writing 

J-j zakama a (zakm) to thrust back ( ft a.o,); 
— zakima a (zakam) to stink 

f-j zajcim stinking 

*^ji azkam 2 , f. »U-j zakmd' 2 stinking 

4>-j zakma plectrum; (eg.) leather thong 
(formerly used for chastisement) 

Si-J zakama stench 

j J zarra u to button, button up (a s.th.) ; to 
screw, contort (<c-c f ainahu one's eye) 
II to button, button up (a s.th.) 

jj zirr pi. jljjl azrar button; switch 
button {el); push button; knob, pommel; 
bud (of a plant) ; tassel (of the tarboosh, 
etc.) | ^J»\ jj z. al-jaras bell button 

C*2>i[)j zarddust 2 , zarddast 2 Zoroaster 

Jiiljj zarddusti, zarddaSti Zoroastrian; 

^Lx-SjljjJl Zoroastrianism 

l-jjJ zariba a to flow (water) II to pen, 
corral (a livestock) 



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436 



ijj j zurblya, zirblya pi. j\j j zardbiy 
carpet, rug 

4^ j J zartba pi. <--jij J 2am' £6 2 zareba, 
cattle pen, corral, stockade, fold; (cattle) 
barn; (North Afr.) hut made of branches 

ujjjlj zarub pi. ^ij^jj zawarib* a long, 
narrow lane 

vU/* mizrad pi. «-*Jjlj* wiasanfe 2 spout 

J^jj j zarbvl pi. J^bJ zarafctZ 2 and u>jj j 
zarbun pi. ouijj zara&m 2 a kind of shoe 

ijj zarada u (zard) to choke (« s.o.), strangle 
(a s.o.'s neck); to gulp, swallow, devour 
(a s.th.) VIII jjijl izdarada to gulp, swal- 
low, devour (a s.th.) 

<ojJ zarda sweet dish made of rice 
and honey 

jj j zarad pi. ^jj j ztirwrf chain mail, 
coat of mail | jjJI jU- zebra 

<bj J zarada chain link 

ijojj zaradlya pi. -a( pliers; cutting 
pliers 

ijiijj zarradiya pi. -a£ pliers; cutting 
pliers 

j>j^» mazrad throat, gullet 

jjjj zarzara to chirp 

jJjJ swrafur and jjjj} zurzur pi. jr jljj 
zarazir 2 starling (zoo?.) 

cffJJJJJ zwrzitri gray with white spots 
(horse) 



fjj zara*a a (zar r ) to sow (a s.th.) ; to spread, 
scatter (a s.th.); to plant (a s.th. in the 
soil); to implant (a s.th., a foreign organ 
or tissue in the body), transplant (a e.g., 
a heart; med.); to grow, cultivate (a 
plants); to culture (a bacteria); to till, 
cultivate (^j^l al-arda land); to set (a 



an explosive charge); to lay (\jJ lagaman 
a mine) VII pass, of I; VIII f-jjji izdarcfa 
to sow X to utilize as acreage (a land) 

£jj M> r * sowing; — (pi. £jjj zur€) 
seed; young standing crop, green crop; 
plantation; field(s); transplantation (of 
an organ; med.) \ ?j^j fyjlf (#w*) agri- 
culture and stock farming 

4&1j j zira'a agriculture; tilling, tillage; 
cultivation (of land); growing, raising 
(of crops); farming | (>jUJ1 <*\jj horti- 
culture; J-kJI <£-\jj palm growing; Hcjjj 
^ji2i\ heart transplantation (med.) 

^\j J zira'i agricultural, agrarian, farm- 
fin compounds); (pi. -uri) agronomist, 
agricultural expert | Xx'jJ o*J (<w#) 
arable land; ^xbJ J.P (duwal) agrarian 
countries; (^bJ or ) *^bj t5dj^ high- 
way, road through a rural area; ^\j j J*U 
farmhand, farm worker 

i«jjj zaria that which is sown or 
planted; crop 

f-ijj zarra' pi. *, -un peasant, farmer; 
planter 

9jj> mazra' (arable) land 

^J> mazra' a pi. £jl> mazdW 2 field 
under cultivation; farm; plantation; 
country estate 

JUjj* mazra' 'ani farmer 

mjj tazrV agriculturalization (of a 
country, in contrast with ^-^j indus- 
trialization) 

apjIj^ muzara'a temporary sharecrop- 
ping contract (I si. Law) 

9j\j zari r pi. pljj rnrrd' seedsman, 
sower; peasant; farmer; planter 

fjJj* mazr ^ cultivated, planted | ,_J* 
fjjj* (?<*&) transplanted heart (med.) 



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C^j 



Ic-jjj* mazru'a pi. -at young standing 
crop, green crop; planted land 

fj\j* muzdri* pi. -un peasant, farmer; 
agronomist 

fy>* munzari'i 4pj>. ^Ijl (arddin) 
planted land, farmland 

5iljJ zardfa pi. -at body, group, cluster (of 
people) | \j\j*~jj oUljj zardfdtin wa-wuh* 
ddnan in groups and alone 

4*1 j j zardfa , zurdfa pi. jljj zardfa, 
zurdfd, tJuljJ zara'if 2 giraffe 

1 Jjj zaraqa u i (— Jji) to drop excrement 
(bird); — zaraqa u (zarq) to hit, pierce 
(i-j e s.o. with); to jab, bore (a, » into 
s.o. or s.th.); to throw, hurl (a s.th.) 

3jj zarq: j)}\ JjJ z. al-ibar injections, 
injectings 

Jb> mizrdq pi Jj jlj* mazdriq 2 javelin 

2 i3j j zariqa a (zaraq) and IX to be blue 

i3jj zara^ blue, blueness, blue color; 
O glaucoma (med.) 

43) j zurqa blue, blueness, blue color; 
O cyanosis 

JjjJ zuraiq and JjjJ ^jl jay (zooZ.) 

i5j jl azraq 2 , f. *lij j zarqd* 2 , pi. Jj j s-wrg 
blue; dark-colored; »UjjJl the blue sky, 
the blue | Jjj^t »Ul (e^.) glaucoma (med.) 

Jlij jl izriqdq blueness, blue | JSUj jVl »Ij 
efcf aZ-t*2r. cyanosis 

8 JIjj j look up alphabetically 

MAu zarqun a bright red 

j/Tjj zarkaSa to embellish with brocade 
embroidery; to adorn, embellish, dec- 
orate, ornament (a s.th.) 



jSjj zarkak brocade, gold and silver 
embroidery 

j£jy muzarkaS embellished with 
brocade embroidery, brocaded; embroi- 
dered (t-> with silver and gold thread); 
embroidered; embellished, decorated, 
ornamented | ^iSj^il JUaJi {qalam) orna- 
mental writing 

j«Jj j zirnik, zarnik arsenic 

tjjj zara i (4jIj j zirdya) to rebuke, scold, 
upbraid (Jp s.o.), find fault (a Jp with 
s.o. because of s.th,); to revile, dis- 
parage {<~> or Jp s.o.), detract (*^» or 
Jp from) IV to derogate, detract (l-» 
from s.o. or s.th.), belittle, ridicule (t-> 
s.o. or s.th.); to bring disgrace (v upon 
s.o.), be a disgrace or shame (^ for) | 
i^J> J5o t^jjl (nasab) approx.: to reduce 
all respect to a mockery; to be a serious 
disgrace V = I; VIII ^jijl izdard to dis- 
dain, despise, slight (<-> or a, » s.o., s.th.), 
make light, think little (<-> or a, » of), 
defy (lj or a e.g., danger) X — VIII 

<£j j zany bad, poor, miserable, despi- 
cable, contemptible 

4j1j j zirdya contempt, disdain; revile- 
ment, disparagement 

*\jj\ izrd* contempt, disregard 

•IjAj' izdird* contempt, disdain, scorn 

jj* muzrin shameful, disgraceful 

<Sjy muzran despicable, contemptible 

js-j za'bara to deceive, cheat ( Jp s.o.) 

i»j-*J za c abut pi. JsujIpJ za r ablt 2 a woolen 
fabric; woolen garment with a low neck- 
line, worn esp. by the fellahin (eg.) 

Js-j za'tar = jw 



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£*j za'aja a and IV to disturb (a s.o.); 
to trouble, inconvenience, molest, pester, 
harass (» s.o.); to disquiet, alarm, make 
uneasy, upset (o s.o.); to stir up (o s.o. 
^ or & from a place), rouse (j-* 01 *^ ° 
s.o. from a state, e.g., from sleep, etc.), 
drive' (j* or jp « s.o. from) VII to be 
stirred up, be roused; to be alarmed (j- 
by or at), feel uneasy (^ about s.th.) 

~pj zcfaj uneasiness, unrest 

^Uji iz'aj disturbance 

pU>M inzi'aj inconvenience, trouble, 
discomfort; disturbance, confusion | ^j\ 
A ir Jd\ i. an-nafslga mental distress, 
emotional upset 

x&JA muz'ij annoying, troublesome, 
irksome, inconvenient, unpleasant ; harry- 
ing; disquieting; unsettling; pi. £-»k£> 
troubles, discomforts 

jt-j za'ir thin-haired 

j*j\ az'ar 2 , f. AjC-j za'rd' 2 thin-haired; 
tailless 

^pjl az'ar pi. ol^j zu r rdn (leb., pal.) 
highwayman, brigand; crook, scoundrel 

SjUj za'dra maliciousness, meanness 

jjjzj zu f rur pi. jj\*j za f drlr 2 ill- 
tempered, peevish, testy, irascible; aza- 
role, Neapolitan medlar (Crataegus aza- 
rolus; boU) 

?j*j za'za'a to shake violently, convulse, 
rock (a s.th.); to shake, upset (a e.g., a 
resolve, a belief, etc.) II taza'za'a to be 
convulsed; to work loose, wobble, be 
loose; to shake, rock, totter [ £\»j V 
unshakable 

rj&j fu rih za r za' and OUjsJ £j {za r * 
za'an) violent gale, hurricane 

4pJ*J za'zaa pi. gjUj zcfazi rz convul- 
sion, shock, concussion 



uUjpj za r za e dn see fj*j £j 

fjj^j za r zw' : lean, skinny, lanky, spin- 
dling 

p» muza'za' convulsed, shocked; 
upset, disorganized; tottering, shaky, 
wobbly, unsteady, precarious 

p>jn* mutaza r zi r unsteady, shaky, 
wobbly, precarious; tottering, rocking; 
fickle, uncertain, changeable 

JUJ za'ata (za*t) to drive away 

ijwj za f afa a {za r f) to kill instantly (» s.o.) 
IV do. 

cJUj f samm zu'df a rapidly killing, 
deadly poison 

jl^j zafardn saffron 

j*j za'aqa a {za r q) to cry, yell, shriek, scream 

jpj zoCq clamor, shouting, crying, 
screaming, yelling 

2ipj za f qa pi. za'aqdt cry, outcry, yell, 
scream, shriek 

j^j za'iq clamor, shouting, crying, 
screaming, yolling 

ijlpj zu'dq brackish, unpotable (water) 

JtJ za'ila a {za r al) to be bored, be fed up 
(^ with s.th.), be tired (<y, of); to be 
annoyed, angry II to annoy, vex (& s.o.) 
IV to trouble, annoy (« s.o.) 

JpJ zvCal displeasure, annoyance, irri- 
tation, vexation 

JeJ za'il annoyed, angry, vexed, put 
out 

o^pj za'ldn 2 annoyed, angry, vexed, 
put out 

<J_^lj zd r ula annoyance, anger, irri- 
tation, vexation 



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*->J 



s-j za'ama u (za r m) to maintain, allege, claim, 
pretend (o\ that), declare (o\ J to s.o. that) ; 
to believe; to take (a * s.o. for or to be . . .), 
regard (a a s.o. as) ; | <uiJ s-j to claim for 
o.s. (a s.th.) V to set o.s. up as leader; to 
be the leader (« of), lead, command (a a 
body of soldiers, or the like) ; to preside 
(a over a party, etc.); to pretend to be 
the leader, pose as leader, be bossy 

jij za r m allegation, claim | &?} j 
as they claim, as they say 

^pj zatm pi. *l^J zuama 2 leader; 
leading person (in political life), politi- 
cian; ringleader; colonel (formerly, Ir., 
Leb.; mil.); brigadier general (Jord.; 
formerly, Ir., Syr.; mil.); guarantor (u-> 
of); guarantor for support, provider, 
breadwinner (of a family) | *^J ~pj Ul 
uL I vouchsafe to them that . . ., I guar- 
antee them that . . . 

3u*pJ zaima provider, breadwinner 
(fern. ; of a family) 

^.Uj za'ama leadership; (also pronoun- 
ced zi'dma) leading position in politics 

s\j» mazaim 2 allegations; claims, pre- 
tensions; assumptions, conjectures 

rj*j* maz'um pretended, claimed; 
alleged, so-called 

ii^J zi r nifa pi. tJuUj zcu&nif 2 horde, pack, 
mob, rabble, riffraff; low, base, mean; 
pi. fins (offish); flippers (of whale, seal, 
and the like) 

o*j zagab down, fluff, fuzz 

u-*tj zagib downy, fluffy, fuzzy, covered 
with fuzz 

i_Jji azgab 2 downy, fluffy, fuzzy, 
covered with fuzz 



jfj zagbar nap (of a fabric) \ »j^j 
took all of it 



U-l he 



JLcJ zagada a to nudge, poke (* a.o.) 

ji-} zagara a (eg.) to eye ( Jl or J s.th., s.o.), 
leer (Jl or J at) 

Sjij zagrada {**j*j zagrada) to utter shrill, 
long-drawn and trilling sounds (as a 
manifestation of joy by Arab women) 

-UjUj zagdrld 2 shrill, trilling cries of 
joy (of women) 

l?j*j zagrata — A^j 

JaJjUj zagarit 2 = 4jjUJ 

fjfi-j zagzaga to hide, conceal (a s.th.); {eg.) 
to tickle (4 s.o.) 

<kej zngutta {eg.) hiccup 

JpJ zagala a {zagl) to pour out (a s.th.); to 
counterfeit (a e.g., coins), adulterate, 
debase (a s.th.) 

JpJ zagal counterfeit money 

Jp> mazgal pi. J* I J* mazdgil 3 loophole, 
embrasure 

JJUj zaglala to dazzle (^^Jl an-nazara the eyes; 
eg.); to be dazzled (eyes; eg.) 

J^Uj zuglul pi. JJUj zagalil? baby, 
infant; zaglul {eg.) squab, young pigeon 

Jsj zaffa (1st pers. perf. zafaftu) i {zaff, Jiyj 
zufuf) to hurry; — u {zajf, <J»Uj zifaf) to 
conduct in solemn procession (La the bride, 
J* or J! to the bridegroom); pass. Jf ilij 
zujfat ild to be married off to, be given in 
marriage to; to conduct in solemn pro- 
cession to her new home (U the bride, 
also said of the bridegroom) ; to inform 
( Jl s.o., a of s.th.), tell ( Jl a s.th. to s.o.) | 
Jl iSj^ <J»j {bufaa) to bring glad 
tidings to 



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440 



«j zaffa procession (of people), wed- 
ding procession; — one time; iij zaffatan 
once (= marratan) 

tjlsj zifdf wedding, wedding ceremony | 
(J»L*jJi <tJ lailat az-z. wedding night 

<J»yj zafuf ostrich; fleet, swift (camel) 

ijuij zaflf sough (ing) (of the wind) 

43J* mizaffa bridal sedan 

C-ij II to smear with pitch, to pitch; 
to asphalt (a a road) 

cJj zift pitch; asphalt | o\Jaij cjj 
(qatran) {lit.: pitch and tar) unpleasant, 
annoying, awkward; damned (bad luck)! 

O <*j* mizfata pi, c-il> mazafit 2 
asphalting machine 

j tazfit asphalting 



|/j zafara i (zafr, j*5J zafir) to sigh deeply, 
heave deep sighs; to pant, groan, moan; 
to exhale, breathe out; to blow off, ex- 
haust, puff out (a air, breath) 

»/j zafra pi. zafarat sigh, moan 

jftij zafir exhaling, exhalation, ex- 
piration; sighing, moaning, moans; see 
also alphabetically | j^J\ »ly> hawa az-z. 
breath, exhaled air 



2 y} II to soil with grease, begrime (a s.th.) 

Jj zafar grease, greasy food | Jj}\ >\5yS 
taldtd' az-z, Mardi Gras, Shrove Tuesday 
ifihr.) 

J} zafir greasy; grimy; unclean, dirty, 
filthy; stinking, rancid, rank 



4Jjij zafzafa soughing, whistling (of the 
wind) 

jjj zafana i to dance, gambol 



j^j zifir zephyr cloth 

i3j zaqqa u (zaqq) to feed (* its young ones; 
of a bird) 

Jj ziqq pi. JjUjI azqdq, t3Uj ziqdq, utfj 
zuqqan skin (as a receptacle) 

Jtfj zuqaq m. and f., pi. 4* j I aziqqa 
lane, alley; strait, corridor (geogr.) 

Jjij zaqzaqa («&} zaqzaqa) to peep, chirp, 
cheep; to feed (a its young ones; of a 
bird); to dandle, rock in one's arms (« 
a child) 

Jl^j zaqzdq pewit, lapwing 

JjjUjJl az-zaqaziq 2 Zagazig (city in 
N Egypt) 

1 ^JiJ zuqkb and 5JL5J zuqllya {eg.) club, cudgel, 
truncheon 

2 iLSj zag'iZa pi, JjUj zaqtfil 2 narrow road, 
path, trail 

^j zaqama u {zagm) to swallow, gulp, gobble 
(a food) IV to make (* s.o.) swallow or 
gulp down (a s.th.) VIII Jiji izdaqama 
= I 

C^J zaqqum zaqqum, an infernal tree 
with exceedingly bitter fruit, mentioned 
in the Koran 

G*J) ^j zaqa u to cry, crow, peep, cheep 
»Uj zuqa* crowing (of a rooster) 

<-5j zakaba u {^jfj zuhub) to fill up, fill 
(a s.th.) 

'^Sj zahiba pi. <_-j1fj zakaib 2 {eg.) 
sack, bag, gunny sack 

*jfj zulcra pi. jfj zukar small (wine)skin; — 
a wind instrument resembling the oboe 
{tun.) 



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AjJ] zakariya 2 Zachariah, Zacharias 

p pass. 2«iiwa to catch a cold 

/►1SJ zukam (common) cold, catarrh 

4$j zakma (common) cold, catarrh 

pjSj - mazkum suffering from a (com- 
mon) cold 

*JSj zalcdna flair; intuition 

(jTj and Sj) £j zaka u (*tfj zaka) to 
thrive; to grow, increase; to be pure in 
heart, he just, righteous, good; to be fit, 
suitable (t-> for s.o.), befit (v s.o.); — 
zakiya a to grow, increase II to increase, 
augment, make grow (a s.th.); to purify, 
chasten (a s.th.); to justify, vindicate 
(o s.o.), vouch for, or bear witness to, 
s.o.'s (*) integrity, declare (* s.o.) honest, 
upright or just, attest the honorable 
record of s.o. («) ; to attest to the truth, 
validity or credibility of s.th. (a); to 
commend, praise (» s.o.); to recommend 

IV to cause to grow; to grow (a s.th.) 

V to be purified, be chastened 

$j zakly pi. *LTjt azkiya 2 pure; 
chaste; guiltless, blameless, sinless; (also 
= $'* dakly, e.g., ^LTj aJ.\j delightful 
odor) 

»ifj zaka* growth; (moral) purity, 
integrity, honesty, righteousness 

SlTj (SjTj) zakah pi. tf j zakan, ol^Tj 
zakawat purity; justness, integrity, hon- 
esty; justification, vindication; alms- 
giving, alms, charity; alms tax {HI. Law) \ 
Ja&\ »tf j z. al-fitr obligatory donation of 
foodstuffs required at the end of Ram- 
adan, the month of fasting 

tSjl azka purer; more befitting, more 
appropriate; better; (also — ^"jl, e.g., 
**b t/jl the most delightful odor) 



<Sy tazkiya purification, chastening; 
pronouncement of s.o.'s integrity or credi- 
bility; attestation of (a witness') honor- 
able record (I si. Law) 

Jj zalla (1st pers. perf. zalaltu) i (zall) and 
zalla (1st pers. perf. zaliltu) a (JJj zalal) 
to slip; to make a mistake, commit an 
error, a slip; to slide off s.o. (jt), fail 
to affect s.o. (jp; said of evil) IV to 
cause (« s.o.) to slip; to make (» s.o.) 
stumble or trip 

Jj zaU a kind of reed (syr.) 

SJj zalla slip, lapse | 6L.J iJj z. lisan 
slip of the tongue 

JJj zalal slip, slipping; lapse; mistake, 
error, oversight 

JVj zulal fresh pure water | *J>\ JVj 
z. al-baid white of egg, albumen 

JVj zutaU albuminous; oLJ^j zuld* 
liyai proteins | *UVj *\j* (mawddd 2 ) pro- 
teins 

4*iNj zaldbiya pi. -at a kind of doughnut 
cooked in oil and sprinkled with sugar 

1 ^j zalaja a (zj$l zuluj) and zalija a to 
slip; to slide along, glide along V do; to 
ski | gliJI J* ^y (talj) to ski VII = I 

£ j zalj slippery 

«J j zallj slippery 

£j* mizlaj pi. £!j- mazalif skate 

£-V> m&Za/ pi. ^Jij^ mazallf (sliding) 
bolt (on a door) 

jJjr" tazalluj skiing 

rJ>* mutazallij pi. -wt skier 

2 ^Jj su2a»/ faience, ornamental tile 

( _ s »*Jj zulaiji faience, ornamental tile 



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J jjj zalzala to shake, rock, convulse, cause 
to tremble (<>, * s.th., s.o.); pass, zulzila 
also: to waver, stumble II tazalzala to 
quake (earth) 

5JjJ_5 zalzala pi. Jj *l/j zaldzil 2 earth- 
quake 

Jljjj zalzdl, zilzal concussion, shock, 
convulsion; earthquake 

JljJj zalzali, zilzali seismic 

iJj zalata u to swallow, gulp down, gobble 
(a s.th.) II to strip, undress (« s.o.) V to 
undress, strip 

iJj zult nakedness, nudity 

JaJj zalat (coll.; n. un. S) (eg.) 
pebbles; road metal, ballast 

a*Jj zaVa pi. ^Jj siZa' (e*?.) a kind of tall 
clay jar 

pjj zaVum pi. £*VJ saZa'tm 2 gullet, 
throat 

,JJj zalafa u (zalf, zalaf, tJiJj zalif) to 
approach (Jl s.o. or s.th.), advance (Jf 
toward), go near II to exaggerate, blow 
up (a a report, <j in) IV to bring near, 
bring close (a, a s.o., s.th.) V to flatter 
(Jl s.o.), fawn (Jl upon s.o.), curry favor, 
ingratiate o.s. (J! with s.o., also <J) 
VIII <JJ.sjl izdalafa to flatter 

(JJJ zalaf servile flattery, sycophancy, 
toadyism, bootlicking 

Aiij zulfa and JJ j zulfd servile flattery, 
sycophancy, toadyism, bootlicking 

<Ja\y* mutazallif sycophant, toady, 
bootlicker 

tjjjj zaliqa a (zalaq) and zalaqa u (zalq) 
to glide, slide ; to slip II to make slippery 
(a s.th.); to slip, glide (j a s.th. into) 
IV to cause (» s.o.) to slip | s^w «uJji (bi- 



basarihl) to look at s.o. sternly or dis- 
approvingly V and VII to glide, slide; to 
skid, slither, slide (Jf into s.th.); to slip; 
to ski; to skate | ^lill Jp j)j\ (talj) 
to ski; to skate VII to slip from s.o.'s 
(je) hand, from s.th. (jp) 

JJJ zaliq slippery 

SDj zalqa (n. vie.) slip, skid, sideslip 

SSVj zalaqa slipperinesa 

4? Vj zalldqa pi. -at sleigh, sledge, sled; 
toboggan; toboggan chute, sledding 
course; gutter, eaves trough 

jJ^. mazlaq pi. jllj* mazdliq 2 slippery 
spot; slide, chute; esp.pl. treacherous, 
perilous ground, pitfalls, dangers, perils 

oUJj* mazlaqan (originally du.) pi. -at 
ramp; loading ramp; access ramp; in- 
clined approach; {eg.) railroad crossing, 
grade crossing 

jij* vnizlaq skate; OUJj- a pair of 
skates | O <^*&? j* $}* {'ajalat) roller 
skate 

*aJj^ mizlaqa pi. jJij* mazdliq 2 sleigh, 
sledge, sled; toboggan 

0^y'\ inJldq slipping, sliding, skid- 
ding; skiing; skating 

jJjU munzaliq: j)>* *-f>ii sliding door 

1 J j zalam pi. p "if jl azldm arrow without 
head and feathers, used in divination 

2 <»jij zulluma, zalluma pi. J^j zalallm 2 
trunk (of an elephant) 

f j zamma u (zamm) to tie up, fasten, tighten 
(a s.th.); to truss up (a s.th.) | «u;L /J 
(bi-anfihi) to turn up one's nose, be 
superciUous II to bridle (a a camel), put 
the bridle (a on a camel) 

l*L.j zimdm pi. <*jl azimma camel 



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halter, nose rope of the camel; rein, 
bridle; halter; day book; register ; ground, 
land | <ul* j under his supervision, under 
his direction; J *'i\ |»l»J z. al-amr reins 
of power; J * s $\ <*j\ Jp iJ JtJ to hold the 
reins of power in one's hand, be in control 
of power, wield power; SsJ-l pUj J^J ta* 
walla z. al-hukm to seize the reins of 
power, assume power 

*j*jA mazmum: J^JI ^y, m. al-'unuq 
high-necked (dress) 

£**j V to be prim, sedate, staid 

C^j tazammut primness; gravity, se- 
dateness | 4S*> ,y **rj>-\ to upset s.o.'s 
composure, put s.o. out of countenance 

C*aj>a mutazammit grave, stern, staid, 
sedate (character); prim; narrow-minded 

j£j zamjara (2y£j zamjara) to roar; to bellow; 
to crash (thunderclaps); to make a rum- 
pus, scold; to bluster, blow up, rave, 
curse loudly; to make loud noise, be 
noisy, boisterous 

Ijfi-} zamjara pi. -at roar; crash; rum- 
pus, scolding; rage; loud noise 

x j*j zamara i u (zamr, j^j zamlr) to blow, 
play (a wind instrument) II do. 

j-0 zamr blowing, playing (of a wind 
instrument) 

j* } zamr pi. j^*J zumur a wind instru- 
ment resembling the oboe; horn (of 
an automobile; syr.) 

lj*} zumra pi. ^j zumar body, troop; 
group (also of people) J Sjj-o Ij>j blood 
group (physiol.) 

jL*j zammdr player (on a wind in- 
strument), piper 

*jUj zammara, zummara pi. j^Uj za* 
mamir 2 (eg.) a wood- wind instrument con- 



sisting of two pipes, related to the 
clarinet; siren | jlJUVi SjLj z. al-Mar 
warning siren 

jLj* mizmar pi. j^\y mazamir 2 single- 
pipe wood-wind instrument resembling 
the oboe 

jyj* mazmur pl.j^lj* mazamir 2 psalm 

V*jt izmir 2 Izmir, Smyrna (seaport in W 
Turkey) 

.ij^J zumurrud emerald 

<jzj*j zumurrudi emerald(- colored) 

pj^J zamzama to rumble, roll (thunder); 
to murmur 

Aj*j zamzam copious, abundant (esp. 
water); Zemzem, name of a well in Mecca 

V>i zamzamiya water flask, canteen; 
O thermos bottle 

I*>J zamzama pi. pjLj zamdzim 2 roll 
of thunder; roar of a lion 

SzaJ zamafa to escape, slip away 

£«J II and IV to determine ( Jp, a on), decide, 
resolve, be determined (J*, a to do s.th.) 

£«> muzmV determined, resohed; — 
muzma' and 4JU ~j* decided; imminent; 
forthcoming, prospective j »^lSp £*jl' j-O^ 
. . . j al-mu'tamar al-m. 'aqduhu f% the 
conference which is to be held on (with 
following date) 

^J III to keep (d s.o.) company, be s.o.'s 
(0) companion, be a colleague or asso- 
ciate (j * of s.o. in s.th,); to accompany 
(« s.o.) VI to be oomrades, be close com- 
panions 

aJL-J zumla party, company (of people) 
J-^-J zamil pi. »*sltj zumala' 2 companion, 



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crony, associate, comrade; colleague; ac- 
complice 

*JL.j zamtla-pl. -at (woman) companion; 
(woman) colleague; sister ship 

aJUJ zamdla comradeship; colleague- 
ship; fellowship I <u*ljj 2LJL.J (dirdslya) 
scholarship, stipend (ir.) 

2 J*.jl izmll pi. J^lj' azdmil 2 chisel 

ilJIL^I az-zamdlik Zamalek (city district in 
Cairo) 

j*J zamina a (<jUj sowrcana) to be chronically 
ill IV to stay long, remain (uata place) ; 
to last long; to be or become chronic 
(disease), be inveterate 

^j zaman pi. uLjl azmdn time; period, 
stretch of time; duration; b^-J zamanan 
for some time 

iuj zamana period of time 

j^J zannin, <>-0 zamin pi. ^j zamna 
chronically ill 

oUj zaman pi. ^-.jl azmina time; du- 
ration; fortune, fate, destiny | oUj <> 
for some time (past), for quite a while; 
dLjJl Jp always, ever; *lUj JaI aAl z. 
his contemporaries; oLj oWx*- hikdydt z. 
tales of yore, stories of the past; oUj j»Ul 
ayydma z. in days of yore, in bygone days 

^.j zamanl temporal, time (adj.); 
worldly, earthly; passing, transient, tran- 
sitory; secular [ l^j A^\ mines with 
time fuse; <^*j *i*i (qunbukt) time 
bomb 

jLj zamanl temporal, time; worldly, 
earthly; passing, transient, transitory; 
secular 

4-L.j zamaniya and SJLj zamdniya 
period of time, given time 
itLj zamana chronic illness 



O b\*y mizmdn chronoscope (for meas- 
uring reaction time; psych.) 

^j tazdmun simultaneous existence 
(of several things), simultaneity, con- 
temporaneousness; coincidence 

j^» muzmin lasting, enduring, long- 
lived; old, deep-seated, inveterate; 
chronic (disease) 

,y\yj- mutazdmin simultaneous, con- 
temporaneous; coincident 

j$*j zamhara to become red, flushed, blood- 
shot IV j4*jl izmaharra do. 

J j4*j zamharir bitter cold, severe frost 

jj zanna u (zann) to buzz, drone (insect) 
jj zann buzz(ing), drone 

L*j zanaa to be limited, be restricted, be 
confined, be curbed, be suppressed II to 
restrict, keep within bounds, beset, harry, 
drive in a corner (J* s.o.) 

juj II tazanbara to display proud, haughty 
manners (Jp toward s.o.) 

jjJj zunbur pi. 70 Uj zandbir 2 hornet 

iljyj zanbarah, zunburuk, zunbur ah pi. diUj 
zandbik (metal) spring; spiral spring; 
cock (of a rifle, etc.) 

JJJ zanbaq (coll.; n. un. «) pi. JjL>J zandbiq 2 
lily; iris (bot.) 

DiiUJJ zanbalik — iS^J 

J^'j zanbil, zinbll pi. J-jUJ zandbiP basket 
made of palm leaves 

tSjtJj zintdri dysentery 

Aj zanj, zinj (coll.) pi. ^jjj zunuj Negro (es) 



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^■j zanji, zinjl Negro (adj. and n.) 

ijjfj zanjiya, zinpya membership in the 
black race; nature or character of the 
Negroid race ; {pi. -at) Negress 

jUfj zanjabdr 2 , zanjibdr 2 , zinjibdr 2 Zanzibar 
(island and seaport off E African coast) 

Js^fj zanjabil ginger 

]/fj zanjara to flip, snap (with the fingers) 

2 j\£-j zinjdr verdigris 

jju£j zunjuffy zinjafr cinnabar 

jvfj zinjir pi. _^*-Uj zandpr 2 chain | cjL*. 
s*rj\ double- entry bookkeeping 

fij zanika a (zanajc) to turn rancid 
fj zanik rancid, rank 

Aij zand pi. iUj zinad, aOj'I azndd stick of a 
fire drill, a primitive device for kindling 
fire; by extension, the whole fire drill; — 
(pi. i^jj zunud) ulna {anat.); forearm 

alij ztntfriE pi. *AJJt aznida fire steel; 
cock, hammer (of a rifle, etc.) | atijJl ^ 
Aa/or az-zinad flint 

(J-LIJ II tazandaqa to be a freethinker, an 

atheist 

i*jJJ zandaqa atheism 

JjAjj zindlq pi. lublij zanadiqa zendik, 
unbeliever, freethinker, atheist 



ill: 



<uJi j- 'J (bi-'ainiA?) to glare at s.o. 



jUj zunndr and SjUj zunnara pi. 
jruUj gcwwrnir 2 belt, girdle; sash; band or 
rope worn around the waist ; cross stripe, 
traverse band 



SJ I j j zinzdna pi. -a£ prison cell (eg.) 

cXjj zanzalakt China tree (Melia azeda- 
rach; bot.) 

ii jllajj zintdriya dysentery 

JJJ zanaqa i (zanq) to tighten, constrict (a 
s.th.); to hobble (a an animal) II to 
keep on short rations, scrimp (J* s.o.), 
be stingy, tight-fisted (J* toward) 

ajuJ zanaqa (magr. zanqa, zenga) pi. -a(, 
jpj zinaq narrow street, lane, alley, by- 
street; (mor.) street 

JUj zinaq neckband, collar 

«i-Uj zink zinc 

Sj^xJ zanmarda virago, termagant 

£j'j zanim low, despised, ignoble, mean; 
bastard; stranger, outsider 

J J zand i (<Jj, Uj zinan, »LlJ zind') to commit 
adultery, fornicate, whore 

Jj zinan adultery; fornication 

»LjJ zinc? adultery; fornication 

jlj zdnin pi. SlJJ zundh fornicator, 
adulterer 

iJlj zdniya pi. oljj zawcm'w whore, 
harlot; adulteress 

JaJ zahada a, zahida a and zahuda u (zuhd) 
to abstain (J from, also jc, a), renounce, 
abandon, forsake (j s.th., also j,p, a), 
withdraw (j, a from), refuse to have 
anything to do with (j, a) | LJ -01 j 4aJ 
(dimya) to renounce pleasure in worldly 
things, become an ascetic, lead a pious, 
ascetic life; SJyiJI j .ujr V (gira'a) he 
never stops reading, reads enormous 
amounts II to induce (« s.o.) to with- 
draw or abstain (j from); to spoil s.o.'s 



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(*) pleasure in (j), arouse a dislike 
( j o in s.o. for) V to practice asceticism, 
withdraw from the world; to be frugal, 
modest (j e.g., in eating, clothing) X to 
deem little, insignificant, trifling, small 

J#j.zuhd (voluntary) renunciation (j 
of s.th.); indifference (j to, esp. to 
worldly things); abstemiousness, absti- 
nence; asceticism | LJ-01 <j .aajJI (dunyd) 
asceticism 

JUfcj zakid little, low, moderate (esp. 
price), insignificant, paltry, trifling, small; 
a little, a small amount (j* of) 

SiUj zahdda smallness, lowness, mod- 
erateness 

J^j tazahhud asceticism, life of retire- 
ment devoted to the service of God 

JUlj zdhid pi. iUj zuhhdd abstemious, 
abstinent, continent, self-denying; as- 
cetic 

j*j zahara a {jj*j zuhur) to shine, give 
light, be radiant IV to glow, gleam, 
glare, shine; to blossom, be in bloom 
(plant, flower) VIII _yfc.ajl izdahara to 
shine brightly, be radiant; to blossom, 
be in bloom; to flourish, prosper, thrive 

j»j zakr (coll. ; n. un. 5) pi. jj*j zuhur, 
_y*jl azhur y jUjl azhar, j»\j\ azdhir 2 , jf\j\ 
azdhir 2 flowers; blossoms; — cast iron 
(also JLj Jli- 1 ysj) | d>yii)l y»J z. at-talut 
pansy; *yij\j*j primrose; J— *J1 yO z.al- 
'asal honeysuckle; jijtt\ y>J z. al-lulu s 
daisy; y>J\ *L orange-flower water 

Ijtoj zahra (n. un.) pi. -at flower, 
blossom; splendor, beauty 

Zj*j zuhra brilliancy, light, brightness; 
beauty | Jw*)! Zj*j bluing 

ly>J\ az-zuhara the planet Venus 

gjkj zuhari syphilis | \y>3 o^j*^ 
venereal diseases 



\j*j zahriya pi. -at flower vase 

jUj zahhdr pi. -un florist ; flower grower, 
floriculturist 

(Sj^j zahrdwi gay, merry, cheerful 
(person) 

y»ji azhar 2 shining, luminous, radiant, 
brilliant; bright; — (elative) more ra- 
diant | OlyijVl sun and moon; y&jV £»U 
and y>jVt ~U-l Al Azhar Mosque and 
University in Cairo 

tjj*j\ azharl of or pertaining to Al 
Azhar; (pi. -un) Azhar student 

j* }* mizhar pi. j*\y mazahir 2 ancient 
Arabic variety of the lute; (now pro- 
nounced mazhar) a kind of tambourine 

*ij*j* m azharlya pi. -at flowerpot; flow- 
er vase; vase (vessel for perfume, oil, etc.) 

ja'j tazhlr bloom, florescence 

jUji izhdr florescence 

jUijI izdihdr flourishing, florescence, 
bloom, heyday 

j* I J zdhir shining, luminous, radiant, 
brilliant; bright 

^jm muzahhar flowered (cloth, woman's 



j*y* muzhir blooming, in bloom; shin- 
ing, luminous, bright 

(Ju»j zahafa a (o»>»J zuhuf): Cjj/L\ Jl d&j 
to be on the verge of death VIII vJ^jl 
o^l J I do. 

J^j zahaqa a (zahq, 3j*j zuhuq) to die, pass 
away, run out, come to nothing; cJ&j 
<u*ii (nafsuhu) and <**-jj d-i*j (ruhuhu) 
to give up the ghost, die; to weary, be- 
come tired (^ of s.th.), be disgusted 
(j- with s.th.) IV to bring about the 
ruin or downfall of s.th. (*); to destroy, 



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annihilate (a s.th.); to suppress, stifle 
(a s.th., spirit) | (£jj\) u Ji}\ jajI to be 
disgusting, be revolting 

3j*j zahvq dying, passing, bound to 
vanish 



^j zuhm offensive smell 

jtj zahim malodorous, fetid 
4**j zuhma offensive smell 
<*>*J zuhuma offensive smell 

(j*j) Uj zahd u (zahw) to blossom, flower, 
be in bloom; to grow, thrive; to shine 
brightly, be radiant, glow, gleam; to 
give o.s. airs, be haughty, conceited; to 
pride o.s. (lj upon, both in a favorable 
and a pejorative sense) ; pass. ^J zuhiya 
to be proud, conceited (cj of), pride o.s. 
(»_-> on), boast (lj of), vaunt (l-> s.th.) 
IY to blossom, flower, be in bloom; to 
grow, thrive; to give o.s. airs, be con- 
ceited, be boastful VIII ,yojl izdahd and 
pass, uzduhiya to be self-satisfied, com- 
placent, conceited, proud; izdahd to 
shine (<-> at, in s.th.), have (t-» an ac- 
complishment) to show; to boast (<-» 
, of s.th.), vaunt (<_j s.th.) 

jtt j zahw and zuhuw bloom, florescence ; 
splendor; beauty; pride; haughtiness, 
arrogance; vanity, a vain or futile thing 
or things; fun, play, amusement 

^j zahiy brilliant, splendid, magnif- 
icent, gorgeous, sumptuous 

»Uj zaha radiance, brilliancy, splendor 

*Uj zuhd 3 number, amount; zuha'a 
roughly, about, some (with foil, figure) 

^jl azhd more flourishing; prouder, 
more conceited 

»Uiji izdiha* bloom, florescence, flour- 
ishing; heyday; shining; glittering, splen- | 



dor, radiance; pride (both in a favor- 
able and a pejorative sense) 

olj zahin shining, brilliant, radiant, 
resplendent; glowing; splendid, gorgeous, 
magnificent, gaudy, beautiful 

j* J* mazhuw proud (^ of); haughty, 
supercilious, vainglorious; cocky, over- 
bearing 



<**jjj see £ij 

l £j j II to pair, couple (j-. or ^ a s.th. with), 
join in pairs or couples (a s.th.); to 
double, geminate (a s.th.); to employ 
parallelism (rhet.); to marry off, give 
in marriage (*, ^, <> U a girl to s.o.) Ill to 
form a pair or couple; to use in parallel 
construction, join in a pair (^j two 
words, rhet.); to marry, join in wedlock, 

unite in matrimony (j ^i s.o. with) 

Vto get married (,y, ^, J*, » with), marry 
(^a, cj, J*, & s.o.) VI to intermarry; to 
pair, come together forming a pair, be 
in pairs, be double VIII ^-j^jl izdawaja to 
pair, be in pairs, be double, appear twice 

£jj zauj pi. jtJjJI azwdj one of a pair; 
husband; wife; mate, partner; couple, 
pair (also, e.g., of shoes); dual uU-jj 
couple, married couple 

IptjJ zauja pi. -at wife 

*£j zlja marriage, wedding 

tjrjj zaujl in pairs, paired; double; 

marital, matrimonial, conjugal; doubles 

(tennis); pair-oar, paired oars (rowing 
sport) 

^j zijl marital, matrimonial, con- 
jugal, connubial 

l^-j j zaujiya pi. -at matrimony, mar- 
riage 

^\jj zawaj marriage (^ with) ; wedding; 
matrimony, wedlock | ?rW *-^-j wah* 



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dot az-z. monogamy 

r\jj* mizwaj frequently marrying 

£j> tazwlj marrying off (of a woman, 

«> to) 

r-ljj ziwdj doubling, duplication; par- 
allelism (rhet.) 

V j!> muzdwaja pairing, coupling, close 
union (of two things) 

r-jjr tazaivwuj marriage 

rj\j tazawuj intermarriage 

^Ijijl izdiwdj pairedness, doubleness; 
O coupling {el.) | ^jJ* ^'jAjl {darlbi) 
double taxation 

L^-ljjjl izdiwajiya twofoldness, double- 
ness [ *UJI j ^Ijjjl (luga) diglossia; bi- 
lingualism 

•rj y* mutazawwij married 

£j*}* muzdatoij double, twofold, two- 
(e.g., of a railroad: two-track) | t-JU* 
£y.>> (Tun.) swastika; zj^j* £*- (fyukm) 
double rule 

8 ^1j look up alphabetically 

{^jj) ^U zaha u — (£ j) ^lj zdha i 

sjj II to supply with provisions (» s.o.), pro- 
vision (a 6 s.o. with) ; to provide, supply, 
equip (<_» a, o s.o., s.th. with); to endow 
(o> t s.o. with); to enrich (<-> a s.th. with) 

IV to supply with provisions (a s.o.) 

V to be supplied (with provisions); to 
take along provisions (on a journey); 
to learn (^ from s.o.); to provide o.s., 
supply o.s., equip o.s. (*-> with) 

jlj zdd pi. iljji azwdd, Sijjl azwida 
provisions, supplies, stores 

iljj zawdd provisions 

oljj zuwwdda provisions 



*jj* mizivad pi. *j\j* mazdivid 2 , ti\u 
mazaid 2 provision bag, haversack 

Z$\ja mazdda provision bag, haversack 

Ojj_> iazmd supply, purveyance (u 
of), provision, equipment (*-* with); 
supplying (of s.o., <-> with); manning (of 
ships) 

SJtflj pi. OjIjJ see Oj j 

sjj* muzawwid pi. -un contractor, sup- 
plier, furnisher, purveyor, victualer, 
caterer 

ijJa muzawwad provided, supplied, 
furnished (l-» with); equipped (c-» with); 
armed (i_j with guns); connected (y 
with), attended, accompanied (^ by) 



(jjJ) -)'j zdra u (zaur, »jLp j ziydra) to visit 
(a s.o.), call (« on s.o.), pay a visit (« to); 
to afflict (« s.o.) II to forge, falsify, 
counterfeit (a s.th.); to fake, simulate 
IV to induce s.o, (•) to visit (a a place) 
VI to exchange visits IX to turn aside, 
turn away, dissociate o.s. (^ from); to 
be averse (^ to s.th.); <u jjj\ to turn 
s.o. away, alienate s.o. (j& from) X to 
desire s.o.'s («) visit 

jjj zaur upper part of the chest; 
throat | jjjJl pVT sore throat 

jj zir pl.jb ji azydr ladies' man, philan- 
derer 

jjj zur lie, untruth; falsehood | oLfi 
jjj\ sahddat az-z. false testimony 

jjj zur force | jj^Jl by force, forcibly 

jjj zawar inclination, obliqueness, 
slant; crookedness; falseness; perfidy, 
insidiousness; squint 

SjjJ zaura (n. vie.) pi. -at visit, call 

•J^J ziydra pi. -at visit; call (social, of a 
doctor); (ir.) visit to holy places, pil- 



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->JJ 



grimage | SikU. SjU j lightning visit, quick 
visit 

jj j I azwar 2 , f. »bj j zawra* 8 , pi. jj j 
zur inclined, slanting, oblique; crooked, 
curved; squint-eyed, cross-eyed 

jlj. mazdr pi. -at place which one 
visits; shrine, sanctuary 

j j j tazmr forgery, falsification | j j'j 
ol-U-JI J (samK^a/) falsification of doc- 
uments 

jljjjl izwirar turning away; averse - 
ness, aversion, dislike, distaste 

J\j zolvf pi. -un, j\jj zuwwar, f. S_/lj 
zaira pi. -a£, jj j zwwwar visitor, caller, 
guest; guest (in compounds), e.g., SlxJ 
y \j (ustdd) guest professor, visiting pro- 
fessor; pi. j\jj (ir.) visitors to holy places, 
pilgrims 

jjj* mazwr visited 

jjy muzawwir pi. -un forger; pilgrim 
guide 

Jjj* muzawwar forged, false, counter- 
feit; obtained by swindle, faked 

<jjjj zauraq pi. JjljJ zawariq 2 boat, row- 
boat, skiff | fjjte Ojjj {bukari) steam 
launch; JUvJI JSjjj z. as-said fishing boat; 
^-LS" Jjj J (kaiiadi) Canadian canoe, 
(iJUlT) iMS 3jjj kayak (rowing sport); 
SU^JI jjj J z. an-najdh lifeboat; O Jjj j 
(_Jt^-U torpedo boat 

1 (f'jJ) £JJ 2 ^° tt (£#«#> *J^jJ zowo^aw) to 
turn aside, depart, deviate (je from), 
swerve; to deviate from truth, to swindle ; 
see also Aj j VI to turn aside, swerve 

2 Hj look up alphabetically 

»Ujj zufd', jjj zii/a hyssop (tot.) 

J jjj II to adorn, embellish, ornament, dec- 



orate (a s.th.); to picture, visualize (a 
a story, in one's imagination) 

Jlj j zawdq embellishment, adornment, 
ornamentation; decoration; finery, attire; 
face painting, make-up, cosmetics 

Jjj* muzaivwaq adorned, embellished, 
ornamented, decorated; florid, flowery 
(speech) ; dressed up, meretricious, showy, 
gaudy 

2 Jjjlj, Jjj'j look up alphabetically 

(Jjj and Jjj) J lj zdla (1st pers. perf. zultu) u 
(Jljj zawdl) to go away, withdraw (j*. 
or ^ from), abandon, leave (^ or j- s.o. 
or s.th.); to disappear, vanish; to abate, 
calm down, die down, come to an end; 
to go down, set; — (1st pers. perf. ziltu) a 
(mil) to cease (with negations only) j of 
(Jjj: <_~Jl*J1 <o Jlj (gadab) his wrath 
abated; syrjh & Jlj to cease to exist; 

— of Jjj: with neg. Jlj U, Jj- ^1 
(yazal), J1> V equivalent to Engl, "still, 
yet": «tL>ii cJj L. (af'aluhu) I have not 
ceased to do it, I (am) still do(ing) it; 
illi J*s Jp- <t cJj U (zito) I didn't let 
up on him until he did it; l/U Jlj L. he 
is still standing; j Jlj U he has not 
ceased to be or to remain in,, he is still 
in; *JI <U-U- j Jlj V he is still in need 
of it, he still needs it; «c ^Ti J*. Jlj V 
(dikrin) he still remembers him II Jjj 
zawwala to remove, eliminate (a s.th.); 

— Jjj zayyala to separate, break up, dis- 
perse, scatter (a s.th.) Ill J jlj zdwala to 
pursue (a s.th.), devote o.s., apply o.s. 
(a to); — Jjjj zdyala to separate, part 
(a, * from), leave, quit, abandon (a, * s.o., 
s.th.); to separate (ju s.th.) | jljjl Jjlj 
to move out of the house, leave the 
house IV to cause to cease or stop, 
make disappear or vanish (a s.th.); to 
remove, eliminate (a s.th.), put an end 
(a to s.th.), do away (a with s.th.), make 
a clean sweep (a of s.th.) VI Jjlj" tamyala 



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to be disjointed, incoherent; to pass away, 
cease, stop 

Jjj zaul pi. Jlj jl azwal person, body, 
figure; nightly apparition, specter, ghost, 
phantom, spirit 

Jljj zawdl end, passage, extinction, 
disappearance, vanishing, cessation; set- 
ting (of the sun); noon; Vljj zawdlan 
(Magr.) at noon, at noontime | JljjJl mj*> 
ephemeral, evanescent, fleeting; JijjJl -Uj 
in the afternoon; JljjJI JU* around noon, 
by noon; JljjJl ia^ katt az~z. meridian; 
Jiiii Jljj z. az-zill disappearance of the 
shadow, highest position of the aun (at 
12 noon) 

Jljj zawdll: Jljj c*Jjj (Saudi Ar.) 
time reckoning in which the hours are 
counted from noon and from midnight 
(in contrast with <Jjj& C^JJj counting 
the hours beginning with sundown); J 
«Jljj 4*t\J\ 4pLJI (zawaliyatan) at four 
o'clock according to zawdl-t\va& 

SJjJ zuliya pi. Jljj zawdli (*>., sand.) 
knotted rug 

*Jj> rnizwala pi. Jjl> mazdwil 2 sundial 

*ij\j» muzdwala pursuit (of s.th.), 
application (to); assiduous study; prac- 
tice (of some work, of a profession) 

iJljl izdla removal, elimination 

JJlJ z&'il transitory, passing, eva- 
nescent, fleeting, ephemeral, short-lived 

Jjj* muzll pi. -at remover, cleansing 
medium (esp. cosm.) \ *J-\J\ Jjj* deodor- 
ant; JSjaJI JjJ> m. al- r araq anti-perspirant 

t^-jijj zolojiya zoology 

fjrjijj zoloji zoologic(al) 

(fjj) j»U taina v> («?*) to growl, snarl (dog) 
II to mumble, mutter 



*jj zum pi. fljjl azwam juice, sap 

1 j!j, Hlj look up alphabetically 

2 jljj ziwdn, zuwan = uijj (q.v.) 

tjjj zawd % to contract, wrinkle, knit (a 
s.th., e.g., the eyebrows); to remove (* 
s.th.); to hide, conceal (a s.th.) | U ^ t j 
«uLp ,>j ( c ainaihi) he knitted his eye- 
brows, he frowned (in anger, and the 
like) II and V to withdraw into a corner, 
go into seclusion, retire VII do.; to keep 
to o.s., live in seclusion or retirement | 
»JiJU- j <£jj\ {jildihi) to crawl inside o.s. 
(out of shame, and the like) 

»ljj-l inziwa retirement, seclusion, 
isolation 

4jjlj zawiya pi. llj j zawdyd corner, 
nook; angle (math.); bevel, bevel square 
(instrument) ; small mosque, prayer room; 
(North Aft.) a small cupolaed mosque 
erected over the tomb of a Muslim saint, 
with teaching facilities and a hospice 
attached to it, usually the establishment 
of a religious order | SjU-I 4jjljJl (hddda) 
acute angle; jl-WtVl 4jjL> angle of gra- 
dient or slope; 4»-jUM *iJ^ or *iJ^ 
4*»-jU^l external angle; HU-IjJI *ij\J\ or 
LJU-IaII ^JjljJl interior angle; WjjJl tSjL-X. 
mutasdwl z-z. equiangular; a*~j}c\\ hj\J\ 
(munfarija) obtuse angle; i/UJI ijljJl 
right angle; JJLI 4jj'j z. al-mail angle of 
inclination (techn.) ; angle of tilt or dip (avi- 
ation); iijljjl^^*^ hajar az-z. cornerstone; 
'iskjZ Lljj j^ (7nuktalifa) from different 
angles (i.e., aspects) 

Ljj^ S^T fcwra mazwlya corner kick 
(soccer) 

j>» munzawin seclusive, secluding; re- 
tired, secluded; outlying, remote, out-of- 
the-way; obscure 

iSJ II <i j> ^ J za yy® to dress, clothe, costume 



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(t-* » s.o. in) V (jy, Ly tazayya to dress, 
put on a dress or costume; to dress up, 
smarten o.s. up; to be dressed, be clad 
(<-» in), wear (<.-» s.th.) 

iSJ z iyy pl- »kj' azya clothing, dress, 
apparel, attire; O uniform; outward 
appearance, make-up; costume; style of 
dress, manner of dressing; fashion; ex- 
terior, guise, form, shape | UjJlLI ^jJI J* 
fashionable, modish, stylish; >Lj! o^j 
fashion houses 



J-j j zaibaq (= 
cury 



jjj zVbaq) quicksilver, mer- 



j j II to oil, lubricate, grease (a a machine, 
and the like); to add oil (a to some food) 

iT-j j zait pl. Cjji j zuyut oil (edible, fuel, 
motor oil, etc.) | jU CjJ {harr) linseed 
oil; ^U- Cj j (hulw) sweet oil, oil free of 
hydrogen sulfide; O^J-I £*j j 2. al-hut 
cod-liver oil; Pj>^1 C-j J 2- al-kirwa* castor 
oil; Sji c-jj z. dura corn oil; dU-J! <^jJ 
z. ew-samafc cod-liver oil; ^>^2li c-jj 



lubricating oil; 



i-VI 



lamp oil; 



jUJl c~i j z. al-gaz kerosene 

JjJ zaitl oily, oil (adj.), oil-bearing | 
V4J *jj«* or iJuj o-^J (swra, lauha) oil 
painting 

ol j zayydt oil dealer, oilman 

O^jJ zaitun (coll.; n. un. I) olive tree; 
olive(s) j u^jJl JU-i a^atZ az~z. Palm 
Sunday (Ghr.); JjSjjJI J~r /a&aZ az-z. 
Mount of Olives (Jerusalem) 

Ijj^i j zaituna (n. un.) pl. -dtf olive tree; 
olive I SJjjTjJJI a-*U- the Zaitouna Mosque 
(large mosque and university in Tunis) 

ijj^ij zaituni olivaceous, olive-colored, 
olive-green ; (pl. -un) student of the Great 
Mosque of Tunis 



SJ^j J zaituniya, IJjZj jJI J. 
Palm Sunday (CopL-Chr.) 



ahad az-z. 



£l> y mazyata oil can, oiler 
C-jj >" taz0£ oiling, lubrication 
c-j_>» muzayyat oiled 

V.J 2 *? leveling line (used by masons); 
ephemeris, astronomical almanac 

2 i£J zija and ^j 317* see ^-jj 

(£ J) ^lj zdha i (zaih, ^y_ j zuyuh, bbzj zaya* 
hari) to go away, depart, leave IV to 
remove, drive away, banish (a s.th.), do 
away with (a); to take away (a s.th.); 
to pull away, throw back (a a curtain, 
a veil, etc., jp from s.th.) | jp *l»UI *. \}\ 
to reveal, disclose s.th.; Jli* jp jbuJI ,-ljl 
(timtdl) to unveil a monument VII to go 
away, depart, leave; to be pulled away, 
be thrown back (curtain) 

£ j zih pl. £-b jl azyaA (straight) line 

r^dJ zayyah pl. -df religious procession 

JU-ljl izaAa removal, abolition | Z*-\j\ 
jbuJ! unveiling (of a monument) 

{■*iJ) -^J z&da i (S^Uj ziyada) to become 
greater, become more, grow, increase, 
be compounded, multiply; to be greater, 
be more, amount to more ( jp or J* than), 
exceed ( jp or Jp s.th., an amount, «-> by), 
go beyond an amount or number (J*); 
to augment, increase, compound (a s.th.), 
make (a s.th.) grow or increase; to step up, 
raise (j., a s.th., J[ a s.th. to); to add 
(Jp a s.th. to); to add, make additions 
(Jp to), enlarge (Jp s.th.); to extend, 
expand, further, advance, promote, in- 
tensify (j or j- s.th.); to give more 
(a » to s.o. of s.th.) I Jp Jb> V it is no 
more than ..., it is only ...; ">tfli jlj he 
added (in speech followed by quotation) ; 
ul tiJiJ Jp ij {zid) (prop. : add to it that . , ,) 
in addition to that there is ..., what's 
more, there is ... ; furthermore, moreover; 



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452 



o*JI Jp U»JI <ojj (ywfeAan) to make s.th. 
uglier than it already is; Uj ^Ul .aljj, 
*b t>^' j ^|J see ,>k; ljU <olj ( r ilman) 
to tell s.o. more about it, supply s.o. with 
more information II to increase, augment, 
compound, make grow III to make a 
higher bid (* than s.o.), outbid (« s.o.; at 
an auction) V to increase; to rise, go up 
(prices) ; to extend by additions ( j s.th.) ; 
to make additions, add embellishments of 
one's own, exaggerate (in telling s.th,); to 
be long-winded, verbose | ^, LJI j* Jb> 
43^*1! ( r ilm t mcfrifa) to acquire additional 
knowledge, increase one's knowledge VI to 
outbid one another; to increase grad- 
ually, be growing; to become more 
intense, intensify; to become more and 
more, exceed more and more (j* s.th.) 
VIII ibjl izddda to grow, be growing, 
increase, be compounded, multiply; (mor., 
alg.) to be born j *!5o jbjl (bukaan) he 
wept more and more X to demand more, 
ask for more, go up with one's demands ; 
to try to achieve more ; to aim or work at 
an increase, expansion or extension (a 
of); to ask (» s.o.) to give more of s.th. 

ijOjjJl az-zaidiya a Shiitic group form- 
ing an independent commonwealth (Yem- 
en) 

J>jlj>\ az-zuyild the Zaidites, adherents 
of the Zaidiya sect 

ob j ziyada increase, increment, ac- 
cretion, growth; surplus, overplus, excess; 
increase, augmentation, raising, stepping 
up; enhancement, elevation, intensifi- 
cation; extra pay, allowance (in addition 
to the salary); addition; obj ziyddatan 
in addition, additionally | ^ ob j (ziyd* 
datari) over and above, beyond, in excess 
of; regardless of; aside from; S^bj aJLs^ 
«JL*£ jp hammalahu z. r an tahammulihi 
he loaded him with more than he could 
carry; «il!S Jp Sjbj (ziyddatan) more- 
over, besides; tt^JV' Sabj z. al-intaj pro- 



duction increase; -aJ|>LI ^bj excess of 
births; ^-Uij^l objj (iddh) in order to 
make it even clearer, for further eluci- 
dation 

Ojji azyad 2 more excessive, higher, 
greater, bigger 

s\Ja mazdd pi. -at auction, public sale 

AjJ* mazid an exceeding (J* of s.th,); 
excess, superabundance; high degree, 
large extent; utmost, maximum; (with 
foil, genit.) excessive, extreme, utmost, 
highest, greatest, superlative; a greater 
amount {j- of), an increase (j* in); pass, 
partic. of I: increased, etc.; the derivative 
stems of the verb (gram.) [ j£ji}\ Jbjx 
bi-m. a§-sukr with many, many thanks; 
Ja^\ Xi}£ bi-m. al-asaf with the greatest 
regret; r-LjjVt Jj>c with extreme satis- 
faction; juj^ ^ 4 tjd it is unsurpas- 
sable, it's not to be outdone; SjJ-l ^ JOj* 
(kibra) a greater amount of experience; 
iUJjJd! ,j- <k}» a broader, more extensive 
study; uj'iMaJl ^ Jbj^ (tulldb) a greater 



number of students ; 
more information 



^-V! 



#ju[^. muzdyada pi. -at auction, public 
sale ; public invitation of tenders (to find 
the highest bidder); outbidding, over- 
bidding; exaggeration 

-b> tazayyud exaggeration (in re- 
porting), one's own embellishments or 
additions, fables, yarn 

-b!_> tazdyud (gradual) increase, in- 
crement, growth 

ibjjl izdiydd increase, growth, rise, 
intensification; (mor., alg.) birth | S^Lfi 
ibij'yi Sahadat al'i. (alg.) birth certificate; 
jbijVi -^ r aqd al-%. (mor.) do. 

ol_>wl istizdda a striving for more; 
pursuit of an increase, expansion or 
extension; desire or request for more | 

JjjLl o!>-i J*j J (yabqa, li-mustazi* 



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453 



J*. 



din) there is nothing to be added, nothing 
more need be said about it 

all J zd'id increasing, growing; ex- 
cessive, immoderate; exceeding (jp s.th.), 
in excess (je- of); additional, extra, super- 
numerary; plus, and (arith.) | Jjlj ojj 
{wazn) excess weight; S-tflj ^- (sw'a) 
excessive speed; 5>-U.I jc Jb*ij more than 
necessary, surplus 

SoJlj zaida pi. Jtflj j zawd'id 2 appendage, 
appendix ((mat., zool., bot.); outgrowth 
(med.) [ <4_j*-» SoiMj (mi'awiya) and S-tflJ 
4jiji (dudlya) vermiform appendix 
(a7iaf.) 

(^Jjjj za'wft hyperbolic (greom.) 

Jblj* muzayid pi. -uw bidder, outbidder 
(at an auction) 

joI_/U mvtazayid steadily increasing, 
swelling 

aljjj* mttzd&J (mor., alg.) born | JbUjll 
4j">U nee So-and-so (giving a woman's 
maiden surname), 

l j j II (mor.) to close (a a button) 

V j z«" pi. j\jj\ azyar, jU j ziyar (eg., magr.) 
large, almost conical jar, made of porous 
clay, for storing water 

z jj zlr the highest string of stringed in- 
struments (mu$.) 

*/j pi- jljjl see under jjj 

j j ziz (coll.; n. un. *) pi. b\jj zizan cicada; 
chrysalis 

Oj*j j zaizafun jujube (Zizyphus ; bot.) ; linden 
tree 

1 (^j) Mj zaga i (zaig, oU> j zayagdn) to 
turn aside; to depart, deviate (j^ from); 
to swerve; to turn away (j* from), turn 



one's back (^ on); to wander, stray, 
roam (eyes) IV to cause (a s.th.) to de- 
viate | »^ ^ f\j I (basarahu) he looked 
past me, he snubbed me 

ijj zaig and oUjJ zayagdn a turning 
aside; deviation, departure (jp from); 
ijj aberration (of light; astron., pkys.) | 
±\x*j £) j (sadad) erring and doing right, 
wrong and right 

£jlj zaig deviating, divergent; false, 
wrong, distorted, perverted | iiJlj Cj\J^j 
(nazardt) wandering glances 

2 flj look up alphabetically 

(<Ju j) iJj I j zdfa i (zaif) to be false, be spurious 
II to counterfeit (a money); to declare 
(a s.th.) to be false or spurious 

^J&lj zaif spuriousness ; falseness (also 
of s.o.'s character); (pi. Js^jj zuyitf) false, 
spurious, forged, counterfeit 

»JtJ jl azyaf 2 falser, more spurious 

<_aj j tazyif falsification, forgery, coun- 
terfeiting 

^JJlj zd'if false; forged, counterfeit, 
spurious | 3utflj jL»-l false reports; *jm 
<iu\j counterfeit money 



t - A iJ-* 



muzayyif forger, counterfeiter 



iJjj> muzayyaf forged; counterfeit, 
false, spurious; pseudo- 

iajj^ muzayyafa counterfeit banknote 
or bill 

\ji j II (eg.) to creak, screech 

2 Jj j ziq pi. j Ijj I azy<z# collar, neckband; 
border, hem (of a garment) 

(JiJ) lHJ and II, III, VI see J_,J 

Iaj^j ziUmda: SjujU-I IjlJ^jj New Zealand 



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454 



*(c£ J) 20»» * (zain) to decorate, adorn (a 
s.th.) II to adorn, decorate, embellish, 
ornament (* s.th.); to grace (a, « s.o., 
s.th.) ; to shave (« s.o.) ; l^Jj £*mj (nafsahd) 
to make herself up (lady); to paint in 
glowing tones, present in a favorable 
light, extol (J, J I a s.th. to s.o.); to con- 
jure up (a s.th., J before s.o.'s eyes), 
create visions (a of s.th,, <j in s.o.'s 
mind), lead s.o. (J) to believe (il that); 
to give (J s.o.) the idea ( Oi to do s.th.), 
suggest ( ji J to s.o. to do s.th.) V to be 
decorated, be adorned; to dress up, 
smarten o.s. up, spruce up, preen o.s.; 
to shave, get a shave VIII Obj! izdana 
to be decorated, be adorned; to be 
graced | jJ^j <Z\j3 Objl (firdSuku bi-wa- 
ladin) his bed was graced with a son, 
i.e., a son was born to him 

^j zain beauty; beautiful, nice, 
pretty 

ij j zlna pi. -at embellishment, adorn- 
ment, ornament, decoration; clothes, at- 
tire, finery; toilette | *+.J\ o j z. al-wajh 
make-up; ojJl £~u bait az-z. beauty 



shop; S-ijjJI jL^ 1 1 ornamental trees; 
o jJI £j Lj LJ nabatdt az-z. ornamental plants ; 
IjjJI o\j^~ kuwdn az-z. dressing table; 
o jji iiji gurfat az-z. dressing room 

Ob J zayan beautiful 

Ob j ziydn embellishment, adornment, 
decoration; ornament 

iibj ziydna barber's or hairdresser's 
trade 

Cj\jj tazyin adorning, decoration, orna- 
mentation; make-believe, sham, pretense 

lj }* muzayyin barber, hairdresser 

oj^ muzayyina pi. -at hairdresser 
(fern.), friseuse 

j» }m muzayyan decorated, ornamented, 
adorned (^ with); graced (*_> with) 

Ob J* muzddn decorated, ornamented, 
adorned (<_j with); graced (<_> with) 

2 0lj look up alphabetically 

^Sjj j zinko zinc 



^ abbreviation of Jlj- question and 5*-b- 
square, place 

m $a- shortened form of uy saufa (q.v.) 

b- abbreviation of «pL hour 

ObU sdtan satin 

r-b- sdj pi. 0U*~* sijdn teak, Indian oak 
oU-U sdjdt castanets 

ob soda (invar, for gender) simple; plain, 



unicolored, uniform (fabric) j oU Sj^S 
(qahwa) unsweetened coffee 

jij-- see 2 :>j-- 

tpb- sad* sadistic 

ajjU sddiya sadism 

jt* sa'ira a to remain, be left 

j J- w'r pi. jUl cw'ar rest, remainder, 
remnant, leftover (esp. of food and bev- 



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jU 



»jj*» su'ra rest, remainder, remnant, 
leftover (esp. of food and beverages); 
vestige of youthful vigor 

jTU sd'ir remaining; rest, remainder; 
(with foil. det. genit.) all 

OjJLUI as-sdsaniyun the Sassanidae, a 
dynasty of Persian kings (226 — 651 A.D.) 

_^L sago sago 

_^TU sdko, ft^U sack coat, lounge jacket 

JL safala a (Jj>- su'dl, aJL*. mas'ala, J Lj 
tas'dl) to ask (j^ or a a s.o. s.th. or about 
s.th.); to inquire (^ * of s.o. about); 
to ask (a j- or * s.o. for s.th.), request, 
demand, claim (a <y or » from s.o. s.th.) | 
N' Jt- sa'alahu ilia to implore, adjure 
s.o. that he ...; ojls~\ ^ «dL- to ask s.o. 
about s.o. else; <ulj aJU (ra'yahu) to 
ask s.o. 's opinion, consult s.o.; Vjj- <Jt- 
to ask s.o. a question; JL-j (yits'alu) he is 
responsible, answerable (^ for) III to 
ask, question, interrogate (t> s.o.); to call 
(ft s.o.) to account IV <dj-- 4JL-I (su'lahu) 
to fulfill s.o.'s wish, comply with s.o. '3 
request V tasa"ala and J>-J tasawwala 
to beg VI to ask; to ask o.s.; to ask one 
another; (j^) Ja J»UJ to ask o.s. whether 
(about); to inquire (je- about) 

Jj** sill demand, request, wish 

*Jj^ su la demand, request, wish 

Jlj*- su'dl pi, UiJ as'ila question (j^ 
about); request {^ for); inquiry (jc 
about); demand, claim | iiiJl Jij^ 5. a/- 
(t'ga question of confidence [pol.) 

JlU- sa"a£ given to asking questions, 
inquisitive, curious 

JjJ-- sa'ul given to asking questions, 
inquisitive, curious 

SJU** ("Al~j>) mas'ala pi, JjL** masd'il 2 



question; issue, problem; matter, affair, 
case; request 



tion 



musd'ala questioning, interroga- 



Jj-J tasawwul begging, beggary 

JjU tasaid pi. -af question; question- 
ing, self-questioning 

JjL-saiZpl. -un, Jlj*- su"dl, 4JL- m'ala 
questioner; petitioner; beggar 

JjJ**., Jyu*. mas'ul responsible, ans- 
werable, accountable (jp for); pi. j^JjJ^JJ 
the bearers of responsibility (^e for) ; the 
functionaries 



SJ 



yj>—«» 



matfuliya pi. -a* re- 



sponsibility (jc for) 
Jj*Jt* mutasawml pi. -«w beggar 

1 [»U 5am Shem (eldest son of Noah) 

^L- sdml Semitic; (pi. -uri) Semite; 
£jL*LJi the Semitic languages | ^UV 
anti-Semitic; anti-Semite; 4-.UI oUjaJI 
Semitic studies 

^L.U sdmlya Semitism; ^.U'^jl al-ld- 
sdmlya anti-Semitism; ^.U] j>U. (mit'a- 
din) anti-Semitic; anti-Semite 

2 jU sa'ima a (fU sa*m 9 <.U- sadma) to be 
weary, tired (j» or a of s.th.), be bored, 
fed up (,y or a with s.th.); to dislike, 
detest, loathe (jl doing s.th.), have an 
aversion (a I to doing s.th.) IV to cause 
or arouse weariness or boredom ( 6 in s.o.), 
weary, bore (» s.o.) 

JL- sa'im weary, tired, bored 

rjj- - sebum disgusted, weary, fed up 

<*U sa'dma weariness, disgust, bore- 
dom, ennui 

^IJujJJL- (Engl.) sandwitis pi. -at sandwich 



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456 



jjAjU saigon, (Eg. spelling) Oj^L* saigon 
Saigon 

t-^- £«6&a « (sa&6) to insult, abuse, call 
names, revile (« s.o.), rail {« at); to curse 
(» s.o.); to blaspheme, curse, swear II to 
cause, provoke, arouse, produce, bring 
about, effect, occasion (a s.th.), give 
occasion {* to s.th.) Ill to exchange in- 
sults or abusive language (« with s.o.) 

V to be caused, be produced (^ by), be 
the consequence or result (jp of), follow, 
arise, spring, result (y> from); to be the 
reason or cause, be at the bottom (<-> or 
j of), be to blame (j for), be instru- 
mental ( j in) ; to seek reasons or motives 
(Jl for s.th.); to account, give a reason 
or explanation (Jl for), justify, motivate 
(Jl s.th.); to use (^ s.th.) as a means 
(Jl for); to trade, be in the retail business 

VI to insult each other, call one another 
names, rail at each other VIII = VI 

<~~ * sabb abuse, vituperation, insults, 
cursing 

4-— sabba period of time, (long) while 

L-- sibba : AVI <u-- &. al-alam Passion 
Week (Chr.) 

!L- subba disgrace, shame, dishonor 

c-*a** sabab pi. »->L— I asbdb rope, tent 
rope; means for obtaining s.th.; reason, 
cause, motive, occasion (with foil, genit. 
or J: of); means of subsistence; (esp. pi.) 
relations (between people) [ jf\ «_-sw 
main reason; SvJ-l ^L-l a. al-hulcm opin- 
ion (jur.); **-\J\ vV - ' luxury; t^-wJ bi- 
8ababi because of, on account of, due to, 
by; tilli i--j— j because of that, for that 
reason, therefore; v <_-xJi oS" (sababa) 
to be the cause of s.th., be to blame 
for s.th.; Jl <_a-JI g-j_ (yarjiu) the 
reason is to be found in ...; v^-^. ■**-' 
I&jU-I SjLii-l (haddra) to adopt modern 
civilization; ^u^xll vW"^ ■**"' *° m ^ ro " 



duce industrialization; *jL— L 4jLJ J^»j 
(asbdbahu) to join forces with s.o.; CttiG 
(>j s_-»U*V1 relations between ... are 
broken off, they no longer have anything 
in common; Zj~l\ ^LJ ^WU sdtarahu 
asbaba l-masarra to share s.o.'s joy; <jU 
J~M\j a^—Jl vV*' C&nd, 'usra, dlq) to 
suffer distress and destitution 

3**$-* sabablya causality 

^->L- sabbdb abuser, vituperator, re viler 

<oL* sabbdba index finger 

V^ sabib pi. i-oL— sabd*ib 2 strand 
of hair 

4\-~. masabba pi. -at vilification, abuse, 
insult 



u-uj tasbib mediate causation (1st 
Law) 

t-jL- eibdb abuse, vituperation, re- 
vilement 

<jU*» musabba abuse, vituperation, re- 
vilement 



l-~w musabbib causer, originator, au- 
thor; oLu* musabbibdt causative factors 

t_-j-~» musabbab caused (jp by); pi. 
oLw effects (of a cause) | «_*wilj ^*uJI 
(sabab) cause and effect 



mutasabbib causer; cause; re- 
tailer, small storekeeper 

L- $aba (also L- saba) Sheba | <>bl !j-»i 
L- (jaljl) d. aidiya (ayddiya) saba they 
were scattered to the four winds 

jL- saba'i Sabaean; *jL~JI as-saba- 
'iya the Sabaean language 

£L* sabdnak, sabanik spinach 

j>L*- see ^j-J^* 



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457 



^L- sabdyis and ^t-- sibdhl spahis, Alge- 
rian native cavalry in the French army 

j c*a- sabata u to rest; to keep the Sabbath 
IV to enter on the Sabbath 

il*uJI as-sabt pi. d^J\ as-subut Sab- 
bath, Saturday | c-xJl r^j yaum as-$. do. ; 
j_^Jl c~w 8. an-nur Holy Saturday {Chr.) 

isr ^ sabtl pi. -un Sabbatarian (Chr.) 

oL- subdt lethargy; slumber, sleep 

JL- svhdtl lethargic [ JL-Jl J&\ ^>l^JVi 
(mukkl) encephalitis lethargica, sleeping 
sickness (med.) 

musbit lethargic, inactive, mo- 



tionless 

2 Cj— sabat pi. -at, hx^\ asbita basket 

s C-a- sibitt dill (Anethum graveolens; 60 1.) 

Kth« sabta 2 Ceuta (seaport on the Straits of 
Gibraltar) 

jvUa- sibtambir September 



g~* sabaj jet (min.) 

«-* sabaha a (sabh, a^L- sibdha) to swim 
(j, cj in); to float (fig.); to spread II to 
praise, glorify (<uii alldha, *a U-lldhi God, 
by saying j&l jUw* subhdna lldh praise 
the Lord!); to praise, extol (^ s.th.) | 
#JU^ «--* (Aanuftfti) to sing s.o.'s praise, 
glorify s.o. 

**w- #a&Aa (n, un.) a swim, swimming 

5*w- sw&Aa pi. oLw subuhdt, « r - 
awftoA. beads of the Muslim rosary; 
Muslim rosary; supererogatory salat (I si. 
Law) 

«Uw* subha, sabha pi. oUw- subuhdt, 
sabahdt majesty (of God) | aji! 4>-j CjU*~- 
siibuhdtu wajhi lldh the sublimity, or 



the august splendor, of God's coun- 
tenance; ^Jj CjUw- (sabahdt) lofty 
heights 

«]al uUw- subhdna lldh exclamation of 
surprise, etc. (prop. : praise the Lord ! 
God be praised!); je *i>! uU^ God is far 
above ..., God is beyond ... 

£-l~- sabbdh swimmer 

rj~* sabuh a good swimmer; swift and 
smooth-running (lit. : floating ; of horses) 

i»-Lw sibdha (art of) swimming | 4*-L* 
*r»- (hurra) free-style swimming; i»-l— * 
jJUJl Jp (soar) breaststroke swimming; 
\jX*? 4»LJI (^ooVan) do.; j^ i*-LJI (eaA- 
ran) backstroke swimming; Uljill ia-L*- 
s. al-fards'a butterfly style, dolphin style 
swimming) 

«-** masbah pi. £t— masdbih 2 swim- 
ming pool 

4m**** misbaha pi. £l~* masdbih 2 rosary 

^j-J ios6*A pi. -a(, 7^jL«j tasdbih 2 
glorification of God (by exclaiming uU.**- 

4)1) 

4*^*J tasbiha pi. -<z<, jy.l-J tasdbih 2 
glorification of God; hymn, song of 
praise 

j tasbiha hymn, song of praise 



f-L* sdbih pi. -un, *-L«- *i*66a^, ^Lw 
subaha 2 swimmer; bather | »jl&l j £U 
lost in thought 

O 4^U sdbiha glider, sailplane, cargo 
glider 

JjL^L* sdbihdt and £'>•* sawd&iA 2 
floating ones (epithet for race horses) 

i*u~~. musabbiha index finger 
aL*.-*- sabhala glorification of God 
£y»> sabaha u (sabk) to be sound asleep II do. ; 



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458 



to manure, fertilize (^jVl al-arda the 
land) 

£~- sabak dung, manure, fertilizer | 
t^jjj ««- {baladi) manure 

«^- sabik briny (soil) 

iiw* sabaka, sabka pi. sabakdt, *-L— 
stfeafc sebkha, smooth wet saline plane; 
shallow salt lake, salt swamp; swampy- 
ground, bog | 4m^ ^jl do. 

£»L- m&ajk pi. 5^-1 asbika dung, ma- 
nure, fertilizer [ ^.iL iL {baladi) ma- 
nure 

^u- «a&tfc pi. £l— sabaik 2 loose 
(unspun) cotton 

^u-J tas&tA; deep, sound sleep; O co- 
ma, somnolence (med.) 

>* sabara u i (sabr) to examine with a 
probe, sound, probe (a a wound or organ, 
med.; the ground, geol.); to measure, 
sound (a the water depth by a sounding 
line); to fathom, explore, examine (a 
s.th.) J *Jtl\ j\jc.\ jvto probe the depth 
of s.th., get to the bottom of s.th., study 
s.th. thorouhgly 

jv- sabr probing (of a wound, etc.); 
sounding (of water depth) ; fathoming, ex- 
ploration, examination 

jL— sibar pi. >- subur probe {med.) 

~»jj^> sabbura slate; blackboard 

^?w misbar pi. j L~* masdbir 2 probe 
[med.) 

jL^» misbar pi. _^jL~* masabir 2 probe 
(med.); echo sounder (for measuring water 
depth) 

S/L* sdbira pi. j-i^*- sawabir 2 sound, 
probe (of space ships, etc.) 

,j-*- si&$ small wind instrument resembling 
the oboe (e^,) 



^^^a- sibsl {lib.) cigarette 
^5*-^- s&m {tun.) cigarette 

C-— *- II tasabsaba to be lank (hair) ; to flow 
(tears) 

>-: — >»-' sabsab pi. u*-L- sabdsib 2 desert, 
wasteland | >_ — >- ^i» {qafr) desert, 
wasteland, desolate region 

Ja-— sabuta u (&J*- subiita, &L- so&dto) 
to be lank (hair) 

J*-— sa&ii, safe/, ^aftat pi. J»L* ai&aj 
lank (hair) | ^oJl J*^ saty (safe*?) d- 
yadain liberal, openhanded, generous; 
LUJI Ja**- 5. al-qdma shapely, well-built, 
of graceful stature 

Ja-— sibt pi. i»L— I asfeai grandson; tribe 
(of the Israelites) 

J*L— sabbat pi. Ja-jL— sababif shoe 

aLI— subata bunch, cluster (of fruit) 

Js>UL- sabat pi. Jajjlj— sawdblt 2 arcade, 
roofed lane or street; archway 

J*Lx-* si&a/ and {eg.) JUL- #«6a£ arcade, 
roofed lane or street; archway 



£- II to make sevenfold (a s.th.); to divide 
into seven parta (a s.th.) 

*-— sab* pi. «-— I asbu% ?y^> subu\ 
Vj- - subua predatory animal, beast of 
prey; lion 

£- sa&?/ pi. 9L— 5t6a r predatory an- 
imal, beast of prey; lion 

4*-— sab r a (f. £— safc'") seven; j£& iv- 
sab'ata 'asara (f. S^ic *-— sofe'a T asrata) 
seventeen 

£?* sub% subu" pi. p-L-l asbd f one- 
seventh 

^L- sw6a f t consisting of seven parts; 



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seven-lettered, consisting of seven letters; 
septet (mus.) 

*j>*~- sab'un seventy 

jj*-*- sab'uni septuagenarian 

oL-a^JI as-sab'indt the seventies (dec- 
ade of a century) 



i^jOl at-tarjama as~sab r iniya 
the Septuagint 

£>\ej~J\ (Hebr. S e bu e ot) as-sabu'dt Sha- 
buoth, the Feast of Weeks, or Pentecost, 
of the Jews 

pj^-l usbu r pi. £jL-l asdbi 2 week | 
^\ jj--l Passion Week (CAr.) 

^^--.1 usbu'i weekly; Lpj~*I weekly, 
by the week 

V^~1 usbu'iya weekly feature (radio, 
TV); (If or,) weekly newspaper or maga 
zine 

*jU1 as-sdbi r the seventh 

A-** sabaga u a {fj~* subug) to be long and 
wide; to abound, be abundant IV to 
make wide, widen (a s.th.); to make 
(a s.th.) complete; to bestow amply (Jp 
upon s.o., a s.th.), shower (a J* s.o. 
with); to lend, impart liberally (a Jp to 
s.th. s.th.); to attribute, ascribe (Jp to 
s.o., a qualities) | *jJ>J\ A^l to per- 
form the ritual ablution properly 
{1st. Law) 

AjU sdbig pi. AjIj-- sawdbig 2 long and 
loose-fitting (garment); full, complete, 
perfect; excessive, abundant, ample 

J~- sabaqa i u (sabq) to be, come, go, get, 
or act, before or ahead of s.o. or s.th. 
(a, *); to precede, antecede (a, a s.o., s.th., 
in place and time); to arrive before s.o. 
(a) at ( Jl) ; to outstrip, outdistance, leave 
behind (a, « s.o., s.th.); to forestall 



(a s.th.); to anticipate (a s.th.); to do 
or say s.th. (Jl) spontaneously before one 
can be stopped; to turn spontaneously, 
instinctively, without knowing why (Jl 
to s.th.); to surpass, beat (Jp or « s.o.) | 
4L3 (jl *J £**■> (an fa'alahu) he had al- 
ready done it before; <djt» 61 <J j^- (an 
qdbalahu) he had met him before (para- 
phrasing the pluperfect); JjSJl UJ J-— 
l>\ (qaulu) we have previously (already) 
said that . . . ; i-> «u!p CJ. 1 jj«- (hukmu) he 
had been previously sentenced to ...; 
J J~- it happened to me before, I 
experienced before (6 1 that); ol J JJ-— j j> 

I have never before ...; J^ *J (^-—j i 
(as) there has never been one before, 
(which is) unprecedented; JJUJl (Jl-J) j~- 
s. s-saifu l- r adla (the sword anticipated 
censure, i.e.) one has to accept the ac- 
complished fact, there is (was) nothing 
one can (could) do about it, it is (was) 
already too late; «u U a!^ (lisdnuhu) to 
burst out impulsively (with an utterance) 

II to cause (a s.th.) to precede or antecede; 
to premise (a s.th.); to do or give (a s.th.) 
prematurely III to try to get ahead of 
s.o. («); to try to defeat or beat (« s.o.), 
seek to get the better of s.o, (*); to race 
(» s.o.), run a race (<> with s.o.); to com- 
pete, vie (& with s.o.) VI to try to get 
ahead of one another, seek to outdo 
one another, compete, vie; to try to beat 
one another ( Jl to ) VIII = VI 

J~- sabq antecedence; precedence, pri- 
ority J j \j* VI J^ s. al-isrdr premed- 
itation, willfulness (jwr.); JiJI ^ s. at- 
qalam slip of the pen, lapsus calami; 
j^^> J*-* (suhufi) sensational report (in 
the press), scoop (journ.); J^JI 3>» mizat 
as-8. initiative; J~Ji <^*i jj»-\ see jj*-\ 

J-- sabaq pi. jLJ asbdq stake (in a 
race) 

SJL— sabqa: JUJI 4JL— 5. al-qalam slip 
of the pen, lapsus calami 



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460 



U-. subqa stake (in a race) 

JL** sabbdq anticipatory; precursory; 
triumphant | J>L- jU** fast train, ex- 
press train; — (pi. -un) precursor; winner 
in contest; O race -car driver 

J~-I asbaq 2 earlier, antecedent; pre- 
ceding, previous, prior; former, ex- | 
Jr-V! *Jii\ (muqim) the ex-reaident 

4JL-I asbaqlya precedence, priority; 
seniority 

Jjjwj tasblq pi. -at (Magr.) advance 
payment 

JjL* sibaq pi. -dt race; contest j JL- 
(• \ » ♦ 100 meter dash (sport); *j\£ JL- 
5. tatdbu' and VJ^ JSL** «. tandwub relay 
race (sport); >. l • » X t £& JU- 
4 X 100 m relay race ; ^L>-L*aJf jUx>-l JjL*- 
s. i. ad-dahiya, i^-LaH Jlj^l ot— and 
Jj j <3U- (n/t) cross-country race (sport) ; 
^■\j>- JL- *. hawdjiz steeplechase; hur- 
dle race (sport); j\Jvd\ JL- 5. inhiddr 
downhill race (skiing); JJ-'I 3L-< s. al- 
kail horse racing; ^yo JL* s. ta'arruj 
slalom (skiing); ^jlj^Jl JL- regatta, boat 
race (sport); *j\y* JL- 5. mawdni e hurdle 
race (sport) ; ^LUI JL- 5. at-tasalluh arms 
race, armament race; JLJI uL<*»- race 
horse; 3LJI (iJ'V) ^^ /w&af (maiddn) 
ass. race track 



aajL* musabaqa pi. -af race (sports); 
contest; competition; emulation 

JjLj tasabuq emulation; competition 

JjU- satiy pi. -un, JSL— subbdq antece- 
dent, preceding, foregoing, previous, 
prior; former, ex-; retired, ret.; UjL* 
sdbiqan formerly, previously | <oljV JjI— 
(U-awdniM) premature; <£Ui j formerly, 
at one time, once; JjLJIT as before; 
oUJl Jjl—Tas it was customary before; 
as usual; ^j^» J^Ul XLil (mablag, sat" 
fuhv) the payment already effected ; > -Uail 
JjUI {masdar), JjUI a^-jII (marji f ) ibid., 



loc. cit. (citations in books); j;U £jj j 

see cJj 

iijL- sdbiqa pi. J^^ saivdbiq* preced- 
ence, priority; previous case, precedent; 
previous, earlier publication of an author; 
O prefix (gram,); pi. jjl^ antecedents; 
previous convictions | (^ji or) ujU?1 \» 
jjf^Jl among those previously convicted; 
Sl^j*" ^ <j* ( />nan ) (one) previously con- 
victed, having a criminal record; recid- 
ivous criminal 

iJbL- sabiqiya: JL*aiJl ^ajL- s. al-qa$d 
premeditation (jur.) 

3j^^ jf gair masbuq unprecedented 

j^-~. musabbaq occurring before, pre- 
ceding, previous ; \ly^ musabbaqan ahead 
of time, in advance | J^** £>- (hukm) 
prejudice; <£-** ^>jj^ prerequisites 



JjL~. musdbiq pi. -un competitor; con- 
testant; racer, runner 

JjL-L. mutasdbiq pi. -fin competitor; 
contestant; participant in a sport com- 
petition 

iijLX. mutasdbiqa pi. -at competitor 
(fern.); participant in a sport competition 
(fem.) 

viJL- sabaka i u (sabk) to found, cast (a metal), 
smelt (a ore); to form, shape, mold 
(o s.o.); to formulate (a s.th.); to polish 
the style (a of s.th.) II to found, cast 
(a metal), smelt (a ore); to braise, stew 
(a s.th.) VII to be poured into a mold, be 
cast 

ifJL- sabk founding, casting; cast (also 
fig., = arrangement); formulation (of 
an expression); shaping, forming (of a 
person) | ojUII dL* *s\^* metallurgic in- 
dustry; 4<b j ifJL- (diqqa) accuracy, pre- 
cision 

iJL-- sabbdk pi. -un smelter, founder; 
plumber 



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461 



ST L- sibdka founder's trade and activity 

SSLy sahlka pi. d^U- sabaik 2 ingot, 
bullion 

masbak pi. «iLL-» masdbik 2 foundry 

fos&tfe stewing, braising (in a 
covered dish, with scant moisture) 

olT^— « masbukdt foundry products 



J-** II to dedicate to charitable purposes (a 
s.th.) IY to let (a s.th.) hang down; to 
let fall, drop (a a curtain, drape, etc., 
Jp over); to lower (a eyes, glance, eyelids, 
eyelashes) ; to shed (a tears) ; to ear, form 
ears 

J**- sabal (coll.; n. un. 3) ears (of 
cereals) 

aL- sabla manure, dung 

*JL* sabala pi. JL* si&oJ mustache 

J-*-* sabll m. and f., pi. J— - subul, 
iJLJ asbila way, road, path; access; 
means, expedient, possibility (Jl to, for); 
— (pi. SJL-I asbila) public fountain; — 
(pi. 6^ r ~ sibldn) clay pipe bowl, clay pipe 
(of the Bedouins) | Jjo-Ji j>\ ibn as-s. 
vagabond, tramp; wayfarer, traveler; 
J-*- j for the sake of, for, in behalf 
of, in the interest of; J-j— j or J-u- j& by 
means of, through, by; ajjI J~^- j for the 
cause of God, in behalf of God and his 
religion; J-a- Jp as, by way of, for: 
e *g-> *0**^' J-wk— ' Jp {tajriba) for a try, ten- 
tatively, 4*tSCiJl J_a- Jp (fukdha) for fun, 
Jlill J*x- Jp f^l jTi to quote s.th. as an 
example; aI^ J^- see >U- ; J—Jl *j t^JU^ 
he was at his wit's end; dlii j Jp ^-J 
Jo*- (toi$a f alayya) there is nothing to 
keep me from doing that, I am free to 
do that, it is no sin if I do that; Jl J-a** *i/ 
(sa&£Za) it is not possible to ... ; one can- 
not and must not . . , 



JjU sabih U>U JiJ* a public, much- 
frequented road 

4JLLJI as-sabila the passers-by 

J^***. masbul lowered, down (curtain) 

oU-Vi, JL*-! look up alphabetically 

i«4** (eg.) sibinsa pi. -at caboose, brake van; 
baggage car (railroad) 

<**> sabah dotage 

aj-^A JJap r aql masbuh impaired mind 
(esp. due to old age), feeble-mindedness 

tjd^-- sabahlalan indifferently, aimlessly, hap- 
hazardly, at random 

iUL- sabdhila people without work, 
idlers, loafers 

^L- look up alphabetically 

L-* look up alphabetically 

jj-** (Ft, sport) sbor sport(s) | jj~*> SjU- say 
ydrat s. sports -car 

lS ^ sabd i (saby, »L» sibd*) to take prisoner, 
capture; to lead into captivity (esp. in 
war); to captivate, fascinate, enchant, 
charm, beguile, intrigue (a, * s.o., s.th.) 
VIII = I 

is* saby capture; captivity 

iS ^ sabiy pi. LL— sdbdyd captive, pris- 
oner (of war) 

1j— sablya (female) prisoner 

r-1-Ux.- sibidaj white lead, ceruse 

^-IJLx^ sibidaj white lead, ceruse 

.-j ^ abbreviation of ^jbf ^f sijill tijdrl 
commercial register 



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£—1 ist anus, anal orifice 
^J isti anal 

1 4i*- riito (f. ii— ritt) six; jts, 3b* sittata 
'aSara (f. S^is c«- 5tfto 'asrata) sixteen 

ij_j=-- sittun sixty 

U>^ sittunl sexagenarian 

oU-Ui as-sittinat the sixties (decade 
of a century) 

^Z- «ttt««: ^gJCJ) AiJI fogrd) the 
sixties (decade of a century) 

CjUI as-sdtt the sixth 

2 □ c— rift pi. -at lady | j^ 1 c~* s. al-hus-,* 
a variety of morning-glory (Ipomoea 
cai'rica Webb. ; hot .) ; also = belladonna, 
deadly nightshade (6of.) 

olr*- safem (ej.) satin 

aUJ look up alphabetically 

SU-I pi. SOjUI look up alphabetically 

^n-- satara u i (satr) to cover, veil (a, o 
s.o., s.th.); to hide, conceal (a, * s.o., 
s.th., j* from); to disguise (j^ a s.th. 
from s.o.); to shield, guard, protect (* 
s.o., a s.th., tf. against or from); to for- ; 
give (a Jp s.o. s.th.), overlook, condone ! 
s.th. (a) done by s.o. (J*) II = I; V to be ; 
covered, be veiled; to cover o.s., hide ! 
o.s., be concealed {&, ^ and J* from) , 
VIII to cover o.s., hide o.s.; to be veiled, | 
be hidden, be concealed (^ and Jp from) ; 

jw sitr pi. jj~* sutur, jb>l asidr ■ 
veil; screen; curtain, drape, window j 
curtain; covering; cover (also mil.); \ 
protection, shelter, guard, shield; pre- ! 
text, excuse 



tfjL* sutarl {eg.) clown, buffoon 

Jc*m sitar pi. Jw sutur veil, screen; 
covering; curtain, drape; pretext, ex- 
cuse | ^JjaLI jbUi the Iron Curtain 
CpoZ.); (^iiJi jbuJI (yiddf) motion-picture 
screen; (u\jd\) jUJI j* jb, barrage 
(mil.); »^iJI jt jbJI ^jj to disclose, un- 



veil s.th. (also a monument); jLJl 
behind the scenes, backstage (fig.) 

jliJl aS'Sattar the Veiler, the Coverer 
(attribute of God) 

•jU* sitdra pi. _/U- satd'ir 2 veil; 
screen; curtain, drape, window curtain; 
cover, covering | Sj-u- ^bu- (ma'diniya) 
jalousies, Venetian blinds 

_a-j tasattur cover (miZ.) 

O yL- «&*> screen, folding screen 

j_^ mastur hidden, invisible ; masked 
chaste; blameless, of good reputation 
(one) having a blameless record (I si. Law) 
pi. j^l~* masdtir 2 hidden, secret things 

jw- m,utasattir Q anonymous 

jc— mustatir hidden, concealed, latent; 
understood, implied (pronoun) 

£- II to stack up, store up, stow (a goods) ; 
to arrange 

•Js-l-J tasilf stacking, stowing, storage 

- sath, sith, satah pi. »Ll-1 astah buttocks, 
backside 



JJ>jr~ $tudyo pi. oIa^jjs^- studyohdt studio 

~*jlf sigara pi. yV sagair*, j{& sagdyir 
(Eg. spelling) cigarette 

^fl ajf/aA 2 , f. »U^- «a;Aa' s well-shaped, 
shapely, beautiful 



IJl* sutra pi. ^ sutar jacket; tunic ^ aa/oda u [*jf sujud) to bow down, bow 



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463 



^ 



in worship; to throw o.s. down, prostrate 
o.s. (J before); to worship (Zi God) 

oJb^ sajda pi. sajaddt prostration in 
prayer | SJb-«*Ji J*-\ ahadas-s. Whitsunday 
(Chr.) 

±j£? sujud prostration, adoration, wor- 
ship; also pi. of JL>-L- sajid (see below) 

jU? sajjdd pi, -rm worshiper (of God) 

oU? sajjdda, coll. jU? sajjdd pi. -t^'uC 
sajdjid 2 prayer rug; rug, carpet | u-*-U» 
oUm-Jl and oU^JI «*i title of the leaders 
of certain dervish orders in their capacity 
of inheritors of the founder's prayer 
rug 

-U«~» masjid pi. :u-L»» masdjid 2 mosque | 
~U- -L^-^. (jdrni') large mosque, mosque 
where the Friday prayer is conducted; 



us 



I (hardm) the Holy Mosque 



in Mecca; ts-aiV JU—JJ (agsa) name of 
a mosque on Jerusalem's Temple Square ; 
<jlj>— JJ the two Mosques (of Mecca 
and Medina) 

-U-t- sajid pi. -U? sujjad, sy£ sujud 
prostrate in adoration, worshiping 

\ff sajara u to fire up, heat (a a stove, an 
oven, etc.) II to cause to overflow (a 
water) 

j*?~* musajjar long and flowing (of 
hair) 

s «jU=' look up alphabetically 

ijjt II to upset (» s.o.) 

£# saja'a a (saf) to coo (pigeon); to speak 
in rhymed prose II to speak in rhymed 
prose 

*£ saf rhymed prose; pi. fL^l asja' 
pieces of rhymed prose 

a*& saf a a passage of rhymed prose 



£>-U sdj i c composer of rhymed prose 

9yr~* masju' composed in rhymed 
prose 

<J*& sajf, sijf pi. «J»U?I asjdf y Jtjf? sujuf 
curtain, veil 

JsU? sijdf pi. Jo*? sujuf curtain, veil 

^ (Turk, sucuk) mjuq sausage | j*£- ^ 
(muhammar) fried, or grilled, sausage 

J^ 1 II to register, enter (a s.th.), make an 
entry (a of s.th.); to note down, record 
(a s.th.), make a note of (a); to have (a 
s.th.) recorded, put (a s.th.) on record, 
make a deposition or statement for the 
official records; to document, prove by 
documentary evidence (a s.th.); to give 
evidence (a of s.th.); to score (a s.th., e.g., 
2uL<»! isabatan a hit, Uoa hadafan a goal; 
sport); to put down, write down, book 
(Jp a s.th. to s.o.'s debit); to record 
(a s.th., said of an apparatus; also, e.g., 
£U— JL1 JojIjJJI J on tape); to capture, 
catch (a a scene); to set (a a record; 
athlet.); to register (a a letter); to enter 
(a s.th.) in the commercial register; to 
have (a an invention) patented, secure 
a patent (a on) | o\ *u*iJ Jp J^ 1 to go 
on record for (doing or being s.th.); ^f 
4JaJiJ (wuqtatan) to score a point for o.s. 
Ill to rival, contend; to dispute, debate 
(« with s.o.); to contest (o s.o.'s right 
a to s.th.) | *i-j-kU aU-U (hadita) to draw 
s.o. into a conversation, have a talk with 
s.o. 

J** sijill pi. -at scroll; register; list, 
index; Cj^j^ records; archives | Jj>JI 
(^jUjJ! (tijdri) commercial register; J^Jl 
^»j}\ (dahabi) Golden Book; t ^_«y ^ 
(rasmt) official document, official report 
(on an event or proceeding); oljUJI J^ 
visitors' book, guest book; is**^ J^" 
{sahsi) personal record; data about the 



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464 



past, qualifications, etc., of a person; I 
■£>\juj2S)\ ^f list of visitors (dipl.); Jrf? | 
oLW^I (Cj*&f? or) cadastre, land register; | 
t^jlull J>*JI {'aqdri) do. ; JjULI J>-Ji (ma* \ 
dani) vital statistics register; C-»">U^ *J>j | 
J to write up records concerning, to I 
document s.th.; 0*>U«-Jl *-J qism as-s. : 
registry, filing department j 

J->«Jf tasjll pi. -at entering, entry, j 

registration; documentation; authentica- j 

tion ; booking ; recording ; tape-recording ; | 

registering (of mail) | ^jUu J~*~J i^aqdrl) j 

entry in the land register; o|jl>*l Js^— j j 

registration of vibrations or oscillations; j 
SJijk-tl 0"^L^-J (ustuwdnlya) phonograph 
recordings; Oj«JI J~»— j 3JT (t. as-saut) 
tape recorder 

J*>^j tasjlll documentary | J^^-J La , 
(film) documentary film 

JU* sijdl contest, competition with \ 
alternate success | *yU? rr£ V-A' ^^* ! 
(Aarft) their battle had its ups and downs, ; 
they fought each other with alternate 
success 

aL-L^. musdjala pi. -af contest, com- ; 
petition; discussion, talk | 

J>*»~» musajjil pi. -«n registrar; notary j 

public; (pi. -a() tape recorder | J>*-~* J*J^ j 

pi. iL«-~* JaJlj-S magnetic tape; <$jm\ J^«-~* ; 

(6asan) video recorder; ^LJLSCil J**-** m. \ 
al-kulliya registrar of a college (university) 

J^^. musajjal registered, etc. (see II) | 
iU**** *JL-j registered letter; iU-w. O^Uj^ 
(murdsaldt) registered mail; *L»«— • OLiUl 
register tons; iU—~. 4JU» (hafia) concert 
of recorded music; U**-** aS^U (mar&a) 
registered trademark 

^ sajama u {?_$& sujum f j»U^ si jam) 
to flow, stream, well forth (tears, water) ; 
— sajama u i (sajm, rjft sujum, d\& 
sajamdn) to pour forth (a water), shed I 
(a tears) IV to shed (a tears) VII to flow, \ 



stream, well forth (water); to he fluent, 
elegant (speech); to be harmonious; to 
harmonize, be in keeping (^ with) 

fU^Jl insijdm fluency; harmony; order 
munsajim harmonious 



^ sajana u (sajn) to jail, imprison (# s.o.) 

ye sajn detention, imprisonment 

y£ sijn pi. djf? sujun prison, jail 

y*£ sajin pi. »L^ sujand' 2 , J*? 
sajnd imprisoned, jailed, captive; pris- 
oner, prison inmate, convict 

~<c~& sajina pi, -at female prisoner 

uU? sajjdn jailer, prison guard, warden 

dj>^A masjun pi. <>>-L** masdjin 2 im- 
prisoned, jailed, captive ; prisoner, prison 
inmate, convict 

(j^) U? sajd u (yf sajw, jf sujuw) to be 
calm, quiet, tranquil (night, sea) II to 
cover with a winding sheet, to shroud 
{c~X\ al-mayyita the deceased) V to 
cover o,s. (a with a garment) 

\f? sajlya pi. -at, UU? sajdyd nature, 
natural disposition, temper, character; 
pi. characteristics, traits | <^ y of 
one's own accord, spontaneously 

£-U» sajin quiet, calm, tranquil; dark 
(night) 

^^—^ musajjan covered with a winding 
sheet, shrouded (corpse); laid out (corpse) 

£- sahha u % (sahh, ytf suhuh) to flow 
down, flow, run, stream \\J\ c~& sah* 
hat is-samd 3 it rained cats and dogs 

4*-U? ,>p 'ain sahhdha tearful eye 

i_^ sahaba a (sahb) to trail on the ground, 
drag along (a s.th.); to withdraw (a, * 
s.o., s.th., also, e.g., a measure, an order, 



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465 



etc.); to pull out (j> troops, j* from); 
to take away (a ^ from s.o. s.th.), strip, 
dispossess, divest (a ^ s.o. of); to draw 
(a water); to take out, withdraw (a 
money, from an account); to draw (a 
a bill of exchange, a lot) ; to unsheathe, 
draw (a a sword); to apply, make ap- 
plicable (J* a s.th. to; said of a law or 
statute) | Jp <u J**J1 (_^ ('amala) to 
extend the applicability of s.th. to . . . 
VII to drag o.s. along, struggle along; 
to retreat, withdraw, pull out, fall 
back (,y from); to be drawn out; to be 
applied (J* to; of a law or statute) 

^s* sahb withdrawal (of troops, of 
measures, of rights, of money from an 
account, etc.); revocation (of a driver's 
license, etc.); (pi. Csbjj? suhubdt) draw- 
ing (in a lottery) | Will ^? s. at-tiqa 
withdrawal of confidence; (_-^ vj^ tug, 
tugboat 

l_jL^ sahdb (coll.) clouds 

*jU? sahdba (n. un.) pi. ^^ suhub, 
l-jV sahd'ib 2 cloud; (pi. -at) umbrella 
(magr.); <jU? sahdbata during, in the 
course of | (pjJI) jL+Jl ijL* 1 sahdbata n- 
nahdr (l-yaum) all day long; h{& b' ^ 
b-»^j sirnd sahdbata yaumind we have 
been traveling all day; OjJ> <*jjI ajU? 
in the course of four centuries 

h\j? suhdba film on the eye 

V^ sahhab (Syr., Pal.) zipper, slide 
fastener 

*^>^-y. mashabi *\jk\ <_-*«-** m. al-hawa 
source of the breeze or draft; draft (of air) 

i-jUi-Jl insihdb withdrawal, retreat, 
pulling out, evacuation (esp. mil.); res- 
ignation; stretching, extension 

t-^-U sahib drawer (of a bill of ex- 
change) 



aAs. (_^>**Jl.( al~mashub r alaihi drawee 
(of a bill of exchange) 

i^o^-jL. munsahib eliminated, disquali- 
fied (sport) 

<l*s? suht, suhut pi. Cj[^\ ashdt s.th. for- 
bidden or banned; illegal possessions, ill- 
gotten property 

£>j&s sahtut Eg. square measure of 0.304 m 2 
( — V24 sahm); — suhtut penny 

•g£ sahaja a (sahj) to scrape off, shave off, 
scratch off, rub off (a s.th.); to graze, 
abrade (a the skin), strip off (a s.th.); to 
plane (a s.th., carpenter) II to scrape off, 
abrade, strip off (a s.th.) 

£**-- * mishaj pi. £>-L«. masahij 2 plane 
(tool) 



» mishajayA. «>-U*» masahij 2 plan- 
ing machine, planer 

£-U«-^ mishaj pi. £^-L~* masahij 2 plane 
(tool) 

rj>*~j» mashuj raw, sore (like a skin 
abrasion) 

_^ Sahara a (sihr) to bewitch, charm, enchant, 
infatuate, fascinate (a, a s.o., s.th.); to 
wheedle, coax (* s.o.) II = I; V to have 
a light meal (shortly before daybreak) 

j£ sahr, suhr pi. jj& suhur, jUM 
ashdr lungs, pulmonary region of the 
body 

j& sihr bewitchment, beguilement, en- 
chantment, fascination; — (pi. jU^I as* 
hdr, JJ& suhur) sorcery, witchcraft, 
magic; charm (of a woman) 

<£j£ sihrl magic(al) | &J& ^-^Jli (fa* 
nus) magic lantern, slide projector 

jf? sahar pi. jU?i ashdr time before 
daybreak, early morning, dawn 



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466 



jj£? sahur last meal before daybreak 
during the month of Ramadan 

jIj£" sahhdr pi. -un sorcerer, magician, 
wizard, charmer 

SjLc sahhdra sorceress, witch 



SjU? sahhdra pi. -at culvert; (pi. , 
sahahir 2 ) case, crate, chest, box 



~t^ 



^p-Lw. masdhir 2 : o_^-L*. c^ixjl (in* 
tajakat) his lungs became inflated (out 
of fear or pride) 

^*-U sahir charming, enchanting; (pi. 
-un, ij& Sahara, jU^ suhhdr) sorcerer, 
enchanter, magician, wizard, charmer 



oj?~L» sdhira pi. -at, 
sorceress, witch 



>-L>- 



sawdhir 2 



mashur enchanted, bewitched; 
as if under magical influence 



Ca& sahafa a ( = 



;eg.) to crawl, creep 



U& sahaqa a (sahq) to crush (a, « s.o., s.th.); 
to pound, bruise, powder, pulverize (a 
s.th.); to annihilate, wipe out (a s.th., 
e.g., an army); to wear out (a clothing); 
— sahiqa a, sahuqa u (suhq) to be distant, 
far away, remote II to crush; to anni- 
hilate, destroy V and VII to be crushed, 
be pounded, be bruised, be pulverized 

Jjfi? sahq crushing, bruising, pulveri- 
zation; (pi. 3y^ suhuq) worn garment, 
rag 

jj? suhq, suhuq distance, remoteness; 
depth, vastness (of an abyss) j <J il*? 
suhqan lahu away with him! to hell with 
him! 

J~£? sahiq far away, distant, remote; 
long past (time); deep, bottomless 
(abyss, depth) 

iito-L* musdhaqa and JU^ sihdq trib- 
ady, Lesbianism 



t-iiJl i3U«Jl insihdq al-qalh contrition, 
penitence, repentance 

Jp-U sahiq crushing; overwhelming 
(majority, victory) 

3y*~* mashuq ground, grated (bread, 
nutmeg, etc.); (pi. <i^L~* masdhlq 2 ) pow- 
der | fJ&\ 3j**~* m. al-fahm coal dust 

*_JLiJI jp*~JL« munsahiq al-qalb contrite, 
penitent, repentant 

J;tf sahala a (sahl) to scrape off, shave off, 
peel (a s.th.); to smooth, make smooth 
(a s.th.); to plane (a s.th.); to file (a 
s.th.) 

*J \& suhdla filings, file dust 

dJbtf sihllya pi. JU^ sahdlin lizard (eg.) 

J*^~. mishal pi. J^U*. masdhil 2 tool 
for smoothing, plane; file 

J*-U sa^Z pi. J»-!j- sawdhil 2 littoral, 
coast, seashore; (.%.) river harbor, an- 
chorage (on the Nile) | J»-lj-JI J*- 
kafar as-s. coast guard; «d J^U V (sa* 
7u/a) shoreless; p-Ull J^U Ivory Coast 
(country in VV Africa) 

L-U sdhili coastal, littoral; (pi. il>.lj-* 
sawdhila) coastal inhabitant; Swahili 

JJU-I^JI aj&\ al-luga as-sawdhiliija the 
Swahili language 

,_JL^ sahlah salep (dried tuber of various 
species of Orchis); a sweet drink made 
of salep 

>=* saham blackness, black color 

~<u& suhma blackness, black color 

*\& suhdm blackness, black color 

ja\ asham 2 , f. *\f? sahmd" 2 , pi. j£ 
suhm black 

^ sahana a (sahn) to crush, pound, bruise, 



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J*- 



grind (a s.th.); to smooth by rubbing 
(a s.th.) 

4X& sahna and sahatia pi. sahandt, 
tf* suhan (external) appearance, look(s) ; 
facial expression, air, mien 

mishana pi. j^-L** masahin? 



pestle 

oLtf sikaya pi. bU? sahaya cerebral mem- 
brane, meninx ((mat.) | bU^Ji ^1^3 1 
meningitis (med.) 

tjU^ sihal meningeal | (jU^JI ^IfllVI 
meningitis (med.) 

ftU^-^. mishdk pi. ^L*. masahin iron 
shovel, spade 

oL^c suktiyan, siktiydn morocco (leather) 

Ojtf sukd placenta (biol.) 

J# sakira a [sakar, sakr> sukur, sukr, *J# 
sukra, J**** maskar) to laugh, scoff, jeer, 
sneer (j- or <_> at), mock, ridicule, deride 
(j>* or lj a.o., s.th.), make fun ( j- or <_-> of) 
II to subject, make subservient (• s.o., a 
s.th., J to or for the purpose of); to make 
serviceable (J a s.th. to), employ, utilize, 
turn to profitable account (J a s.th. for), 
make use (a, » of, j for); to exploit (• 
s.o., a s.th., J for) V to reduce to servi- 
tude, subjugate (* s.o.); to scoff, jeer, 
sneer 

*J& sukra laughingstock, target of 
ridicule; corvee, statute labor, forced 
labor | S^^JI JU-j serfs, bondsmen; 
S^ifcJI JL^I forced labor, slave labor 

iSj? sukri, sikri laughingstock, target 
of ridicule; corvee, statute labor, forced 
labor 

\j£ sukriya scorn, derision, mockery, 
irony; laughingstock, object of ridicule 

lj»u~* maskara pi. -at, ^L*. masakir 2 



object of ridicule, laughingstock; ridicu- 
lous, droll, ludicrous; masquerade 

jr^-J tasklr subjugation, subjection; 
exploitation 

j*X* sakir mocking, derisive; satirical 

J**~* musakkir oppressor 

Jaitf sakita a (sakaf) to be annoyed (J* or 
a, & at s.o., at s.th.), ue displeased, be 
angry (Jp or * with a.o.), resent (Jp or 
a s.th.) IV to discontent, embitter (« 
s.o.); to anger, exasperate, enrage (• 
s.o.) V = I 

Jajc sukut, sukt, sakat discontent, an- 
noyance, displeasure, indignation, anger, 
irritation, exasperation; wrath, bitter- 
ness, grudge, resentment 



maskata pi. Ja^L** masdkit 2 ob- 
ject of annoyance, of wrath, of anger 

J^i-~. maskut loathsome, hated, odi- 
ous; (pi. iz-^1 — . masdkip) (eg.) idol 

Ja^-J tasakkut annoyance, displeasure, 
anger, wrath 

Jiitf sakufa u (Sili? sakafa) to be feeble (wit); 
to be stupid, foolish X to consider stupid, 
foolish (o s.o., a s.th.) 

Ca& sakf, sukf feeble -mindedness, dim- 
wittedness, imbecility, idiocy; nonsense, 
foolishness, folly 

^^ sakif pi. Jsljc sikaf stupid, 
fatuous, simple-minded; absurd, silly, 
ridiculous, foolish; despicable, inferior; 
(pi. >\1& sukafd' 2 ) fool 

4s\j? sakafa feeble-mindedness, dim- 
wittedness ; (pi. -at) folly, silly thing to 
do, childish prank 

(Julie sakaij 2 silly things 
ilje sakla pi. J lie sikdl lamb 



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Jc II to make black, blacken with soot, 
besmut (a s.th,) | cj-Uoj Jtf (bi-sadrihz) to 
irritate s.o., make s.o. angry V to hate 
(Jp s.o.), harbor resentment (Jp against 
s.o.), be angry ( Jp with) 

Jtf sakam blackness 

5*jtf sukma blackness; hatred, resent- 
ment, ill will 

fLsC sukdm soot, smut 

i*Jc sakzma pi. /li? sakd'im 2 hatred, 
resentment, ill will 

musakkam sooty, full of soot 



J& sakuna u y sakana u and sakina a ("&J& 
sukuna, Z\j* sakdna, iJtf sukna) to be 
or become hot or warm; to warm (up); 
to be feverish II to make hot, to heat, 
warm (a s.th.) IV = II 

J& sukn hot, warm 

<jU^ sakdna heat, warmth 

*jj£? sukuna heat, warmth 

olitf sakkdn pi. -at boiler, hot- water 
tank; hot plate | JU^^TOU^ (kahrabai) 
do. ; electric table top stove ; water heater; 
oL* uljtf 5. miyah boiler, hot-water tank 

Wilis' sakkdna pi. -a£ boiler, hot- water 
tank; electric pot, electric kettle; hot- 
water bottle; hot spring | pUi-l ^U^ 
s. al-hammdm bath heater, geyser 

j>-L* sakin pi. uU^ sukkan hot; warm [ 
j^U J*>- (fca#) hot line, direct telephonic 
connection 



(J& and J&) Ik rfa w, J? sakiya a (*& 
sake?) and J& sakuwa u {Sjlk sakdwa) 
to be liberal, generous (Jp <_-> with s.th. 
toward s.o,); to grant, award (^ s.th., 
Jp to s.o.), confer, be3tow (o s.th., Jp 
upon s.o.) V to show o.s. generous, dis- 



play liberality; to endeavor to be liberal 
or generous VI — V 

»ljc sake? liberality, munificence, gen- 
erosity 

^ solely pi. »LJc! askiyd' 2 liberal, 
openhanded, generous; giving generous- 
ly (cj s.th.), being lavish (^ with) | JljJ 
aJ^ ample funds; .^1 ^p ^^xJl J# (s. 
an-nafs) only too glad to relinquish or 
give up s.th. 

Sjlk sakdwa generosity 

- sadda u (sadd) to plug up, close up, stop 
up (a s.th.); to clog, congest (a s.th.); to 
bar, obstruct, block up, barricade (a 
s.th., a Jp to s.o. s.th.); to block, block- 
ade (a s.th.); to cork, plug, stopper (a 
s.th.); to pay, defray, settle, cover (a 
s.th., esp. expenses, a debt, etc.); to ful- 
fill, satisfy, meet (a a claim, and the like) | 
ZjlS ju (tugratan) to fill a gap, close a 
breach; «Jtf *U {tulmatan) to fill a gap; 
ii>- -U- (kallatan) to remedy a shortcoming; 
4a>-U- JU (hdjatahu) to meet s.o.'s need, 
provide for s.o.; <*JL»j -U- (ramaqahu) 
to keep s.o. or o.s. barely alive, eke out 
an existence ; to provide s.o. with a bare 
existence; to allay s.o.'s hunger; «-L~* :u 
{masaddahu) to fill s.o.'s place, replace 
s.o.; <u*lk. jl- to satisfy or fulfill s.o.'s 
claims; Ulji -U (fardgan) to fill a gap; 
,j*i[yJl -U to remove or remedy defi- 
ciencies; — sadda i (j>j-U« sudud, iiju 
saddd) to be sound, right, in proper con- 
dition; to hit the right thing, say or do 
the right thing; to be apposite, be to 
the point II to block, bar, obstruct {* 
s.th.); to pay, defray, settle, cover (a 
expenses, debts, etc.); to guide (yd »s.o. 
to), show (a s.o.) the right way (yd to); 
to direct (Jl a s.th. to), point, level 
(J! a s.th. at); to aim (Jf at); to sight, 
take aim by a sight; to focus (Jf on; 
phot.); to kick the ball, shoot (soccer); 



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jX* 



to draw a bead (Jl or j£ on s.th.) | jJU 
bj (dainan) to pay or settle a debt; j-U 
[^lc ('ajzan) to cover a deficit; oLL^ 3.U 
(kitiahu) to guide s.o.'s steps; <uJ/ jju to 
head the ball (soccer); Jf j&]\ j-u (na- 
zara) to direct one's glance toward; jJL- 
*jU>I (isdbatan), Uju iJU (hadafan) to 
score or kick a goal (soccer) IV to hit the 
right thing, say or do the right thing; 
to be apposite, be to the point V to be 
guided, be directed, be shown (Jl to) 
VII to be blocked, be obstructed, be plug- 
ged up, become or be clogged or congested 

J- sadd plugging, closing, stopping 
up; obstruction, barring, barricading; 
blocking; defrayment (of costs), payment, 
settlement (of a debt, of expenses) ; ful- 
fillment, satisfaction (of a claim, etc.); 
— sadd, sudd pi. :>j-U sudud, .a I Jul asddd 
obstruction, block, obstacle; barrier; 
rampart, bank, mound; dike; dam; 
weir; barrage, river dam; bar, rail; 
hurdle (athlet.); bulwark (fig.) | JLJI jUI 
{'all) the High Dam (near Aswan); 
oJslii Ju- balloon barrage (mil); jlJI SjU- 
blind alley, dead end 

SJU sadda block, barrier; obstruction, 
obstacle; barricade; dam | 5Jb -iJI SjlJI 
(sirydniya) embolism (med.) 

*J~- siidda pi. j a*- sudad gate, door; 
threshold; seat; couch, divan | S-lJI 
ftjWiyrJ (rasullya) the Holy See 

jJw» sadad obstruction, clogging (of a 
pipe) 

jl-U sadad payment, defrayment; set- 
tlement, discharge, liquidation; the prop- 
er, right thing to do, the apposite 
thing to say; appropriateness, apposite- 
ness (of a remark), lucky hand (in one's 
actions) | jIjlJI c^£ outstanding, due, 
unpaid (com.)r jI-Uj appropriately, appo- 
sitely; J\J\ j I a- 3. at -ray levelheadedness 

j!-U sudad obstruction in the nose; 



O cardiac infarct, coronary embolism 
(med.) 

il-U siddd pi. #-Ul asidda plug, stop- 
per, cork I O Js**>=JI ■>'■*- plug (el.) 

Sj>I-U siddda plug, stopper, cork; plug 
(e/.); O sight (of a gun) | jJ oIju *. 
a/rew. safety plug (el.) 

-bo*- sadirf hitting the target (arrow, 
spear) ; apposite, pat, pertinent, relevant, 
right, correct (answer, view) 



3j-u sadud tight, sealed | »UI ^j-u 
watertight; *\j^ ^j-U (Aawi*) airtight 

A*- 1 asadd 2 more apposite, more rel- 
evant 

Ju juJ tasdid payment, defrayment, set- 
tlement, discharge, liquidation; kicking, 
shooting (soccer) | JbJUJjl cJ- outstand- 
ing, due, unpaid (com.) 

Sij-UJ tasdlda (n. vie.) kick, shot (soccer) 

jijuil insiddd: (_JUJi jLlJI i. al-qalb 
and ^is .si-uJl (qalbi) cardiac infarct, 
coronary embolism (med.) 

.iL- 5orfrf obstructive 

.ijj^. masdu d jammed, blocked (street); 
closed (circuit; el) | ojJL*. <iW ( f a?/a) 
blind alley, dead-end street 

□ <_jJ— (eg.; sadab) = ^IJU ^arfaft 

j 4- sadira a (sadar, SjIju sadara) to be 
dazzled; to be dazed; to behave indiffer- 
ently, without consideration, impassively 

j J— sirfr (coll.; n. un. 3) pi. jJU sidar, 
-at, jjJw- sudur a variety of Christ 's-thorn 
(Zizyphus spina Christi; bot); lotus tree | 
(jfiil SjJU 3. al-muntahd the lotus tree in 
the Seventh Heaven; lS fii\ Sj-U iL to 
attain the highest goal, achieve ultimate 
results 

Sj!.U sidar a pi. /Iju sadaHr 2 an Iraqi 



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headgear, commonly of black velvet ; over- 
seas cap 

SjIju- sidara pi. -at = SjIju* sidara 

jiU sadir reckless ( j in s.th.); thought- 
less, indifferent, impassive, stolid 

^--U H to make sixfold (a s.th.); to multiply 
by six (a s.th.); to make hexagonal, make 
hexangular (a s.th.) 



sixth 



* suds, sudus pi. jj-l-L-1 asdds one- 
| ^-JUJl 4JT sextant {naut.) 



^I-U suddsi sixfold; consisting of six 
parts; (pi. -at) semester (Magr.); sextet 
(mus.) | *»-jVl ^'-A- «. al-aujuh hex- 
ahedral, hexahedron {math., rnin.) 

^.iLJi as-sddis the sixth 

(j-JU* musaddas hexagonal; hexagon; 
hexahedral; hexahedron; (pi. -at) re- 
volver, sixshooter | SjUl ^JL** to. isdra 
Very pistol 

!<L»-L~. tnusaddasa pistol, gun, revolver 

J»J— saofa/ pi. Jsl-U-i a&fcz/ darkness, twi- 
light, dusk 

AiO^ swd/a pi. Js-U $n<Za/ darkness, 
twilight, dusk; curtain 



Jju sadala u i (sadl) to let (a s.th.) hang 
down or fall down; to let down, drop, 
lower (Jp a s.th. on); pass, sudila to 
hang down (J* on) II and IV — I; V to 
hang down, be lowered, be down VII to 
descend (J* on) 

J-U- sidly sudl pi. Jj-A— sudul, JIju! 
asddl veil, curtain 



y.u- VII to dry up (spring) 

l»JL- sadam sorrow, sadness, affliction, 
grief 



f*JL- sadim pi. f-U- sudum mist, haze; 
nebula {astron.) 

£ ju sadiml nebular ; nebulous 

2 >jju sadum 2 Sodom 

ijiju sidana office of gatekeeper or custo- 
dian (of a shrine, specif, of the Kaaba) 

uolw sddin pi. 4JJU sadana custodian, 
gatekeeper of the Kaaba; sexton, sac- 
ristan (Chr.); keeper, curator; pi. ijx* 
crew (of a machine gun, of a tank, 
etc.) 

( jj— and (j-L-) II to confer (Jl a a benefit on 
s.o.) IV to confer (J or Jl a a benefit on 
s.o.); to render, perform, do (a s.th.) j 
Z***- *J1 (j .u I (kidma) to render s.o. a 
service; tl>i:>UjVl *J1 ^juI (irsdddt) to 
make suggestions to s.o., advise s.o.; 
<J ^sliJI (^jl-1 (sii&r) to extend one's 
thanks to s.o., thank s.o.; SaJli ^JL-1 to 
be beneficial; ~*bJI (J or) 4JI ^-U-l 
(nush) to give s.o. (a word of) advice; 
Iju <uJ1 ^juI (yadan) to do s.o. a favor 

<_5-L- sadan pi. 4jJU-I asdiya warp (of a 
fabric); a continuous, prevailing char- 
acteristic or trait, thread (of a story, of 
an argument, etc.) 



;U 



• saddh pi. 4J-U-! asdiija warp (of a 
fabric); thread, = ^J^ sadan; stamen 
(hot) 

t^x* sudan in vain, futilely, to no end, 
uselessly j tS-k^ ^S to be in vain, futile, 

useless 

1.L- saddb rue, herb of grace (bot.) 
jJL* sadabl of the rue 

IJu- saddja simplicity; innocence, ingen- 
uousness, naivete; homeliness, plain- 
ness; guilelessness 



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roU sddajy sddij pi. ^-JL- suddaj 
simple; plain, unicolored, uniform (fab- 
ric); innocent, ingenuous, naive; plain, 
homely; artless, guileless, candid, frank 
(character); primitive; pi. r-J — II naive 
people | <U-J>U1 IL*aljJl naive realism (art) 



x s» (Pers. sar head) formerly in compounds: 

head, chief; jta^«- sirdar (Eg.) supreme 

. commander ; commanding general \JsL~*j** 

- sar'askar general (in the former Ottoman 
army); d\jj\jj^ saryawaran adjutant 
general 

'^ sarra u (jjj^ surur, »j~J tasirra, lj~** ma* 
sarra) to make happy, gladden, delight, 
cheer (« s.o.); pass, surra [jjj^ surur) 
to be happy, glad, delighted (J or ^ or 
u* at), take pleasure (J or ^ or u in) 
II to make happy, gladden, delight, 
cheer (a s.o.) Ill to confide a secret (a 
to s.o.) | 4Jil j *jU (udnihl) to whisper 
in s.o.'s ear IV to make happy, gladden, 
delight, cheer (» s.o.); to keep secret, 
hide, conceal, disguise (a s.th.); to tell 
confidentially, confide (t-j or a Ji to 
s.o. s.th.); to tell under one's breath, 
whisper (<_-> or a JI to s.o. s.th.) j 4Jii <j ^—1 
(udnihl) to whisper in s.o.'s ear (a s.th.) 
V (j^-j tasarra (and j^-J tasarrara) to 
take ((--> or La a woman) as concubine 
(^j^r- surriija) VI to exchange secrets, 
whisper with one another X to try to 
hide; to hide, be hidden (jc from); to 
take as concubine (U a woman) 

j~- sirr pi. j\j"\ asrar secret; secret 
thought; heart, inmost; secrecy; mys- 
tery; sacrament (Chr.); underlying reason 
(of s.th.); \j~* sirran secretly, privately j 
iJ^Uj \j* (' ' alaniyatan) secretly and pub- 
licly; LUi j-* 8. al-lail watchword, pass- 
word; jT^U! jl^-l the secret meaning 
of the Koran; jJ\ t^Jtf secretary; fS" 
j-Jl do.; ^pJl I^IS"* kalimat as-s. watch- 
word, password; fj~»s or f"^ J to your 



health! cheerio! skoal! »j~- <j secretly, 
inwardly, in his heart; e^ <_~*jI ai ( aba 
sirrahu to trouble, worry, bother, harass 
s.o.; \j* (jj>-\ a i r ® sirran to dispense a 
sacrament (Chr.); t>j~> «ui! ^jS qaddasa 
Udhu sirrahu may God hallow his secret! 
(eulogy after the name of a deceased 
Muslim saint) 

<£j^ sirri secret; private; confidential; 
mysterious, cryptic; sacramental (Chr.) \ 
4tj~}\ ^Ij-V! venereal diseases 

hj^ sirriya secret nature, secrecy (of 
s.th.); secretiveness 

j+ surr pi. Zj^\ asirra umbilical cord 

I j* surra pi. -at, j^ surar navel, 
umbilicus; center 

&j* surrl umbilical j iSj-JI J-i-l (habl) 
umbilical cord 



■is" 



surur, sirar umbilical cord 



jj»» surur line of the palm or forehead 

j\j^> sardr: j^Jj\ jl^~- s. as-sahr last 
niglit of the lunar month 

j\j* sirar pi. lj~\ asirra, j-jUI asdrlr 2 
line of the palm or forehead; pi. features, 
facial expression, air, also «t^JI j-jl— ! 
a. al-wajh 

jjj-* surur joy, happiness, delight, 
pleasure; glee, gaiety, hilarity, mirth 

j j^ sarir pi. l^\ asirra, jj~* surur, 
j\j~" sardyir 2 bedstead, bed; throne, ele- 
vated seat 

aj j^ sarlra pi. J\j-» sarair 2 secret; 
secret thought; mind, heart, soul | *\X* 
1j jj\ safa as-s. clearness of conscience; 
I j ^J! c^J* tayyib as.-s. guileless, sim- 
plehearted 

*\j* sarra' 2 happiness, prosperity | 
p\^ai\j p\jJ\ j (darrd') in good and 
bad days, for better or for worse 



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472 



\j-* surrlya pi. ($j\j~> sarariy con- 
cubine 

lj^+ masarra pi. -at joy, happiness, de- 
light, pleasure ; glee, gaiety, hilarity, mirth 

lj^ misarra pi. jL. masdrr 2 speaking 
tube; telephone 

_ / -J tasarrin concubinage 

j\jJL*\ istisrdr concubinage 

jL- sdrr gladdening, gratifying, joy- 
ous, glad, cheering, delightful 

jjj~* masrur glad, happy, delighted 
(<_-» at), pleased (<-> with) 

j~* musirr gratifying, delightful, pleas- 
ant 

j~ 1— mustasarr place of concealment 

JjjI^ surddiq pi. -at large tent, canopy, 
pavilion 

Jcl^ sirat = )A^> sirdt way, path, road 



^\j^ sardy palace 

•ul^ sardya pi. -at palace | ajI v 
*\jjuai\ (safra) insane asylum (eg.) 



>j^> sariba a (sarab) to flow; to run out, 
leak II to send in groups or batches (a, * 
s.o., s.th., Jl to) V to flow; to run oui > 
flow off, escape ; to sneak away, slink away , 
steal away; to stream, penetrate ( Jl into), 
infiltrate (Jl s.th.); to creep (j into); 
to sneak, slip, steal ( Jl into, among) ; 
to creep along, flow along, glide along; 
to seep through, leak out (J! to, of ;i 
report); to spread, circulate, be passed 
around (news) VII to hide, crawl into its 
lair (animal) 

^>j^ sirb pi. v'^r-' asrab herd, flock, 
bevy, covey, swarm; squadron, group, 
wing, formation, flight (of airciaft); 
heart, mind | J^jJI ,y ^>^ (nahl) 



swarm of bees; <-jj^\ \$>\* calm, com- 
posed, confident 

^j^ sarab pi. i-j.Ij— I asrab burrow, 
hole, den, lair (of an animal); under- 
ground passage; tunnel, conduit 

hj~, surba pi. <~>j~> surah herd, flock, 
bevy, covey, swarm 

<_j1^ sarab mirage, fata morgana; 
phantom; sewage 

<~>j~* masrab pi. ujL masdrib 2 course 
(taken by s.th.); river bed; drain, sewer 

ujU sdrib conspicuous, visible 

4jjU sdriba pi. v-'U-' sawdrib 2 reptile 

2 ^j~*\ look up alphabetically 

Jj^- sarbala to clothe (* s.o.) with a sirbal 
(q.v.); to clothe, dress (uj * s.o. in or 
with); to cover, wrap (a s.th., t-> with) 
II tasarbdkb to put on a sirbal (q.v.) ; to put 
on, wear (a a garment); to be clothed, 
clad, garbed (^ in, also fig.); to wrap 
o.s. (c-j in); to dress up (<_j in) 

JLj^ sirbal pi. J^i^- sardbil 2 shirt; 
coat of mail; garment 

Jj^JU mutasarbil: <_jL£JIj Jj^-I* blessed 
with youthfulness, evincing youthful 
freshness 



1 gj~" saraja to braid, plait (a the hair) II do.; 
to baste, tack (a s.th.); to saddle (a an 
animal) IV do.; to light (^-i^J! the lamp) 

£^ sarj pi. ^jj^> suruj saddle 

^}j^ sirdj pi. -rj~» suruj lamp, light | 
O 2f>U ^\j~* s.al-haraka traffic light; 
J^Uf ^l^r- s. al4ail firefly, glowworm 

VLr - sirdja saddlery, saddler's trade; 
glanders 

■^\j^ sarrdj saddler 



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*s* 



(jrjy suruji saddler 
\frj^ surujlya saddlery, saddler's trade 
-! usruja lie, falsehood 



V^-~* misrajd) masraja pi. t-jU. >ma* 
sdrij 2 lamp; lampatand 

2 ^ja- look up alphabetically 

*d?frs* sirjin dung, manure 

»y* saraha a (-rjj* suruh) to move away, 
go away, leave; to roam freely; to graze 
freely (cattle); to be distracted (mind); 
— sariha a to proceed freely, at 
will, without restraint | qaj r^ (ma* 
riha) to do as one likes II to send (a 
cattle) to pasture; to send, dispatch 
(a s.o.); to let go {* s.o.); to dismiss (U a 
woman by divorce); to grant (*> s.o.) 
leave, dismiss (a s.o.); to release from an 
office, discharge, fire (a s.o.); to release, 
set free (a s.o.); to let (a the eyes) wander; 
to demobilize, disband (a an army); 
to dispel s.o.'s (jp) worries {also rj* 
<*y^)) to comb (a the hair) | a^*i ry 
($a r rahu) to comb one's hair, do one's 
hair; ojioj ^-^ (nazarahu) to set one's 
eyes on (J!) VII jSJu r/-*\ (yufakkiru) 
to be deep in thought, be absent-minded, 

allow one's thoughts to wander; *j r^r-Jl 

jSLfcll do. 

■Aj^ sarah dismissal (of a woman by 
divorce); release | *»-l^# jJltl atlaqa sa* 
rdhahu to release s.o., set s.o. free, set 
s.o. at liberty; 4»-\j* cstAtl itldq s. his 
release; ?-'j-Ji J-U" mutlaq as-s. free, at 
large 

^^ ,$<mA and ^ *jl» hawker, 
peddler 

tJU-^p- sirhdn pi. J^l^ sanikm 2 wolf 

7-j-** masrah pi. p-jl—* masdrih 2 pas- 
ture; stage, theater; scene | J^Jl ry—* 



theater; t-~J-l r^-* m. al-jaib little 
theater; j~^ r^r**-* (?«*/*) open air 
theater; JU r^r-** (?*#*) shadow play 
theater; <j~j[/£ rr** P u PP e * theater, 
marionette stage; jUi rr~ * (ff* n **») 
opera or operetta theater; ^^5 *y* 
{qaumi) national theater 

^f-j** masrahi dramatic, theatrical, 
stage (adj.); ( = <j-j~* <-?&) playwright, 
dramatist 

"*~>-j~* masrahiya pi. -at (stage) play 

flj^S tasrih dismissal; discharge; re- 
lease; demobilization; (pi. £jl~J tarn* 
rlh 2 ) permission, authorization 

a^. jJi tasriha pi. -at hairdo, coiffure 

^yU sank: ^jU ^jU grazing freely, 
roaming freely; free and unrestrained; 
^SliJl £jl* sdrih al-fikr distracted, absent- 
minded 

jy-Jw. munsarih: ^-^-JLll name of a 
poetic meter | j£ji\ rr±* w. al-fikr dis- 
tracted, absent-minded 



£-jjL* saruk pi. f- m j\j*» sawdrih 2, rocket 
±j~. sarJcas fern (bot.) 



Sj* sarada u (sard) to pierce, perforate 
{a s.th.); to carry on, continue (a s.th., 
e.g., a conversation); to tell off one after 
another, enumerate (a facts, events); 
to present, quote, detail, set forth 
neatly (a s.th.) II to pierce, perforate 
(a s.th.) 

Sj~* sard enumeration; mentioning, 
quoting; neat, detailed presentation; 
recital, presentation, rendition (of an 
account, of a narrative, etc.); coherent, 
logical 

*0j j -* sarida: Jj^il SJj^ s. ul-maulid 
discourse dealing with the birth of the 



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474 



Prophet (during celebration of Moham- 
med's birthday; tun.) 



O 



masrad index (of a book) 



j^j** sir dab pi. <U"°L 

dib 2 subterranean vault, 
ment, basement flat 



cellar; base- 



jljj- sirdar (formerly Eg.) supreme com- 
mander; commanding general 

Jil^-* look up alphabetically 

6j2j* sarduk pL *Z\i*\j^ sarddik 2 rooster, 
cock (magr.) 

^j^ sardin (coll.; n. un. 2) sardines 

LjuOj-*- sardiniya Sardinia 

^Ij- sirds and ^-i^r— see ^Ijw (alpha- 
betically) 



r L 



sirsam a cerebral disease 



1 J* jr - sarita a (sarat, ulJ*^ sarafan) and sarata 
u i to swallow, gulp (a s.th.) V and VIII 
do. 

OLL^ sarafan pi. -a( crayfish: cancer 
(med.); jllsyJl Cancer (sign of the zodiac; 
cwfrwt.); the fourth month of the solar 
year (Saudi Ar.; cf. Jj* hamal) | 011*^- 
t$^ (bahri) lobster 

9^-- saru'a u (sira\ sara\ ap^ sw e a) to be 
quick, fast, prompt, rapid ; to hurry II to 
urge (d 3,0,) to hurry; to urge on (x an 
animal); to speed up, accelerate, ex- 
pedite (a s.th.) Ill to hurry, hasten, 
rush, run, dash (Jl to); to make a beeline 
(JI for); to hurry (j in, with), hasten 
(j to do s.th.), do in a hurry (<j s.th,); 



to rush, plunge with undue haste (j 
into) IV to be quick, fast, prompt, rapid; 
to hurry, hasten, rush, run, dash {Jl 
to); to hurry (<_-> or j with, in), hasten 
(^ or J to do s.th.), do in a hurry (u* 
or j s.th.); to accelerate, speed up, ex- 
pedite (a s.th.) | JbJL'l fjJi (katwa) to 
walk quickly V to hurry, hasten, rush, 
run, dash (Jf to); to hurry (^ or j with, 
in), hasten (^ or J to do s.th.), do in 
a hurry (<_j or j s.th.); to be hasty, be 
rash (cj or j in) VI to hurry, hasten, 
rush, run, dash (Jl to) 

fj* sur\ sir'' pi. ?\j+\ asrd f reins 

4*^-. sur'a speed, velocity, pace; fast- 
ness, rapidity, quickness, promptness; 
hurry, haste | _^U-*I a^^m presence of 
mind; Jj-Uodl Up,-, credulity; *jjA\ Itj* 
s. ad-dau speed of light 

U o\e-j^ sar'dna, sir'dna^ sur'dna ma 
(with foil, verb) how quickly ...!; soon, 
before long, presently, in no time 

m^ sart pi. uU^ sur'dn, 9\j* sird' 
fast, quick, prompt, rapid, speedy, ex- 
peditious, swift, nimble; Mj~5\ name of 
a poetic meter; express train; tw^- 
sartfan fast, quickly, rapidly, speedily, 
promptly | ylzJl g^ s. at-taattur easy 
to impress, easily affected, sensitive; 
^kLL'l ^^ quick-witted; O 3.2>Jv!l £>y- 
s. at-taraddud high-frequency (el.); *jj* 
JljjJt s. az-zawdl ephemeral, fleeting, 
transient; JjJU-axJl *±j* credulous; *j^ 
(oUiiaJ!) jikJl 5. at-talq quick-firing, 
rapid-fire; t^-Ja^i Mj~* s. al-atab fragile; 
i_~*aiJl «j^ s. al-gadab easily roused to 
anger, irascible, choleric; Ji^Jt m^* s. 
at-tanaqqul mobile, maneuverable, easily 
manageable 

9jJ\ asra' 2 faster, quicker, more 
rapid j <olj o! K-l U ma asra'a an 
rcfaituhu and olj U s>*J U immediately 
thereafter I saw him, it did not take very 



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•*V 



long before I saw him; y 9jJ\ «/U» 
Oj^JI (saut) supersonic aircraft 

gjj-j ^a$riT pi. -£jLj yasari" 1 cater- 
pillar (200?.) 

Uly-* sira'an quickly, in a hurry 

Pij~^ tasrV acceleration (also phys., of 
electrons, protons) 

pj_/-*l wref acceleration, speed-up; hurry 

£y-J tasarru* hurry, haste; hastiness, 
rashness, precipitance 

f-jLJ tasaru* velocity; acceleration (also 
phys., of electrons, protons) 

£jlw musdri' accelerator {phys.) \ 
(^ji £jl— • (4 arr fy atomic accelerator 

£j-I* mutasarri f quick, fast, prompt, 
rapid; hasty, rash, precipitate 

jSL^-j^ see 1 _ / ~. 

Js^p- IV to exceed all bounds, be immod- 
erate, be extravagant (j in, at), exag- 
gerate, overdo (J s.th.); to go much too 
far, be exorbitant or excessive (J* with 
regard to s.o., j in s.th.) ; to waste, squan- 
der, dissipate, spend lavishly (a, j s.th., 
esp. money) | jp -uJ( j Js^l (budi) he 
went too fat afield from (e.g., from his 
theme) 

(J*^ saraf and Jsl^l isra/ intem- 
perance, im moderateness, exaggeration; 
waste, dissipation, extravagance, prodi- 
gality 

C>j~a musrif far exceeding the norm; 
immoderate, intemperate, excessive; ex- 
travagant, wasteful, prodigal | j J>^~* 
i*L-Ul (damdma) uncommonly ugly; u^-* 
j+j&\ j (qisar) of unusually small 
stature 

jj-» saraqa i (saraq, sariq, Zs^, saraqa, sariqa, 
ulf^ sarqan) to steal, pilfer, filch (a ^> 



or a j from s.o. s.th.); to rob (a y or 
a o s.o. of s.th.; also * s.o., a a bank or a 
business, etc.) II to accuse of theft, call 
a thief (a s.o.) Ill aJ\ Jkd\ JjU (nazara) 
or jkJI 43jL- to steal a glance at s.o., 
glance furtively at s.o.; **Jl JjjL (na«= 
ma) to take a short nap VII pass, of I 
VIII to steal, filch, pilfer (y a s.th. from 
s.o.) ; to steal ( Jf into) | «^J1 JjL>l (sam'a) 
to eavesdrop; to monitor (e.g., secret 
service); 4*11 jkJI JjLI = <d( J^}\ j^U; 
tj-UJVl JjwI to gasp, pant; JaJ-l Jj^-I 
(foifcz) to slink, sneak; to walk tiptoe 

"*&j* sariqa, sirqa stealing, filching, pil- 
fering ; plundering ; robbery; (pi. -at) theft, 
larceny 

J\j^ sarrdq thief 

JjL- sariq pi. -tin, ~<&j~> saraqa, Jl^ 
surraq, f. 45jL- sariqa pi. i5j|^-* sawariq 2 
thief 

Jj^*4 masruq furtive, elandestine, 
secret; pi. otsj^** stolen goods 

3j~Sa munsariq: S^SJI o^r-i* w&. al-quwwa 
debilitated, exhausted 

3j^* mustaraq furtive, clandestine, 
secret 

SLJ,- saraqusta 2 Zaragoza (city m NE 
Spain) 

dnS/-* sirg'fw dung, manure 

1 iJ^ r v- (Fr. cirgwe) stV& circus 

2 i5*_r- (Turk, tfer^i) sarH (com.) bill of ex- 
change payable to the bearer 

p~- surm pi. f l^r-' asram anus 

uL^ surman dragonfly (200Z.) 

•U^ sarmad endless duration, eternity 



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476 



^JU^. sarmadi eternal, without be- 
ginning or end 

tj-jJLi^ sarandlb 2 Ceylon 

x jj* sarw (coll. ; n. un. S) evergreen cypress 
(Cupressus sempervirens L.; bot.) 

2 j^ II (4J4 ,y. or) 4^ (£j^ to rid s.o. of worries, 
and the like, dispel s.o.'s worries (also a 
worries); pass. «0j> gj* and «u*ij j* tSj~* 
(surriya) to leave s.o. (grief, sorrow, fear, 
and the like) ; to regain one's composure, 
feel at peace again (after anger, fear or 
excitement); his anxiety or unrest left 
him ; he found relaxation ; he was cheered 
up, his spirits were raised VII <c*. ^^1 
= Ks- ^j^* (surriya) 

tjj^ sariy pi. *'jy- surawa" 2 , *\jj*\ 
asriya 2 , %\j~> sarah high-ranking, high; 
high-minded, noble; distinguished per- 
sonality, notable; pi. l\j* elite, leading 
class, the upper crust; see l l £ J ** 

l\j»* sarah pi. CjYjj^ sarawat hill; back; 
chief, head; see also tSj^ sariy \ oi Jjr - 
^iil s. al-qaum the leaders of the 
people 

lij~5 tasriya pi. -at diversion, amuse- 
ment, pastime 

(}\jj^ sirwdl, Jj jj*> sirwll pi. Jj j\j+ sard' 
toil 2 trousers, pants; drawers; panties 

1 t£s* 8ar ^ * (<£/- suran, ob^ sarayan, i£j~* 
masran) to travel by night; to set out, 
depart by night; to circulate; to flow 
(electric current); to emanate, go out 
(,y from); to spread; to be valid, have 
validity, be effective, be in, or come 
into, force (Jp for), have or take effect 
(Jp on); to apply, be applicable (Jp 
to); to penetrate (j s.th.), enter deeply 
(j into) ; to pervade (<u-iJ J! s.o.'s 
soul, of a feeling) | *i^ ,jj^ (surdhu) 



to traverse one's nightly course ; *Jjmu gj* 
(mafuluhu) to be valid, be effective, be 
in force; *ui! Jf (jy (udnihi) to reach 
s.o.'s ear IV to travel by night; to make 
(^ s.o.) travel by night V <jj-j see a -r - 
sarra V 

(£j* sariy pi. Iu^-pI asriya, ob^** suryan 
little creek, brook; see also under a _j^ 

djj~* sariy a pi. Ll^-. sardya (military) 
detachment, flying column, raiding party; 
company (mil.) | ill**- \j* (kayydh) 
cavalry squadron; ol_/lkJl \j^. squad- 
ron of aircraft 

OLj^ sarayan spread, diffusion; valid- 
ity, effectiveness, coming into force 

iSj^A masran: JUj£ <£/-* masra muham* 
mad the point of departure for Moham- 
med's midnight journey to the seven 
heavens, i.e., Jerusalem 

»1yJ isra nocturnal journey; *\j*l\ 
Mohammed's midnight journey to the 
seven heavens 

jL- sarin pi. l\j~* surah traveling by 
night; night reveler, night hawk; con- 
tagious (disease); in force, effective, 
valid J J^ull (jjL* in force, effective, 
valid 

4jjU- sariy a a mood or atmosphere 
which prevails in, or pervades, a room 
(e.g., i»Lfi-l ,y» ^jjU an all-pervading 
gloom); — (pi. -at, j!j- sawdrin) col- 
umn; shipmast 

t i $\ J *> and 4ji^ look up alphabetically 

Jb^~- (Ft.) sir y all surrealistic 

jJIj^ sirydliya surrealism 

jb^ surydn Syrians (coll.), members of the 
East Syrian Church 

Jb^~- surydni Syriac, Syrian; a mem- 



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477 



*k** 



ber of the East Syrian Church; ^JL^l 
the Syriac language 

oljjLy- saryawaran (formerly) adjutant gen- 
eral 

<jl£>V*" sizmugrafi seismographic 

jL.^ look up alphabetically 

ilU* (Fr.) stdd {tun.) stadium 

l Zk*\ look up alphabetically 



mastaba, mistaba pi. <_J?L~« masdtib 2 
stone bench (against a wall); stone plat- 
form (for sitting); mastaba (archeol.), 
type of ancient Egyptian tomb 

^L- sataha a {sath) to spread out, spread, 
unfold, unroll (a s.th.); to level, even, 
plane, flatten, make smooth (a s.th.); to 
throw to the ground, fell (o s.o.) II to 
spread out, spread, unfold, unroll (a 
s.th.); to level, even, plane, flatten, 
make smooth (a s.th.) V to be spread 
out, be unfolded; to be leveled, be 
evened; to lie down on one's back 
VII to be spread out, be unfolded; to lie 
flat on one's back, be supine 

*L* sath pi. <*-jk-» sutiih surface (also 
geom.); plane {geom.); (pi. also l^\z^\ 
astiha, «kJ astuh) (flat) roof, terrace; 
deck (of a ship); rja** sutuh (eg., syr.) 
roof terrace | j*J\ r^» s. ahbahr sea 
level; JjU «k*< inclined plane 

cs >»k- sathi external, outer, outward, 
outside, exterior; flat; superficial; pi. 
C>L»^ satM'jat externals, superficialities | 
LS >JiJ1 Aj^I surface mail (in contrast 
with air mail) 

V*k"< sathiya flatness; superficiality 

pj*** satih flat, spread out, stretched 
out, supine 



£-tk*» mistdh threshing floor 

*Ja-J tastlh leveling, grading 

«L*~* musaUah even, level, flat ; (pi. -at ) 
level plane; surface J i»»k*. p-ls (qadam) 
flat foot; *\j<jto~ oU*k~* {kadr<£) green 
plots, meadows 

l JL* satara u (satr) and II to rule (a s.th.), 
draw lines (a on a sheet of paper); to 
write, jot down, record (a s.th.) ; to draw 
up, compose (a s.th.); (Tun.) to trace out 
(a basic features), outline (a a project 
or goal) 

JL** satr, satar pi. jj^m sufur, ^fk-l 
astur, jlkJ astar line; row 

jJbL> satur pi. j^ij- sawatir* cleaver 

•jjkJ ustura pl.^kUl asatir 2 fable, 
legend, saga, myth; fabulous story, yarn 

^ j_jk-i U3turi mythical, legendary, fab- 
ulous 

Sjjjk-I usturiya mythologism | Oj^ 
hjJaJ^\ ^ jyjJI demythologizing of 
religion 

lja~* mistara pi. J*\ — » masatir 2 ruler; 
underlines, guideline sheet; see also al- 
phabetically | Ov^-' *Ja*~+ slide rule 

jUiUw. miMdr trowel 

{j J**~* rnastarln {eg.) trowel 

jb~5 tastir writing down, recording; 
{Tun.) design, outline, planning 

jL~* musattar piece of writing, paper, 
document 

3 ^k-- and derivatives look up alphabetically 

«k- sataa a [sat\ fj^ sutu f ) to rise; to 
spread (dust, fragrance); to shine, be 
brilliant, be radiant; to light up (lamp); 
to be or become manifest, obvious, plain, 
clear 



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478 



^U* sat" brilliance, radiance, glow; 
brightness, luminosity 

^Ja- sata* thump, thud, plump 

£>!*- sutu r brilliance, radiance, glow; 
brightness, luminosity 

{ *k-l asta' 2 more brilliant, brighter; 
clearer, more obvious 

^LL- sdti' pi. A>\j~> sawdti* 2 radiant, 
brilliant, shining, luminous, bright; mani- 
fest, obvious, clear, plain, patent, evident 
(proof) 

1 Jk- satala u {sail) to intoxicate (o s.o.) 
VII to become or be intoxicated 

JIa- sail pi. JUa-1 astdl, J^k- sutul 
bucket, pail {of wood or metal) 

<}jk~* mastul pi. J^L*. masdtll 2 in- 
toxicated; {eg.) under the effect of 
stimulants, "high" {on hashish, etc.); 
dizzy, drunk 

2 Jjk*( look up alphabetically 

f U*- sitdm plug, stopper 

t>kL-l see <Jl^L-l (alphabetically) 

{J***) IL- satd u {sativ, Zjk~> satwa) to rush, 
pounce, jump ( v or J* upon), assail, 
attack (i-s or J* s.o.); to burglarize (J* 
a place.), break into a place (J^) 

jk* satw attack, assault; burglary, 
housebreaking 

*Ja*> satlva pl.satawdl attack, assault; 
influence, authority; presumption, cocki- 
ness, pride; power, strength 

iJljkJ look up alphabetically 
<*-- sa'a see »**j 



j^» sa'tar (= j*^*) wild thyme (Thymus 
serpyllum; hot.) 

a**- sa'ida a and pass. su r ida (sa'd, oU- sa* 
t ddu) to be happy, lucky, fortunate; pass. 
<-; -U- (su'ida) to have the good fortune 
of receiving or sharing s.th. Ill to help, 
aid, assist (* s.o., j or J* in, with), give 
s.o. (*) a hand (j or J* in); to support, 
back ( j or J* * s.o. in); to contribute, 
be conducive (J or J, Js to); to favor, 
encourage (j or J* s.th.) IV to make 
happy (* s.o.); to help (a s.o.) | ».uJ 
V liJ-1 (hazz) he had the good fortune 
to ... 

-U*- sa'd pi. if*** su'ud good luck, good 
fortune 

o-uJi 4tJ>! al-hai'a as-set diya the Saad- 
ist union (formerly a political movement 
in Egypt); O^uJI as-sa'dlyun the 
Saadists, the followers of Saad Zaghlul 
(1856—1927) 

■U-* sw'rf Cyperus (bot.) 

■±**» .sa'id pi. ,l-u*- su'ada' 2 happy 
(v about, at); radiant, blissful; lucky, 
auspicious; felicitous | ^TaJI .w 5. ad- 
dibr of blessed memory, the late ... 

».>L-. sa'dda happiness; bliss, felicity; 
good luck, good fortune ; prosperity, wel- 
fare; (formerly:) honorary title of a pasha 
or high official, used before the name or 
rank: His Grace, . . ., His Excellency ...; 
^"^ Your Grace | j^Vl oU- sa'ddat 
alamir {Saudi Ar.) His Excellency, the 
Emir; oUJI ^^U (formerly:) title of a 
pasha; oUJi jb "House of Bliss", 
ancient name of Istanbul 

^Li'iU*- sa'ddailu (formerly:) Turkish 
honorary title used before the name: His 
Grace 

iSZj*** su'udi Saudi | <ujyJi iSCUil 
ii^*JI (mamlaka) Saudi Arabia 



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479 



JlojaJI as-su r udiija Saudi Arabia (usual 
short form) 

oIaa*- sa'ddn pi. ^yiU- sa'adin 2 ape 

iil-W- sa'ddna pi. -a£ nipple, teat | SjI-l** 
vVl doorknob 

-u-l as' ad 2 happier, luckier 

SO^L*. musd'ada pi. -a/ support, back- 
ing, aid, help, assistance ; encouragement, 
promotion | j^dLUI SopL*. unemployment 
compensation or benefit 

ApL- set id pi. ApIj*» sawa'id 2 forearm | 
^r VI *AcU ^a (aiman) he is his right 
hand, he is indispensable to him; .til 
•.AtU istadda s&Hduhu to become strong, 
powerful; oA^U j ci (/ofto) to weaken 
s.o., sap s.o.'s strength, enervate s.o.; 
SjliiJi juU s. a/i-Twizzara temple of eye- 
glasses 

»4frL* sd'ida pi. Op!j- sawd'id 2 tributary 

ij*— mas'ud pi. jl»L* masd'id 2 happy, 
lucky, fortunate 

AtUw* musd'id pi. -tl» helper, help, aide; 
assistant (adj. and n.); adjutant; warrant 
officer; regimental sergeant major, master 
sergeant {Eg., Syr.; mil.) | rjf- OpU* w. 
mukrij assistant director (of a film) ; ApL*. 
l-jJ», f. k_* juL> aJLcUw. medical aide; Ji^-L^ 
J*m m. ma'mal laboratory attendant; 
jwJ ApL^ m. ta'yln regimental quarter- 
master sergeant {Eg.; mil.); J» AtL-. 
(/an?n) technical assistant; o*L~* jli-i 
(ttstdd) assistant professor; OpL** *U ^i 
( f owim.) assistant secretary general; jU* 
ApL«* {tayydr) copilot 

A*~* mm* ad favored by fortune, for- 
tunate, lucky 

j*» sa'ara a {sa'r) to kindle, start (a a fire, 
a war) ; pass, su'ira to flare up, run mad 
H to kindle, start (a a fire, a war); to 
price {a s.th.), set a price (* on s.th.); 



to quote on the stock market III to 
bargain, haggle over the price (o with 
s.o.) IV to kindle, light, start (* fire) 
V to burn, blaze; to flare up (anger) 
VII to become mad, furious YIII to 
burn, flare, blaze; to break out (fighting) 

j**» si'r pi. jU-1 as'dr price; rate; ex- 
change rate, quotation (stock market) | 
Jij»-dl j**> conversion rate {fin.); j**> 
l»*aJ»'l 5. al-kasm discount rate, bank rate; 
ijJUjJl j*s* rate of interest; Sju'UJI j*** 
rate of interest; .kail y^ s. al-qaf dis- 
count rate, bank rate ; lUkaJI j*~> s. al-qifa 
price by the piece 

jf su'r madness; frenzy; voracity 

j*** su'ur madness, frenzy 

jU- su'dr voracity 

j**— sa'ir pi. J*** su'ur blazing flame, 
fire, blaze; hell, inferno 

j*~* .* mis'ar pi. yX^j* masd'ir 2 poker, 
fire iron 

j\ju~* mis'ar pi. jm.L~* masd'ir 2 poker, 
fire iron 

j*~$ tas'ir pricing, price fixing 

ljs*+3 tas'ira pricing, price fixing | 
Sjyu-Ul lei- lajnat at-t. price-fixing com- 
mission 

6j**Ji tas'ira quotation (stock exchange) 

jj*~« * mas'ur mad, crazy 

J**-* VIII to snuff (a tobacco) 
by** sa'ut snuff 

mis'at snuffbox 



i*** III to help, aid, support (o s.o.) IV to 
comply with s.o.'s (<>) wishes (<_-* for), 
humor (<_j » s.o. in), grant (^» a s.o. s.th.); 
to help, aid, assist (o s.o.) 

vJuu- sa'af (coll.; n. un- ») pi. -at palm 



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leaves, palm fronds | <Ja**J\ .U-l ahad 
as*s. Palm Sunday (Chr.) 

(JsU^l is'df pi. -at aid, relief, help, 
assistance; medical service; ^JjU-MI first 
aid | •J*»*Jl J»\»*m\ i. al-'ajaza care for 
the aged; J»U*V1 v^ jam'iyat al-i. 
approx.: civil ambulance service; JU-j 
J»U*-V1 first-aid men, ambulance men; 
medical orderlies, hospital corpsmen; 
iJ*U*»"^ *jW" sayydrat al-i. ambulance 

J*>- sa'ala u {aI*^ su f la, JL* su r dl) to cough 

*i*^ su r la cough 

JLu- su'dl cough | Jo-OI JUJI (cftfci) 
whooping cough 

J^ si'ld pi. ^"LjLu- silaydt female 
demon 

1*&**m $i T ldh pi. JU- sa'dlin female demon 



u~ 



_^l abu su'n marabou (zool.) 



ju- sa r d a (sa f y) to walk; to move or crawl 
forward; to pass along one's way; to 
move across the sky (moon); to head, 
be headed (Jl for), proceed (J! to or 
toward); to strive (J or Jl for), aspire 
(j or Jl to); to work {Ajj or Jl, J for), 
endeavor, attempt, make an effort (»!jj 
or Jl, J to get or achieve s.th.); to run 
after s.th. (*ljj), pursue, chase <*ljj s.th.); 
to take steps (J in a matter) | J( <u ^ 
to lead s.o. or s.th. to . . .; ULij L~- L? *- 
{sa'yan) to amble, walk slowly; ^^S V 
iiiiJi j^Ji (</a/Zet) nothing escapes their 
attention, they are aware of everything, 
always on the alert; bLi ^jVl J .^j**- 
(/£ /-ar<2i fasadan) to spread evil, cause 
universal harm and damage; *u^i- { _ 5 *-- 
<iikj {U-hatfthi bi-zilfihi) to bring about 
one's own destruction, dig one's own 
grave; #^1 ul/ j ^ (kardbi S-s.) to 
work at the ruin of s.th., undermine 
s.th.; — sad a ( ( j^ say, 4jU** si'dya) to 



slander (l-> s.o., -Up or Jf to s.o.), discredit 
(Xs- or Jl <_j s.o. with) VI to run about 
in confusion 

^u- sa c y walking, walk; t yuJI the ritual 
walk made by pilgrims to Mecca, covering 
the distance between as-Safd and al- 
Marwa seven times (four times going and 
three times returning); effort, endeavor; 
livestock | 3j)\ *bj <j*~^ ( r ^) pursuit 
of one's livelihood 

4jU- si'dya slander, calumniation 

{ j^a mas" an pi. fl— * masd'in effort, 
endeavor 

pUsa r tn pi. -wn, *U** 5« c oA messenger; 
office boy, delivery boy; slanderer, ca- 
lumniator | ju^JI ^U postman, mailman 

j^ sagiba a (sagab) to hunger (J for), be 
or become hungry 

^JU- sa^a6 hunger, starvation 

4jU— sagdba hunger, starvation 

iJL~. masgaba famine 

oiU sa^t& hungry, starving 

i- IV to descend, sink, slip, decline (fig.); 
to stoop (Jl to, fig.) | *JI J^\ *-i-1 (wo* 
zara) to give s.o. a sharp look VIII to 
eat, swallow (a s.th. dry, e.g., a medici- 
nal powder) 

Jj>jjl* safuf medicinal powder 

uJojU^ safaif*: j>*VI <Juli- inferior 
stuff 

(JsLL-l isfdf decline (fig.); triviality 



•ftaja pi. if U- safdtif bill of exchange 
(com.) 

»oL- 5a/tf/wz a (sa/A, ^i- sufuh) to pour out, 
spill, shed (a s.th.) Ill to whore, forni- 
cate (» with s.o.) VI to whore, fornicate 



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C?" 



vJl* safh pi. rjA* sufuh foot (of a 
mountain; mountain slope, declivity | 
4W ^ r**" **** ( 5 - a ^ l-haul) at the feet 
of the Sphinx 

r-liL- saffah pi. -un shedder of blood, 
killer, murderer 

£-LL- sifdh fornication 

■U** safida a and safada i (^U- 3i'/ad) to cover, 
mount (J* or U the female); to cohabit 
(U with a woman) II to put on a skewer 
(a meat) III to cover, mount (U the fe- 
male); to cohabit (U with a woman) 

3 jib* saffud pi. JUiliw safdfid 2 skewer, 
spit 

ji- safara i (jja~> sufur) to remove the veil 
(Wtj 6* ?a?l wajhihd from her face), 
unveil o.s.; — safara i (safr) to shine, 
glow (aurora) II to unveil, uncover, dis- 
close (a s.th.); to send on a journey, 
compel to leave, send away (* s.o.); to 
dispatch, send off (* s.th.); to embark, 
put on board (c passengers) III to travel, 
make a trip; to leave, depart, go on a 
journey IV to shine, glow (aurora, g.o.'s 
face, etc.); to disclose, unveil, uncover 
(jp s.th.); to yield, achieve, bring (y- 
s.th.); to have as a result or consequence 
(tjc. s.th.), end (jp with, in), result (jp in) 
VII to rise, disappear (dust, clouds) 

jiJ\ as-safr the travelers, the passengers 

jA*> sift pi. jLU asfdr book (esp. one 
of the Scriptures) 

jA* safar departure; (pi. jUJ asfdr) 
journey, travel, trip, tour 

Ijk* safra pi. safar at journey, travel, 
trip, tour 

"<Ija^ safarlya pi. -at journey, travel, 
trip, tour; departure 

Ijjb* sufra pi. jJl*> sufar dining table 



> sufragi (eg.) pi. 5*»-jjL» sufragiya 
waiter, steward 

j\jb*> safir pi. »1jjL- sufard' 2 mediator 
(between contending parties); emissary 
(e.g., of one king to another); ambassa- 
dor [dipt) 

jjJl* sufur uncovering of the face (of 
a veiled woman); unveiling 

SjU^ sifdra office or function of a 
mediator, mediation; message (delivered 
by an emissary) ; (pi. -at) embassy (dipl.) 

yt*. masdfir 2 (pi.) part of the face not 
covered by the veil 

^U safir unveiled, wearing no veil; 
barefaced, conspicuous, obvious; (pi. 6jLm 
safara) scribe 

yL*. musdfir prepared for departure, 
ready to travel; (pi. -tin) traveler; pas- 
senger; visiting stranger; guest 

^*-jJb~> safar jal (coll.; n. un. S) pi. £jU- 
safdrif quince (Cydonia; bot.) 

CtjjA" safrut (eg.) shrimpy, scrawny 



safsata sophistry; pi. olk«jL- sophis- 
tries, casuistic arguments [ ik^LJI JaI 
ahl as-s. the Sophists 

Ifc^L- safsati and jlk-i-- sufistd'i so- 
phistic; (pi. -un) Sophist 



safsafa pi. (J^U- safdsif 2 silly talk, 
nonsense; poor, inferior stuff 

«J»I — a** safsdf pi. iJu-U*- safdsif 2 silly, 
inane, trivial; poor, inferior | j^*Vl JsUjL- 
poor, inferior stuff 

iuL- safat pi. J»LL*I as/d| basket; scales (of 
fish) 

*jL* safa'a a [saf) to scorch, parch, burn 
(« s.o., a s.o.'s skin; esp. of a hot wind); 



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pJLu* 



482 



to flap the wings, nutter (bird) ; to strike, 
hit (o s.o. with the hand), slap (a s.o.); 
to lash (a s.th., e.g., of a storm) 

*jL- saf burned spot 

****** suf r a pi. *jU sit/a' black stain; 
dark spot, brown discoloration 

*jL-I asfa r2 t f. *L*jL- saf r a 2 dark-brown 

JjL- safaqa u (safq) to shut, bang, slam (* 
the door) 

dJLL- safaka i u (safk) to shed (a blood) 
YI to murder each other VII to be shed, 
flow (blood) 

(iU*. safk: fL-di dlJL* s. ad-dimd* blood- 
shed 

iJLL- saffdk shedder of blood; blood- 
shedding 

Ji*- safala u (J^i- suful, Jli- sa/oZ) and so* 
^ia a to be low; to be below s.th. (a); 
— safala u to turn downward; — safula 
u (kllL* safala) and safala u (soft) to be 
low, base, despicable V to abase o.s., 
sink low, go from bad to worse; to act 
in a base manner 

JjL- sujl lowest part of s.th., bottom 

Ai*- sufli lower, at the bottom; low 

<Ia*m sifia: ^Ul *1ju- s. an-nds lowly 
people, riffraff 

4JLL- safala lowness; lowliness; base- 
ness, ignominy, despicableness 

4JLL- sufdla lowest part 

JjL-I asfal 2 , f. Ji- sufld, pi. JiU! 
asdfil 2 lower; lowest; lower or lowest 
part, bottom; JjL-I asfala (prep.) under, 
underneath, below | Ji-Jl ^jV (a«J) 
the nether world; Ji-Ji oULLJi (tabaqat) 
the lower classes (of society); JaJI ^^^ 
(mw) Lower Egypt; j J\ JjL*I j (a. &z- 



z£r) on the bottom of the water pitcher; 
j^iiU Ja*-( ajj raddahu asfala safilin to 
reduce s.o. to the lowest level or status 

JiU sa/iZ pi. ili*- safala low; lowly; 
base, me;tn, despicable 



aflata to cover with asphalt, to 
asphalt 

cJLi- saflata asphalt paving, asphalting 

cJLL-I as/aft asphalt 

c-li*~» musaflat paved with asphalt, 
asphalted 

saflaqa sponging 
3^a*» w/^off sponger 



1 L yi- sa/cm coarse hide used for polishing; 
emery paper, sandpaper 

z l?.A*> safin ships (coll.); ship; see also alpha- 
betically 

iLjL* saflna pi. ji- sufun, JUL- sa* 
/a'm 2 ship, vessel, boat; <uU\ Argo 
(astron.) | <L*3-U Si~jL- (midfa'iya) gun- 
boat; j^ 1 i-Jt- «. M» freighter; ^-jL- 
JLu and ^Hlj'tf i^A- training ship; 
»LiiJI SjLjjo^ 5. al-fada spaceship 

oLa- saffdn shipbuilder, shipwright 

4JLL- sifdna (art or trade of) ship- 
building 

3 ^>a-1 look up alphabetically 

ryj^> safanj, sifanj and ^-i*-! isfanj sponge 

«u** safiha a (safah) and safuha, u (i&LL* sa* 
/afta) to be stupid, silly, foolish; to be 
impudent, insolent II to call (a, a s.o., 
s.th.) stupid or foolish; to declare (a s.o.) 
legally incompetent; to depreciate, put 
down as inferior (a s.th.) | a*J& ajl* to 
make a fool of o.s. ; <*^-j «u- (wajhahu) 



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]ojw 



to expose s.o., show s.o. up, make a fool 
of s.o., bring s.o. in discredit, disgrace 
s.o., dishonor s.o. VI to pretend to be 
stupid or foolish 

<i- safah foolishness, stupidity, silli- 
ness; impudence, shamelessness, insolence 

-UA- safih pi. »lfJU sufaha 2 , *U- su 
fah foolish, stupid, silly; fool; an in- 
competent {1st. Law); impudent, shame- 
less, insolent; insolent fellow 

UlL- safdha foohshness, stupidity, silli- 
ness; impudence, shamelessness, inso- 
lence 

J- safd i {safy) to raise and scatter (a the 
dust; said of the wind) IV do. 

»LiU safiyct 2 dust 

J-~. masfan s.th. whirled up; play- 
thing, sport (fig.) 

cJu safyata to sovietize (a s.th.) 

j\jL- safin wedge 

IjLi- sigara = SjL^ cigarette 

4JU-* (It. scala) saqdla scaffold 

JL* saqar 2 f. hell 

J»lyL- suqrdt 2 Socrates 



saqsaqa chirping, cheeping, peeping 
(e.g., of sparrows) 



1> saqata u (S*jjL* suqut, JaJL** masqat) to 
fall (also = to be killed in action) ; to 
fall down, drop; to tumble, trip, slip; 
to fall out (hair); to sink down (Jp on, 
to); to hit, stumble (Jp upon), come 
across s.th. (Jp); to find (Jp s.th.); to 
get, come (Jl to s.o.), reach (Jf s.o.); 
to decline, sink, drop (standard); to be- 
come null and void, be abolished, be 



canceled; to be dropped, be omitted, 
drop out; to be missing; to escape 
(^ s.o.), slip ((>* s.o.'s memory) | 1*1~J 
(JaA-jJLi) U-yasqut (fal-yasqut) down with ... ! 
<u Jai*- to drop s.o. or s.th.; «Cp ^Ji JzJi- 
<ul they had had word from him that 
he . . . ; j <*\j J*a- (rasuhu) he was born 
in . . . , his birthplace was . . . ; hj^i\ ^y Sal** 
( f udwiya) to be dropped from member- 
ship; <up ^y JaJU ('ainihi) to drop in 
s.o.'s estimation; uU^V j J^a* to fail 
an examination, flunk; e-U j Jax#- suqita 
fl yadiki to stand aghast, be at a loss, 
be bewildered IV to let fall, drop (a, » 
s.o., s.th.); to make {a s.o.) tumble, 
cause s.o. (&) to slip; to overthrow, 
bring down, topple, fell (a, a s.o., s.th.); 
to fail, flunk (* s.o. in an examination); 
to shoot down (a an aircraft); to deduct, 
subtract (a a number); to eliminate (a 
s.th. j* from); to have a miscarriage, 
miscarry; to bring about a miscarriage 
(woman); to slink (a its young one; 
animal) | v-jJ-1 {y ^ka-i (jinsiya) to 
deprive s.o. of his citizenship; J «u»- lu**f 
(kaqqahu) to forfeit one's right in s.th., 
waive one*s claim to s.th. ; *»Jas- <c JaJL-1 
(huquqahu) to abrogate or deny s.o.'s 
rights; «jL>jJ1 -J**-' to bring about the 
fall of a cabinet (poL); <jj&2 JaJU (da e * 
tod) to quash a complaint, nonsuit a 
case; to withdraw or drop a com- 
plaint; j*JSA\ iai-l (sa f ra) to cause 
loss of hair; a Jo J -Li* I usqita fl 
yadihi = »Aj j J*a- suqita fl yadihi 

V to learn gradually, pick up information 
(^ a about s.th. from); to hunt for 
scraps | jL>-Vl JaJLJ to gather information 

VI to fall down, come down, collapse; to 
be overthrown, be brought down, dis- 
appear from the political scene; to fall 
successively or gradually; to fall out 
(hair); to come gradually (Jl to), arrive 
one by one (J! at); to roll, drip (<> off); 
to dribble | wj Jp -USLJ to break down, 



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collapse; LUa>- iaiLJ (hutdman) to go to 
ruin, disintegrate 

J*i-* saqt dew 

JaJL- siqt miscarried fetus 

JaS-» sag'/, w$, #«<# sparks flying from 
a flint 

JaJL* aa^atf pi. i>U-l a$#a* any worthless 
thing; offal, refuse, rubbish, trash; junk | 
9-UIl JLJu< «. al-mata' waste, scrap(s) 

Jai*- saqatl junk dealer, ragman 

iki- sa$a pi. saqatdt fall, tumble, 
plunge; oversight, slip, error, mistake | 
itUaJI olki^ misprints, errata; iki- 
OUJ 5. Usdn lapsus linguae, slip of the 
tongue 

1^5-* 5Mjtt/ fall, tumble; crash (of an 
airplane); collapse, breakdown, ruin; 
decline, downfall, fall; devolution (of a 
right) ; slip, lapse | ^*iJI 1»^L< s. as-$ar 
loss of hair; jUnVI -t>i- rainfall 



sagtf hail 
&UL- saqqata, (eg.) suqqdta door latch 



masqat 2 Muscat (seaport and 
capital of Oman) 

J?U-l isqdt overthrow (esp. of a govern- 
ment, a cabinet; pot.); projection (math., 
geogr., psych.); shooting down (of an air- 
craft); miscarriage, abortion; deduction, 
subtraction; rebate | yjJ~i J?UL-i i. al- 
jinsiya abrogation of citizenship; J»LL*I 
dJLjjiJl <uJ (qimat al-f.) devaluation of the 
franc 



masqat, masqit pi. _LSL~. masdqit 2 
place where a falling object lands ; water- 
fall; masqat projection (math.) | Jil Ja 3 ... « 
(«/#£) ground plan, horizontal section; 
^Tj -LJL~. (ra'si) front elevation, vertical 
section (arch.); ,^-ljJI 
birthplace, home 



J»LL-I isqdtl: Q JUUL-I jLx^l pro- 
jection test (psych.) 

ULj tasdqut loss (of hair) | JajU 
^yiiJI snowfall 

iJU so^*7 pi. J? Li- suqqdt fallen; one 
who has failed (in an examination); 
deteriorated, corrupted; base, mean, vile; 
disreputable, notorious (district); omit- 
ted, missing; forgotten | ylJtoVl .U3U 
s. al-ibtida'iya s.o. who has failed the 
examination at the end of the 4th grade 
in primary school 

&SU sdqita scrap; (pi. -at) fallen woman, 
harlot 

A^jl*> suqutra 2 Socotra (island, S of Arabia) 

«i* saqa'a a (saq e ) to slap, clap (a, o s.o., s.th.) 



a*JL— musaqqa'a (eg.) dish of eggplant 
and meat 

1 ,JaJL- II to provide with a roof or ceiling, 
roof over (a s.th.) 



saqf pi. ijs^i- suquf, Ju> su^w/, 
-I asquf, (mor.) CjMjX- roof; ceiling | 
jU-\ iJia- 5. al-halq palate 

AjLi- saqifa pi. cJuUL- saqd'if 2 roofed 
passage; roofed gallery; pergola, arcade; 
roofing, shelter | ^p ZJlJL* s. 'inab an 
arcaded garden path overgrown with 
grape vines 



tasqif roofing 

masquf roofed, covered (<~> with) 



2 ,_JiU usquf pi. 4i*U! asdqifa look up alpha- 
betically 

ilUL- look up alphabetically 



>a to throw down (» s.o.) 



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^JU 



l JX> saqlabl pi. SJU- saqdliba Slav; 
Slavic 



^ saqima a (saqam) and saquma u (suqm, 
*LL- saqam) to be or become sick, ill, 
ailing; to become thin, lean, skinny; 
to be poor, meager, measly II to make 
sick (• s.o.) IV = II 

X* suqm pi. /►U-l asqam illness, sick- 
ness; leanness, thinness, skinniness 

X* saqam pi. *U-1 asqam illness; sick- 
ness; leanness, thinness, skinniness 

/*U- saqam illness, sickness; leanness, 
thinness, skinniness 

*X* saqlm pi. j*UL> siqdm, *}£-> su* 
qamci* sick, ill, ailing; skinny, lean, 
emaciated; meager, measly; poor, faulty 
(language) 

AX** misqdm seriously suffering; con- 
stantly ailing, sickly 



SjIjL- siqdwa glanders 
iSyw see under ^ 

J** saga i (saqy) to give (a » s.o. s.th.) to 
drink, make s.o. (*) drink (a s.th.); to 
water (a cattle, plants); to irrigate (a 
s.th.); to dip, scoop, draw (water) | J*- 
iVjiJl (fuldda) to temper steel HI to 
give (a » s.o. s.th.) to drink; to con- 
clude a lease contract (o with s.o.; cf. 
alii — .) IV to give (a » s.o. s.th.) to drink, 
make s.o. {*) drink (a s.th.); to water 
(a cattle, plants); to irrigate (a s.th.) 
VIII to ask (j- s.o.) for a drink; to draw 
water (^ from); to draw (j- a s.th.. e.g., 
information, knowledge, etc., from), take, 
borrow, obtain (^ a s.th. from) X to ask 
(,y s.o.) for a drink (also a for s.th.); to 
pray for rain 

J-* saqy watering; irrigation 



tfjjL*- saqam (magr.) irrigational 

»U- siqa 3 pi. *X*\ asqiya, oLJL-i asqi* 
ydt, (31—1 asaqin waterskin, milkskin 

»li- saqqa pi. -un water carrier; — 
pelican (zool.) 

<Aa*» siqdya irrigation, watering; office 
of water supplier (spec, the traditional 
office of one in charge of providing 
water for Mecca pilgrims); watering 
place; drinking vessel 

J*«* misqd pi. JL~» masdqin (eg.) irri- 
gation canal 

SLSL*. musdqdk sharecropping contract 
over the lease of a plantation, limited 
to one crop period (Isl. Law) 



istisqa" dropsy; (Mor.) irriga- 
tion | *ULJUVi »'>t^ salat al-ist. prayer 
for rain 

(JLa-JL-I istisqa 'i dropsical, hydropic 

JL- sdqin pi. Sli- suqah cupbearer, 
Ganymede, saki 

ISL. sdqiya barmaid; — (pi. J!j- so* 
wdqin) rivulet; irrigation ditch, irrigation 
canal; water scoop; sakieh, water wheel 

ilL* sakka u (sakk) to lock, bolt (a the door); 
to mint, coin (a money); — sakka (1st 
pers. perf. sakiktu) a (^JO sakak) and 
VIII to be or become deaf 

kfJL sakk minting (of coins) | di- *JLa. 
4i**JI maslahat s. al~ r umla governmental 
mint 

l$l*> siklca pi. di£- sikak (minting) 
die; coin; road; (eg.) sidestreet, lane 
(narrower than 9-jLi JidrV) | -b-U-l i£— 
and 4j.Aj.U-! SSLjl railroad; -w^jj ^*" 
(zird'lya) field path, dirt road; aSLJ\ jli 
mint 

OlSL- sukkan pi. -at rudder 



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tiJLl asakk 2 , f. »ISC** sakkd 32 , pi. iJL» 
su&jfc deaf 

aS~j>l~* masfcw&a pi. -a£ coin; drain 
hole (iwn.) | olf^UJ Jp *ilm aZ-m. nu- 
mismatics 

•jl£** sigdra pi. ,/Bw sagair 2 (Syrian spell- 
ing) cigarette 



jlSC* oz&Srfn saccharin 



(/.- 



»_-S^- sabaka u (sabk) to pour, pour out (a a 
liquid; also fig., one's heart); to shed (a 
tears); to found, cast (* metal) VII to 
pour forth, be poured out, be shed; to 
gush forth; to pour down (rain) 

v^Sl* sakab (coll.; n. un. 2) anemone 
(bot.) 

k_--Sv- saktb shed, spilled 

iw^L- sakiba drink offering, libation 

(^iw maskab pi. u»TL. masdkib 2 melt- 
ing pot, crucible; smeltery 

t-^liwil insihdb effusion 

ujJ'U sdkib: »UI c-i'U Aquarius (con- 
stellation; astron.) 

ij^Sw. maskubiya melting pot, crucible 

r-LSL- sakbdj meat cooked in vinegar 

t^L- sakata u {sakt, &j$~» sukut, o&L- sw* 
jfcaf) to be silent, say nothing; to become 
silent, lap§e into silence; to be or be- 
come quiet, calm down, subside; to pass 
over s.th, (^) in silence; not to answer 
(jjc s.o.); not to express an opinion (js on 
a problem or about a fact); pass, sukita 
to have a stroke (med.) | u-^aii! <c*p £*£*- 
(gadab) his anger abated II to silence, 
calm, soothe, pacify (a, « s.o., s.th.); to 
order to be silent, hush up (« s.o.) IV do.; 
to conceal, refuse to tell (a s.th.) 



c-SC- sakt silence; taciturnity, reti- 
cence | cuiUi J* silently, in silence, quietly 

^cSL- sakta silence, quiet; stroke, apo- 
plexy (med.) | ys hSL* (qalhiya) heart 
failure 

olSL. sukdt silence; taciturnity, ret- 
icence 

£jj$L* sukut silence; taciturnity, ret- 
icence; see also alphabetically 

iXjSL- sukuti taciturn, reticent 

Cjj$L- sakut taciturn, reticent 

£~£i» sikkit habitually silent 

vT.i'U' sdkit silent, mum; taciturn, ret- 
icent; still, quiet, calm, tranquil; quiea-, 
cent (letter) 

*^L* II to shut, close, lock, bolt (a a.fch.; 
chiefly st/r., leb.) 

2 JrL* sakira a (sakar, sukr) to be drunk; to 
get drunk, become intoxicated IV to 
make drunk, intoxicate, inebriate (» 
s.o.) VI to pretend to be drunk 

JiL* sukr intoxication, inebriety, drunk- 
enness 

J^> sakar an intoxicant; wine 

IJsL* sakra pi. sakardt inebriety, in- 
toxication, drunkenness | O^U S^C- 
5. al-maut agony of death 

jljSL* sakrdn 2 , f. cSy£- sakra, pi. ^jlSw 
sukdrd, sakdra drunk, intoxicated; a 
drunk | £J# d\jSL> (Una) (colloq.) dead 
drunk; y^JU b\j&* (nas-r) drunk with 
victory 

jSL* sikkir drunkard, heavy drinker 

ySv^w. muskir pi. -at alcoholic beverage, 
intoxicating liquor 



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3 J SL- II to sugar, sprinkle with sugar {* s.th.) ; 
to candy, preserve with sugar (» s.th.) 

j$L*> 3ukkar sugar; pV _/""!£- sakdkir 2 
sweetmeats, confectionery, candies J 
j>cJ\ Jy~" 8. al-banjar beet sugar; Js** 
j\fl\ fructose, levulose, fruit sugar; JsL* 
j*J^\ maltose, malt sugar; *_-a*J1 jS-L* 
s. aVinab dextro-glucose, dextrose, grape 
sugar; i_~*aDl J>L* s. at-qasab saccharose, 
sucrose, cane sugar; <>JJi j£*>* s. al-laban 
lactose, milk sugar; oLxJl J>~* s.an-nabdt 
sugar candy, rock candy; j$U\ ^-^5 
qasab ass. sugar cane; ^SUl ^j* marad 
ass. and^^Ji #b diabetes (med.) 

iS^*" sukkari sugar (adj.), sugary, like 
sugar, saccharine ; £j\±J>~* confectionery; 
sweetmeats, candy | (jjSU\ 6jJ\ ^j* 
{marad al-baul) and <jj$LJ\ ^JA diabe- 
tes [med.) 

4iJ$^ sukkarlya sugar bowl 

£>\^L»* musakkardt confectionery, 
sweetmeats, candy 

4 SjlSC^ pi. j?l£L- look up alphabetically 

5 L>r^w. look up alphabetically 

olj^SC- (It. sicurtd) sikurtdh insurance 

ojIj^SL- (Fr. secretariat) sekretdrlya secre- 
tariat; secretaryship 

jjj£- (It. scarto) sikartd cotton waste 

jw£- (Fr. secretaire) sekreter secretary | jjj^* 
A* {'dmm) secretary-general 

SjrJ^L- sekretera pi. -at secretary (fcm.) 

~4jjuj$L* sekreteriya secretariat 

4>-jSL- sukurruja, sukruja pi. £.j&*- saka* 
rlf bowl; platter, plate 

jjjS^ sukroz saccharose, sucrose 



j/ jSC- sukkarin saccharin 

<iJL5L- II tasaksaka to behave in a servile 
manner 

&L-5L- suksuka wren (?) 

dJLis-J tasaksuk servility 

Ji^-iC- saksonl Saxonian; Saxon 
LJ^-SL- saksoniyd Saxonia 

*5l- V to grope about (^LJLUJl az-zulmata in 
the dark); to loiter, loaf, hang around; to 
proceed aimlessly, dawdle, potter | Jf t>zj* 
*SC«Ui d~j»- (haitu t-tasakkvCu) to drive 
s.o. out into the dark, leave s.o. to an 
uncertain fate 

ij»l&- sakkdf shoemaker 

4alSL- sikdfa shoemaker's trade, shoe- 
making 

<J»ISL-1 iskdf and j&L-l iskdjl pi. 
^a5~LS asdkifa shoemaker 

dj&l*\ uskuffa threshold, doorstep; 
lintel; window sill 

<jS~l^ sdkif lintel 

4JSCI pi. JTUl look up alphabetically 

1 j5^- sakana u (u^£~- sukun) to be or be- 
come still, tranquil, peaceful; to calm 
down, repose, rest; {gram.) to be vowel- 
less (consonant, i.e., have no vowel im- 
mediately following); to abate, subside, 
remit, cease (anger, pain, and the like); 
to pass, go away {^ from s.o., pain), 
leave {jc s.o., pain); to remain calm, 
unruffled (Jl at, in the face of); to be 
reassured (J, Jf by); to rely (J, Jl on), 
trust, have faith (J, Jl in); to feel at 
home ( J I in, at) ; — sakana u (sakan, JSL- 
suknd) to live, dwell (<-> or j, * in), inhab- 
it (^j or j, * s.th.) II to calm (a, s.o., 



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s.th.), reassure, appease, placate {* s.o.), 
soothe, allay, alleviate (a pain, and the 
like); (gram.) to make vowelless (a a 
consonant, i.e., pronounce it without a 
following vowel) III to live together, 
share quarters (j » with s.o. in) IV to 
give or allocate living quarters (a to 
s.o.); to settle, lodge, put up (a * s.o. in) 
VI to live together, share quarters 

jjSC- sakan means or time for rest; 
dwelling, abode, habitation; inhabited 
area, human habitations; {pal.) ashes | 
j£*> ,jk^ inhabited areas 

^£L- aakanl housing (in compounds); 
(pal.) ashen, ash-gray | ^5L- jLli* = 
jySC- jL»L«; V^-*" ^^» housing or home- 
building industry 

IcSL- sakana pi. -at condition or state 
of rest [ 4L. cS^-j '&f- JS" (harakatin) 
everything that he does or doesn't do, 
his total life; <uU£-j «olf^ j /i harakfc 
tihl wa-sakandtihi in all his doings; in 
every situation 

~<£l»> sakina pi. -at residence, home 

OjSC-> sukun calm, tranquillity, peace; 
silence, quiet; state of rest; (gram.) vowel- 
lessness of a medial consonant; the graph- 
ic symbol of this vowellessness | j^SC- 
yiLJ! seriousness, sedateness, gravity 

aJ^SC- sukuniya immobility; lack of 
development, quiescence 

jl£L- sakkdn cutler 

Ol£L- sukkdn pi. -a( rudder 

(>£L- sikkin m. and f., pi. ^S^lSL- .sa* 
kdkin 2 knife 

i-iL- sakina pi. ^ ISC— sakain 2 imma- 
nence of God, presence of God; devout, 
God-inspired peace of mind; calm, tran- 
quillity, peace 

41SL* sikklna knife 



j£- suknd living, dwelling; stay, so- 
journ; residence, abode | J£UI j£ ma- 
hall ass. place of residence 

^S'ftL* sakakini cutler 

jjSL** maskan, maskin pi. J^U*» ma? 
sakin 2 dwelling, abode, habitation; house; 
home, residence, domicile | 4~*-i J^U* 
(mblya) low-income housing; S^lijfL* 
luxury homes 

^\$LS taskln pacification, tranquiliza- 
tion, placation 

<jl£L-l iskdn settling, settlement; allo- 
cation of living quarters; housing devel- 
opment; housing, home construction 

jTU sakin pi. -un, k$l* sakana, f. 
Jf \j*> sawakin* calm, motionless, still ; — 
vowelless (medial consonant); stagnant, 
standing (water); static (electricity); 
(pi. jlSL- sukkan, 4^— sakana) dweller, 
inhabitant, resident, occupant; jlSLJl the 
population | uLJU jTU inhabitant of Par- 
adise, deceased person, one of blessed 
memory ; J^U J*- (html) dead load, dead 
weight; c^U aJj*- (humula) dead- weight 
tonnage (of ships); O J?^ {«^0-<*) con- 
sonant; ulSC^Ji jc^ populous; iiyi *j 
US'U (yuharriku) he doesn't budge, he 
doesn't bend his little finger, he remains 
immobile, apathetic; «c5^L- ii^p- (sakina* 
lift) to rouse, agitate s.o. 

eilSw sukkani affecting or concerning 
the residents | aJISC- SjLiJ (ziyada) pop- 
ulation increase; iJlSw iwUS" (katdfa) 
population density 

UjSL— maskun populated, inhabited; 
{Tun.) manned (spacecraft); haunted 
(place); possessed (person) | '*jjSL«* jIjlI! 
the house is haunted 

4j_jSLJ.I al-maskuna the inhabited world, 
the world 

i}j£~~ * maskunl ecumenical (Chr.) 



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<J^SC — LI al-maskuniya the eeuracne 
{Chr.) 

(jSL-» musakkin pacifier, soother; (pi. 
-at) sedative, tranquilizer 

^jTl*. musdkin pi. -un fellow citizen, 
neighbor 

2 ol«. and {jSL~* pi. ^S l~« look up alpha- 
betically 

j^~>^SL> sakanjabin oxymel (pharm.) 

LiL-uSC-- sikandindfiyd and SjUjlSv-- sikandU 
nawa Scandinavia 

^Vi xSv-i sikandmcLfl Scandinavian 

Cjj>L> (Hebr. sukkot) : o^SCJI Jup 'Id ass. 
Sukkoth, Feast of Tabernacles (Jud.) 

£** ski ski 

Lojij>S^- skizofrlfifja schizophrenia 

1 J-* sal imperative of JL- saala 

2 J— salla u (sail) to pull out, withdraw, or 
remove gently (a s.th.); pass, sulla to 
have pulmonary tuberculosis, be con- 
sumptive V to steal away, slink away, 
slip away, escape; to worm one's way (^j 
between), slip through; to creep or sneak, 
enter quietly (<J into); to crawl (Jl 
into, toward); to slip, slink, sneak, nteal 
(Jl into); to betake o.s., go (Jl to, with 
secret designs); to invade, infiltrate, 
enter (J) s.th.); to reach (J( s.o.), spread 
(Jl to a place, e.g., rumor); to penetrate 
(J to, as far as) VII to steal away, slink 
away, slip away, escape; to slip through; 
to sneak, steal {J! into); to infiltrate (Jl 
s.th., also pol.); to advance singly or in 
small groups (troops in the field; miL); 
to have pulmonary tuberculosis, be con- 
sumptive YIII to pull out or remove 



gently (a s.th.); to withdraw gently 
(a s.th., e.g., <uT kajfahu one's hand, ^ 
from); to unsheathe, draw (a the sword); 
to wrest, snatch (a ,y» from s.o. s.th.) 

J-* sail basket 

J*- sill, sull consumption, phthisis, tu- 
berculosis | JjJtJI J-Jl (tadarruni) tuber- 
culosis; <jyj\ J-JI (riawi) pulmonary 
tuberculosis 

iL- salla pi. J^- sildl basket | iL. 
<ij">L^ii s. al-muhmaldt wastepaper basket ; 
UJI * J* kurat ass. basketball 

JJL salil drawn (sword); descendant, 
scion, son. 

*lJu salila, p\. J5^- sald'il 2 (female) 
descendant 

J}U sallal basketmaker, basket weaver 

4j^U sulala pi. -at descendant, scion; 
progeny, offspring; family; race; strain, 
stock, provenience (of industrial plants) ; 
artificially bred variety (of plants, ani- 
mals) | ^jy^JI oV^LJI 1p (basariya) eth- 
nology 

J^L- suldli family (adj.) 

«L- misalla pi. -at, Jl~* tnasaW large 
needle, pack needle; obelisk 

JJLJ tasallul infiltration (pol.); offside 
position (in football, hockey, etc.) 

J^LjI insildl infiltration (pol.) 

djL^ masliU consumptive, affected 
with pulmonary tuberculosis 

JL-L* mutasallil infiltrator 

IL*. mustalla pi. -at offprint (tr.) 

^L. salaa a (saV) to clarify (a butter) 

**&* siW pi. a1L»I aslia clarified butter 

&^L- salata salad 



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j^t- suldvi Slavic; (pi. ~un) Slav 
j^5*>U saldqun red lead, minium 

J^L- see ji- 

dLj^ salanik 2 Saloniea (seaport in NE 
Greece) 

tJU salaba u (salb) to take away, steal, 
wrest, snatch (j* e> or a o from s.o. s.th.), 
rob, strip, dispossess, deprive (,> * or 
a t> s.o. of s.th.); to plunder, rifle, loot (* 
s.o., * s.th.); to strip of arms and clothing 
(o a fallen enemy); to withhold (a * 
from s.o. s.th.), deny (a « to s.o. s.th.); 
— saliba a (salab) to put on or wear 
mourning, be in mourning V to be in 
mourning VIII = salaba 

^JL salb spoliation, plundering, loot- 
ing, pillage, robbing; negation | ioW 
i_JLJI "aldmat ass. minus sign (math.); 
LL- ul>l (salbari) to answer in the 
negative 

^gJU sa£fc? negative {also eZ.); passive j 
^LJI pU-Jl or SjJLJl i-jUil (muqdwama) 
passive resistance 

iJL* salblya pi. -a£ negativism, nega- 
tive attitude; negative (phot.); pi, oL-U 
negative sides (of s.th.) 

lJL* saZafc pi. <_>*>U aslab loot, booty, 
plunder, spoils; hide, shanks and belly 
of a slaughtered animal; — ropes, 
hawsers (eg.) 

<->*$** silab pi. *_JL- sulub black clothing, 
mourning (worn by women) 

i_j^U sallab robber, plunderer, looter 

u--l— saltb stolen, taken, wrested away 

^^L-i uslub pi. *_~JL-1 asdlib 2 method, 
way, procedure; course; manner, mode, 
fashion; style (esp. literary); stylistic pe- 



culiarity (of an author) | jUT v>^ 
(H£d&S) literary style 

t-j'^b-.i istilab spoliation, plundering, 
looting, pillage, robbing 

«_JL- salib negative (adj.); (pi. tjlj- 
sawdlib 2 ) Q negative (phot.) 

i~>jL~* maslub unsuccessful 

X.-.L- salaband martingale (of the harness) 

cJ— salata i u to extract, pull out (a s.th.); 
to chop off (a s.th., esp. a part of the 
body) VII to steal away, slip away 

^L- salg (eg.) = jL. 

J^^J- saljuql Seljuk, Seljukian; pi. ii*-:AJl 
as-saldjiqa the Seljuks 

/JL* saljam turnip (Brassica rapa; bot.); (eg.) 
rape (Brassica napus; bot.) 

^JU salaha a (salh) to void excrement; to 
drop dung (bird) II to arm (a * s.o. with) 
V to arm o.s. VI to engage in battle, 
fight, cross swords 



and -oL* sulah excrements, 



dung, droppings 

£^L- sildh pi. i*J— ! asliha arm, weapon; 
arms, weapons ; service (as a branch of the 
armed forces); armor; steel gripper, steel 
claw; plowshare | «j>*JI t^ $* al-bah- 
rlya navy; ILeali *•%* s. al-midfa r hja 
artillery; jlj^UI ^*>U s. at-tayardn air 
force; jL-^iJi ^%* s. al-fursdn cavalry; 
JLi iJ +z}\ £-">U army nurse corps; Still ^>L< 
s. al-miisdh infantry; ^jS ^'^U (darn) 
atomic weapon; \jy *>JL— I (nawawlya) 
nuclear weapons; ^*>Ul iiLi sa&& as-s. 
bristling with arms, armed to the teeth; 
aj-^L- L- sallama silahahu to lay down 
one's arms, surrender 



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jlo*- 1 ^- sildhdar sword-bearer, shield- 
bearer, squire 

~JL- salih pi. -un apostle (Chr.) 

~JLj taslih pi. -of arming, equipping; 
armament, rearmament; armoring, rein- 
forcement (in ferroconcrete construction) 

rJLJ tasalluh armament, rearmament | 
JLa)I JL** st^a^ af-(. arms race 

*«L~ • musattih armorer 

^L*t musallah armed; armored, rein- 
forced (with steel); — Fr. armi \ cAyb\ 
l*JLil (quwwat) the armed forces; C-JjH 
«L~* (asmanf) ferroconcrete, reinforced 
concrete; o*L~. 4JL*^»- (karsana) do.; 
~L* r-Uj (zujaj) wired glass 



•U*JU sulahfah, silahfdh pi. 
turtle, tortoise 



t>U saldkif 2 
ijU>«L- sulahfalya dawdling, dilatori- 



^U satofca a « <saZ&) to pull off, strip off 
(a s.th.); to skin, flay (a an animal); 
to detach (jp a s.th. from); to end, 
terminate, conclude, bring to a close (a 
a period of time); to spend (a a period 
of time, j doing s.th.) Y to peel (skin, 
from sunburn) VII to be stripped off, 
be shed (skin, slough); to shed, cast off 
iCf> t> tne a l° u gh> tne skin), strip off, 
take off (£t, <> clothing); to abandon, 
give up, cast off (a a trait, a quality) ; to 
get detached (jp, <> from), come off 
iCf' o*)"> *>° withdraw, retire (j* from); 
to pass, end (month) 

^JL salk detaching; skinning, flaying; 
snakeskin, slough; end of the month 

£vL salk: £JL «_*£*• (kasab) (barkless) 
soft wood, alburnum, sapwood 

r\A- sallak pi. c, -un skinner, flayer 



~JU salik skinned, flayed; tasteless, 
insipid (food) 

iiJU sallka Chinese cinnamon tree 
{Cinnamomum cassia; hot.); cinnamon 
bark, cassia bark 

SjUJL salkdna pi. -at slaughterhouse, 
abattoir 

j^JL* maslak pi. J-U* masalik 2 slaughter- 
house, abattoir 

i-^— * mislak snakeskin, slough 

mJLJL* munsalak end of the month 

( _ r JL saZtsa o (salas, 4-^t- salasa) to be trac- 
table, docile, compliant, obedient; to be 
smooth, flowing, fluent (style) IV to 
make tractable, render obedient, sub- 
due (a, « 8.O., s.th.); to make easy, 
smooth, fluent (a s.th.) 

^^JL salas incontinence of urine 

^JL salts tractable, pliable, docile, 
compliant, obedient; flexible, smooth, 
fluent (style) | ^LSJl ^JL- s. al-qiyad 
tractable, pliable, docile, compliant, obe- 
dient 

X*%* salasa tractability, pliability, 
docility, compliance, obedience (also 
iLSJl **?&*> 8. al-qiyad) ; smoothness, 
fluency (of style) 

,jJL<1 aslas z more tractable, more 
pliable, more obedient; more flexible, 
smoother, more fluent 

J~wL- salsablP' name of a spring in Para- 
dise; spring, well 

J-JL- salsala to link together, concatenate, 
interlink, interlock, connect, unite (a 
s.th. v with) ; to chain up, enchain, fetter, 
shackle (a s.o.); to pour (j- »lil water 
into) | Jl *UL to trace s.o.'s lineage 
back to s.o. II tasalsala to flow down, 



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trickle (in a continuous stream) ; to drip, 
dribble, fall in drops (water); to form a 
chain or series, be continuous ; to be 
interlinked, interlocked, linked together, 
concatenate 

J-JU salsal cool fresh water 

UJU silsila pi. J-oU saldsil 2 iron 
chain; chain (also fig.) J series (of essays, 
articles, etc.) | JLA-J ^i— U mountain 
chain; oUJU- SLJL- s. halaqat serial (TV); 
^^1 UJL- 5. az-zakr backbone, vertebral 
column; Sj^fiiJI <LUI (jaqrlya) do.; 
i_-jilTi UJU fabric of lies; i r *JUl UJU 
s. an-nasab lineage, line of ancestors; 
«JLJL- J«i /»"! s. chain reaction 

JJLJ tasalsvl sequence, succession; 
continuous progress, continuity (of events, 
etc.) | J-JLULj without interruption, suc- 
cessively, consecutively, continuously ; 
^j J...LJ (zamani) continuous temporal 
sequence, time continuity; JJLUl *5j 
raqmat-t. (also only JJLJ) serial number; 
JJLju eyJJ to serialize s.th., publish s.th. 
in serial form 

JJL*. mumlsal chained; continuous 
(numbering); published or broadcast as 
a serial; (pi. -at) serial, sequence (esp. 
TV, radio) | JJL*. J*i ij (raddu fi'lin) 
and JJL~. JpUj (tafd'ul) chain reaction; 
UJL-. 4j Ijj (riwdya) a novel or television 
drama appearing in installments; 31,11 
»ll (mar' a) Andromeda (astron.) 



> musalsala pi. -a/ serial, sequence 
(TV, radio) 

J.J U mutasalsil continuous (number- 
ing) | JJLJU JpUj (tafd'ul) chain reaction 

1 J*L* II to give (o s.o.) power or mastery 
( Jp over), set up as overlord, establish as 
ruler (Jp « s.o. over); to impose, inflict 
(Jp a a penalty on s.o.); to bring to 
bear, exert (a force, pressure, and the 
like, Jp on); to load, charge (J* a s.th. i 



with electric current) | ^-~ ul aJp IjJaL 
(aidiyahum) they laid violent hands on. . ., 
dealt high-handedly with . . . ; <uU J«L 
uj^JI to set the dogs on s.o.; *j*M\ JaL 
Jp (daua), Jp »ijJ»Vl JaL- (atfa>a'a) to 
throw (new) light on, illuminate s.th., 
cause s.th. to stand out clearly; to put 
s.o. in the spotlight V to overcome, sur- 
mount (Jp s.th.); to overpower, over- 
whelm (Jp s.o.); to prevail, gain the 
upperhand (Jp over), get the better of 
(Jp); to be absolute master (J* of), rule, 
reign, hold sway (Jp over); to control, 
supervise, command (Jp s.th.) 

ikL- sulta pi. sulutdt, iaL- sulat power, 
might, strength; authority; sway, do- 
minion, influence, sovereign power, juris- 
diction; (pi. -at) official agency, author- 
ity | ^j.jj'V <LU! (abawlya) paternal 
authority; patriarchy; l^>~jj\ aLLJI (ru* 
hlya) spiritual power; Lju^^UI <LLJI 
(tasrlHya) legislative power; hJ>L~£. 4kL 
('askariya) military authority; olUJi 
Li*) I Cut yd) the highest authorities (Tun. 
also UUI J*U1); 5jjU*i-*VI ilaUl colonial 
government; ijLaill ikLJl (qadd'lya) 
judicial power; \xJc^>\ SLUi (tanjidlya) 
executive power 

SisJL salta jacket 

iaJ— sallt strong, solid, firm; glib; im- 
pudent, sharp, loose, vicious (tongue) 

^^U saldta glibness; impudence, lack 
of restraint (in one's language) ; see also 
alphabetically | OUUI <1?^U 3. al-lisdn 
sharp -tonguedness, causticity 

izJLJ tasallut mastery, sway, dominion ; 
rule, influence, authority, supremacy ( Jp 
over); supervision, control 

2 jJJu- salata and &*>U saldta salad 

~lal- III ~kU islantaha to be broad, be wide 



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J»^U sulatih wide 

jUL- saltana to proclaim sultan, establish as 
ruler (» s.o.) II ^Ui— J iasaltana to be- 
come sultan or ruler 

iiaL- saltana sultanate 

dlUL sultan {rarely f.) power, might, 
strength; rule, reign, dominion, sway; 
authority; mandate, authorization; legit- 
imation (v for); — (pi. ^ioU salatin 2 ) 
sultan; (absolute) ruler | *>LrJ dlLL- 
s. ibrdhim red mullet (Mullus barbatus ; 
zooZ.); olkU ^ <u *i>! JjM U (anzala lldhu) 
(lit.: God has revealed no legitimation 
for it; with preceding indeterminate 
noun) vain, unfounded, baseless, arbi- 
trary 

iiUaJL- sultana sultana, sultaness 

JILL- sultdm of the sultan; sovereign, 
imperial, royal | jlLJ- Jij» imperial high- 
way 

<JLkL- sultdniya soup bowl, tureen; 
large metal bowl 

*L sali'a a (sala e ) to crack, become cracked 
VII to split, break open, burst 

*JL- saV pi. rJLt suW crack, fissure, 
rift 

d*L- siVa pi. *L« siZa r commodity, 
commercial article; sebaceous cyst, w T en 

l yL< sila e % portaining to commodities 
or commercial goods | ^yJUi iH^*-Vi the 
consumption of commodities 



>JiL salafa u {salaf) to be over, be past, be 
bygone; to precede, antecede II to lend, 
loan, advance (a a to s.o. money) IV to 
make (a s.th.) precede; to lend, loan, 
advance {a a to s.o. money) | (J_>a") b-iL-l 
(^auZ) we have already said, we have 
previously stated; UJu-1 lT as we have 



already said V to borrow (<> a s.th. from); 
to contract a loan VIII = V 

»JjJU silf pi. Js "st-i asJa/ brother-in-law 

UJL- siZ/a sister-in-law 

»JJL- sa/a/ and pi. «J»^U asZd/ prede- 
cessors; forebears, ancestors, forefathers; 
<JaJU advance payment, prepayment; free 
loan, noninterest -bearing loan; UJL* sa* 
lafan in advance, beforehand, before | 
lUall eJaUt the worthy ancestors, the 
venerable forefathers 

\jL* salafiya pi. -at free loan; (cash) 
advance 

ILiLJl as-salafiya an Islamic reform 
movement in Egypt, founded by Mo- 
hammed 'Abduh (1849—1905) 

JL- salaf i belonging to the Salafiya ; 
(pi. -tin) an adherent of the Salafiya 

<aL* sulfa pi. (JJU s^Za/ loan; (cash) 
advance; inner lining of shoes, inner 
sole 

*J»"^U 5w/a/ choicest wine (made of the 
juice flowing from unpressed grapes) 

4*^ suldfa — <J*^L- suldf 

*LaL- sulafa' 2 predecessors 

, mislafa harrow 



»J»JLJ tasllf credit, advance | 
(^jUp ('aqdri) mortgage; JaXJ}\ ^ si'r 
at-t. rate of interest; <JtJLlJI iiki credit 
bank 

ii-JLj tasllfa credit, loan | iiJLJ 
ij jU^ fogariya) land credit 

tJJU saK/ pi. *J»JU salaf, *J»*>U sulldf, 
iJa}\j^ sawdlip preceding, foregoing, 
former, previous, bygone, past; prede- 
cessor; UJU sdlifan formerly, previously; 
above (as a reference in books, etc.) | 
£■!.*»- VI ijtl\j- former, or past, events; 
^j}\ uJtJL- s. ad-dikr aforementioned; 



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^j^jJl (JJL- s.al-'arus amaranth (hot); 
jLjJI *JJU j f% s. iz-zamdn in former 
times, in the old days 



»JiJtj- sawatif 2 
whiskers 



g.) sideburns, side 



1 oliL- sulfat sulfate | j^lliJI C>UL- 5. an- 
nu$adir ammonium sulfate 



salfata to asphalt (a s.th.) 
iuL* salfata asphalt paving, asphalting 
musalfat asphalted 



sulfid sulfide 

jL- salaqa u (salq) to lacerate the skin (0 
of s.o.; with a whip); to remove with 
boiling water (a s.th.); to boil, cook in 
boiling water (a s.th.); to scald (a plants; 
said of excessive heat); to hurt (> s.o., 
4jLmJLj bi-lisdnihl with one's tongue, i.e., 
give s.o. a tongue-lashing) V to ascend, 
mount, climb, scale (a s.th.); to climb 
up (plant, person), rise 

^L- salq {eg.), silq a variety of chard, 
the leaves of which are prepared as a 
salad or vegetable dish 

JbUl as-sulldq Ascension of Christ 

4j:>U salaqa vicious tongue, violent 
language 

SJJJL sallqa pi. Jjt>U salaiq 2 dish made 
of grain cooked with sugar, cinnamon 
and fennel (syr.); inborn disposition, in- 
stinct 

DjJtL- salaqun and djs%* salaqun red 
lead, minium 

j^t- saldql saluki, greyhound, hunting 
dog 

t3ji-* salilqi saluki, greyhound, hunting 
dog 



jLJ tasalluq climbing; ascent; moun- 
tain climbing, scaling 

l^L*. tnasluq cooked, boiled (meat, 
egg, vegetable) 

^L** masluqa pi. jJL~» masaliq 2 bouil- 
lon, broth 

^Llll oUUJl an-nabatat al-mutasaU 
liqa climbing plants, creepers 

diL salaka u (sallc, iS^L suluk) to follow 
(a a road), travel (a along a road); to 
take (a a road), enter upon a course or 
road (a; fig.); to behave, comport o.s. 
(y£ toward s.o.); to proceed, act; to set 
foot {a on), enter (a a place); — salaka 
(salk) to insert (j a s.th. in), stick (j a 
s.th. into); to pass (a thread, Sj-^fl J 
through the eye of a needle), thread a 
needle j 1ULJI ,3 <SCL- (silsila) to chain 
s.o. up II to clean, clear (a s.th., esp. 
pipelines, canals, etc.); to unreel, un- 
wind {a yarn); to clarify, unravel, dis- 
entangle {IaJU* \j*\ amran miiaqqadan 
a complicated affair) IV to insert (j a 
s.th. in), stick (<j a s.th. into); to pass 
(a thread, Sj-Vl J, through the eye of a 
needle), thread a needle 

dii- silk pi. ibul asldk thread; string 
(also, of a musical instrument) ; line; wire; 
wire rope, cable (e.g., of a funicular); 
rail (Mor.); — organization, body; pro- 
fession (as a group or career); corps; ca- 
dre j ^jVl diL s. alard or ^jVi dUI 
(ardi) ground wire; \j£- ihA-J (bahrlya) 
underwater cable; O cij'^-' dii-JI (ha* 
rurl) filament (of a radio tube); O tfJL. Jl 
C*dW (mutahakkim) grid (of a radio 
tube); ^j-UJl diLJl (J^-j) (siyasi) dip- 
lomatic corps; ~<&>jJ$\ <iiU s, as-surta the 
police; dL'LiJl diLJl barbed wire; O *lil— 
JljJI jU-^VI fuse (el); ^Ldl diLJl 
(tallmi) the teaching profession, the 
teachers; *Uii!l dJL* s. al-qadcu the judi- 
ciary, the judicature; O fj^i dU\ 



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(muqdwim) resistor {el.); O uMji>l dJUl 
[hawa'i) antenna, aerial; (Jl) j JixJl 
diL to be a member of an organi- 
zation and the like; to join an organiza- 



tion and the like, e.g., Jl p 



iSj>~)\ dlLJI (bahri) entrance into the 
navy (as also dlL j ^J^\) 

t 5-L- 1 silki by wire, wire (adj.) 

^5^-*^ la-silki wireless; radio, broad- 
casting (adj. and n.); radiogram; radio 
specialist | ^LSX-V SjUl (Ham) radio 
message; tJX-V J*U radio operator 

&X- silka pi. diU silak wire; thread; 
string (also, of a musical instrument) 

i}jL> suluk behavior, comportment, 
demeanor, manners; conduct, deport- 
ment, attitude | fJ^UJl ( y^- hvsn ass. 
good behavior, good manners; JU-i ? 5 
iljJUl or d)jLJ\ t-jiiT etiquette 

^SjL* suluki behavioral, behavioristic j 
^fjLJ\ ^jbJlil (madhah) behaviorism, 
science of behavior 

^LS^U suluklya behavioral science, be- 
haviorism 

diU* maslak pi. dill— masdlik 2 way, 
road, path; (mor.) country road, highway ; 
course of action, policy; procedure, 
method J ^J^JI dill — 11 (bauliya) the uri- 
nary passages {anat.); »[^J1 dllL.- m. al- 
hawa the respiratory passages (anat.); 
15\L*. diU to enter upon a course (fig.) 

$L*a maslakl professional, vocational, 
industrial, trade (adj.) 

dLLJ tasllk cleaning, clearing 

dJIU salik passable, practicable (road); 
entered upon (course); clear, open, not 
blocked, not obstructed (also anat,); 
(pi. -un) one who follows the spirit ual 
path (esp., myst.) 



i\jL»* Tnasluk passable, practicable 
(road) ; entered upon (course) 

i— salima a (<.">U salama, **&* salam) to 
be safe and sound, unharmed, unim- 
paired, intact, safe, secure; to be un- 
objectionable, blameless, faultless; to be 
certain, established, clearly proven (fact) ; 
to be free (j- from); to escape (^ a 
danger) II to preserve, keep from in- 
jury, protect from harm (* s.o.), save 
(^ c s.o. from); to hand over intact 
(a s.th., J or Jl to s.o.); to hand over, 
turn over, surrender (a, » s.o., s.th., J 
or Jl to s.o.); to deliver (a J or Jl to s.o. 
s.th.) ; to lay down (a arms) ; to surrender, 
give o.s. up (J or Jl to); to submit, 
resign o.s. (<J or J! to); to greet, salute 
(Jp s.o.); to grant salvation (God to 
the Prophet); to admit, concede, grant 
(uj s.th.) ; to consent (<~> to s.th.), approve 
(uj of s.th.), accept, sanction, condone 
(e-> s.th.) | 4>i i Jl »j^l i- (amrahu) to 
commit one's cause to God, resign o.s. 
to the will of God; <>o~jj i- {ruhahu) to 
give up the ghost; j^i\ < .,.>- o 1— < 
(nafasahu) to breathe one's last, be in 
the throes of death; iJ *j)jJ] 4— ij L* 
(najsahu) to give o.s. up to the police; 
lAJ*£\j J-J-i Jc aJI L- (husna, isd'a) 
to put o.s. at s.o.'s mercy; 4JU J ( i- 
(sallim) give him my best regards! re- 
member me to him! L-j aJ* <u;l J-^ (sattd) 
God bless him and grant him salvation 
(eulogy after the name of the Prophet 
Mohammed) III to keep the peace, make 
one's peace, make up (« with s.o.) 
IV to forsake, leave, desert, give up, betray 
(« s.o.); to let sink, drop (aJuTj Jl 4-lj 
rasahu i. rukbataihi one's head to one's 
knees); to hand over, turn over (Jl to 
s.o., a or e s.o. or s.th.) ; to leave, abandon 
( Jl a s.th. to s.o.) ; to deliver up, surrender, 
expose (Jl a s.o. to); to commit o.s., re- 
sign o.s. (<oi to the will of God, with 
ellipsis of 4— J6 or *^1); (1*1 alone:) 



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496 



to declare o.s. committed to the will of 
God, become a Muslim, embrace Islam | 
Aii\ J I aja\ i-1 (amrahu) to commit 
one's cause to God, resign o.s. to the will 
of God; (rjjJl) *^jj i*-i (ruhaku) to 
give up the ghost V to get, obtain (a 
s.th.); to receive (a s.th.); to have (a 
s.th.) handed over or delivered; to take 
over, assume (a the management of 
s.th.) | Jp-I ■aJIjs* J—j (w. al-hukm) to 
take (the reins of) power VI to become 
reconciled with one another, make peace 
with one another VIII to touch, graze (a 
s.th.); to receive, get, obtain (a s.th.); to 
take over (a s.th.), take possession (a of) 
X to surrender, capitulate; to give way, 
submit, yield, abandon o.s. (J or Jl to 
s.th.) ; to give o.s. over ( J or Jl to s.th. ; to 
a man, said of a woman) ; to lend o.s., be a I 
party (J or Jl to s.th.) ; to succumb (J to) j 

i- salm peace ! 

L- silm m. and f. peace; the religion \ 
of Islam | yU J- Calamiya) world peace; i 
LJ! ^^ hubb ass. pacifism 

^jJL silmi peaceful; pacifist 

L- salam forward buying {Isl. Law); 
a variety of acacia 

L- sullam pi. J^U saldlim 2 , £-^~" 
saldlim 2 ladder; (flight of) stairs, stair- 
case; stair, step, running board; (wires.) 
scale; means, instrument, tool (fig.) | \ 
iS^i* L> (mutaharrik) escalator; diving 
board; CjL> J-* platform; SUJI L- s. an- 
najdh fire escape; fireman's ladder 

SJU sullama step, stair 

f-^U salam soundness, unimpaired - 
ness, intactness, well-being ; peace, peace- 
fulness; safety, security; — (pi. -at) 
greeting, salutation; salute; military 
salute; national anthem | pUJI W-J 
( e amm) general welfare, commonweal; 
j»tA-Jl jta Paradise; an epithet of Bagh- 



dad; Dar es Salaam (seaport and capital 
of Tanganyika); p^UI o> (the City 
of Peace = ) Baghdad; f'sLJI ^ nafir 
ass. the Tigris; CU V>LJ1 (jsatamw), 
Cip .-it- peace be with you! (a Muslim 
salutation); joLJl *JU upon him be 
peace (used parenthetically after the 
names of angels and of pre-Mohammedan 
prophets); f*>U U exclamation of dis- 
may, esp. after s.th. calamitous has 
happened: good Lord! good heavens! 
oh dear! Jp f^L* b exclamation of 
amazement or grief about s.th.: there 
goes (go) ...! what a pity for ...! how 
nice is (are) ...! *JI <J^ ^ (ballig) 
give him my kind regards ! remember me 
to him! /OLJlj (and) that's all, and let 
it be done with that; j-^Ui ... J* it's 
all over with . . .; ^>J\ f^LJl {watanl) the 
national anthem; cSjjW-J /»*>LJl (/wm* 
Awn) the national anthem of the republic; 
Q\\ W-Ji (inafa£t) the King's anthem 
{Saudi Ar.) 

iiiL*>U (Turk, selamlik) saldmlik se- 
lamlik, reception room, sitting room, par- 
lor 

i^U salama blamelessness, flawless- 
ness; unimpaired state, soundness, in- 
tegrity, intactness; well-being, welfare; 
safety, security; smooth progress; suc- 
cess | V I*: VI *-t>UI {ijmaiya) collective 
security; i3jJJi HoU- s. ad-dauq good 
taste; ^Jl (ihU) **^U the integrity of 
the country; <-jJi ^^U a. an~niya sincer- 
ity, guilelessness ; 3-jJI X*^Lj in good 
faith, bona fide; loUl JJL-j safety 
devices, precautions; *iJLu*>U a speedy re- 
covery! ILi^-JI ** (a greeting of fare- 
well, said by the person remaining be- 
hind) approx. : good-by! farewell! -lf-1 
<*%J\ Jp <ai (hamdu) praised be God for 
your well-being! (said to the traveler 
returning from a journey) 

JL* sallm pi. »1JU sulama 2 safe, se- 



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cure; free {^y. from); unimpaired, undam- 
aged, unhurt, sound, intact, complete, 
perfect, whole, integral; faultless, flaw- 
less; well; safe and sound; safe; healthy; 
sane; (euphemistically) seriously injured 
or damaged, on the verge of ruin | 
"L.jJ\ A* s. al-bunya healthy, sound in 
bod3 T ; *JUJI JL benign (disease); JaJI *X»- 
s.al-'aql sane; *LJl JL» s. an-niya, A#* 
(--Jill s. al-qalb guileless, sincere, good- 
natured; J— 3j* (dauq) good taste; J^ 
JUI 4^J\ (wajh) in a proper manner, in 
a reasonable way 

ij*^> suldmd pi. uL^L- suldmaydt pha- 
lanx, digital bone (of the hand or foot) 

IL*"}L« sulamiya pi. -ai phalanx, digital 
bone (of the hand or foot) 

L-l aslam 2 safer; freer; sounder; 
healthier 

ulc-L sulaiman 2 Solomon | o^JL- Cjj>- 
hut s., jUJL- dLv samak s. salmon [zool.) 

JleJU sulaimani corrosive sublimate, 
mercury chloride 

JLJ taslim handing over, turning 
over; presentation; extradition (of a 
criminal to another country); surrender 
(of s.th.); delivery (com., of goods, of 
property, of mail); submission, surrender, 
capitulation; salutation; greeting; con- 
cession, admission; assent, consent (lj to), 
acceptance, approval, condonation, un- 
questioning recognition (^ of) 

ill— musalama conciliation, pacifica- 
tion; appeasement; peaceable character or 
nature, peaceful ness ; benignity (of a 
symptom or disease) 

(Ot-1 islam submission, resignation, 
reconciliation (to the will of God); — 
^iJ^\ the religion of Islam; the era 
of Islam ; the Muslims 



viL-i islami Islamic ; d»L* t>L-^i Islamic 
studies 

^LoUl isldmiya the idea of Islam, 
Islamism; status or capacity of a Muslim 

J^*^-! look up alphabetically 

LJ tasallum receipt; taking over, 
assumption; reception 

**$cjm\ istildm receipt; acceptance; 
taking over, assumption | W^-Vi 3 alii 
acknowledgment of receipt 

v>Uu-i istisldm surrender, capitula- 
tion; submission, resignation, self-sur- 
render 

iL- sdlim safe, secure; free (,y from); 
unimpaired, unblemished, faultless, flaw- 
less, undamaged, unhurt, intact, safe and 
sound, safe; sound, healthy; whole, per- 
fect, complete, integral; regular (verb) | 
JL-Ji *J^\ (jam") sound ( — external) 
plural (gram.) 

L~. musallam unimpaired, intact, un- 
blemished, flawless; (also <o j~~. ) ac- 
cepted, uncontested, incontestable, in- 
disputable, incontrovertible; taken for 
granted, obvious; pi. oUL~* generally 
accepted truths, elementary basic truths; 
tacit or implicit assumptions; (philos.) 
axioms; premises 



il— musdlim peaceable, peaceful, 
peaceloving; mild-tempered, lenient, gen- 
tle; benign (symptom, disease) 

L*. muslim pi. -un Muslim 

.Jk— • mustalim recipient; consignee 

Uj+L* saltnun, (eg.) mlamon salmon (zool.) 

jxl*» (Ft. cylindre) silender pi. -at cylinder 
(of an automobile, and the like) 

(jL>) "^U said u (^1— suluw, C)\jL>> eidwdn) 



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and J- saliya a (J^ sully) to get rid of 
the memory of (a, or jt), forget (a, » 
or jc s.o., s.th.), think no more (a, * or 
jp of) II to make (& s.o.) forget (jc. s.o., 
s.th.); to comfort, console, solace (* s.o., 
^ for the loss of); to cheer up (» s.o.); 
to distract, divert (^ a s.o.'s mind from) ; 
to amuse, entertain (<> s.o.); to alleviate, 
dispel (a worries, and the like) IV = II 
V to delight, take pleasure (c-> in), have 
a good time, have fun, amuse o.s. (<-> 
with); to console o.s. (^ ^ for s.th. 
with), find comfort («_j ^ for s.th. in); 
to seek distraction or diversion (»_> je 
from s.th. in) 

»jL* saliva, sulwa solace, consolation, 
comfort; fun, amusement, entertainment, 
distraction, diversion; pastime | J j* 
Jl^\ ^ ly^ ( e ai$) he leads a comfort- 
able life 

t^JL- saliva consolation, solace, comfort 

<jjL> salwd (n. un. Sl_^JL—) pi. &*&*> so* 
lawa quail (zool.) 

jijJU sulwan forgetting, oblivion; con- 
solation, solace, comfort 

S^Lw. masldh pi. <JL~. masalin object 
of amusement; amusement, entertain- 
ment, fun, distraction, diversion; solace, 
consolation, comfort 

iJLJ tasliya consolation, amusement, 
distraction, diversion, fun; pastime, 
entertainment; {eg.) pi, JUS tasall enter- 
tainments, amusements 

J** musallin amusing, entertaining; 
comforting, consoling; comforter, con- 
soler 



LLijL* sloveniyd Slovenia 

□ J— * masll (eg.) — jr samn: cooking 
butter | JLJ J«* (nabdtl) vegetable butter 



/■^JLJU sillniyum selenium 

J ^-1 ism pi, »IH asma, pLI asdmin name; 
appellation; reputation, standing, pres- 
tige; (f7mm.) noun; l**l isman nominally | 
<JaJUJI j*! pen name, nom de plume; 
oliSJl ^1 do.; ^jLf -4 (Ujdri) firm 
name (com.); 1p --! ism r aJam proper 
name; -uU- ^-1 (gram.) primary noun 
(not derived from a verb form); -i-J -J 
ism ah jam" pi. 9yX\ »L*-I [gram.) col- 
lective noun (having no n.un.); t>r JJ-l *-l 
i. a?-y»7M pi. (j-U*-"}/! •Lf 1 (gram.) noun 
designating a kind, genus or species, 
generic term (from which a n. un. can 
be formed); appellative, common noun; 
also differentiated as ^mJ-I Lr >^-\ ***! 
generic noun (with n. un.), which includes 
a collective meaning as welt, e.g., tamr 
date(s), hamam pigeon(s), and JJ-\ ~*\ 
tplyVl (ifrddi) generic noun having no 
collective meaning (therefore not forming 
a n. un.), e.g., laban milk, ma* water; 
SjUVI £-' ism al-isdra (gram.) demon- 
strative pronoun; j^A^aJI -.1 (gram.) 
diminutive; aJUll --I ism al-'adad (gram.) 
numeral; J*i! -.1 ism al-ma f na (gram.) 
abstract noun; 4>*J1 f\ ism aVain 
(gram.) concrete noun; J-«ijkJ1 f\ (gram.) 
elative; J*iJI -J ism al-ftl (gram.) ver- 
bal noun, nomen verbi; JpUJI ~-l and 
J^iii j^-l (gram.) see J*U and J^**.; 
4^11 **.! jsm al-marra (gram.) nomen vicia; 
J-4-1 ►U'MI (husnd) the 99 names of 
God (jTsJ.); u^U ***L in s.o.'s name, on 
behalf of s.o.; -oil ^j in the name of 
God; SLm^JUI ^^juj ~-b oUUI /»JLiJ (tuqad- 
damu t-talabat) applications will be ad- 
dressed to the chairman of the society; 
{ j*~* Jt *-l (musamman) s.th, worthy 
of its name, s.th. of true or full value, 
a matter to be taken seriously; <c* J*>. 
^j^^a Js U— 1 to convert s.th. to true per- 
fection; ( j*~* j£ ^ «-l an empty word 
or term (with nothing behind it), s.th. 
having no real basis 



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j?\ ismi in name only, nominal, tit- 
ular; nominal {gram.) | ^1 ^L. (mah* 
lag) nominal par; "Lsf\ U^ (jumla) nom* 
inal clause (gram,); _*— "Vi t_jkJiil (madhdb) 



nominalism (pAifos.); jut - 1 
nominal value, face value 



(qlwa) 



2 f samma u (samm) to put poison (a into 
s.th.); to poison {* s.o., a s.th.) II to 
poison (a s.th.) Y to be poisoned, poison 
o.s. 

{* samm pi. ?y? sumum, Ac simdm 
poison, toxin; venom; opening, hole; 
eye (of a needle) [ *UaJ1 ^—Jl {baida) 
the white narcotics (such as cocaine, 
Heroin, etc.) 

px" samum f., pi. <lx* samaim 2 
hot wind, hot sandstorm, simoom 

fL~. masdmm 2 , oUL— masammdt (pi.) 
pores (of the skin, also of a material, e.g., 
pottery or rock) 

i/U* masdmml porous 

3L»I — » masdmmiya porousness, porosity 

^-J tasammum poisoning, tGxication; 
sepsis | JjJI -*- III (fcawft) uremia; ^*— Zl! 
t^AJl (damawl) blood poisoning, toxemia 

/•U samm poisonous; toxic, toxicant; 
venomous 

p>«-«* masmum poisoned; poisonous 

-*• musimm poisonous; venomous; 
toxic, toxicant 



3 p- abbreviation of j^^JU centimeter, cm 
*«* stma see p—j 

Jjf U* samdnjuni sky-blue, azure, cerulean 
iSjjL** simbdtawi sympathetic (physiol.) 
iUfcjr* 1 mmbusik, sambusak — lLL-^JL- 



,r" III to be on the other side of (a), be 
opposite s.th. (a), face s.th. (a) 

C*£" samt pi. v^>jf sum-ut way, road; 
manner, mode; C~*-JI azimuth (afifron.) | 
jj-'ljJl tr-or" s. ar-ras zenith, vertex (as/ron.) ; 
^P^JiJi C*jf 5. as-sams ecliptic {astron.); 
JI-UpVI jur" equinoctial colure (astron.); 
/•aJaJi c-r* s. al-qadam nadir (astron.); C-r 1 
»_>^JtJVl solstitial colure (astron.); j&> 
c~*-JI nadir (astron.); Jl or 1 X^~\ to take 
the road to ... 



2 olr" pi. of ir, see fj 

■pC" samuja u to be ugly, disgusting, re- 
volting II to make (a s.th.) ugly or loath- 



^C samj pi. t-U" simdj and samij 
pi. ^yr^ samdjd ugly, disgusting, loath- 
some, revolting 

£*** samij pi. gAr* simdj, ijr^ sa* 
mdjd, *U*r* sumaja 2 ugly, disgusting, 
loathsome, revolting 

4*-U" samdja ugliness, abominableness, 
odiousness 



^C samuha u (samh, f\tf samdh, &~\.f 
samdha) to be generous, magnanimous, 
kind, liberal, openhanded; — samaha a 
(-rtc samdh) to grant from a generous 
heart (t-j J s.o. s.th.); to allow, permit 
(it or i_j J s.o. s.th. or to do s.th.); to 
authorize, empower («_-> J s.o. to do s.th.) | 
<ail «jt* V God forbid! II to act with 
kindness III to show o.s. tolerant (» 
with s.o., j or t-> in), treat kindly, with 
indulgence ( j or u » s.o. in the matter 
of), forgive (j or <~> « s.o. s.th.) VI to 
be indulgent, forbearing, tolerant (j ** 
toward s.o. in), show good will (j in); 
to be not overparticular (^ in); to prac- 
tice mutual tolerance X to ask s.o.'s (*) 
permission; to ask forgiveness, apologize 



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*£* samh magnanimity, generosity- 
kindness; liberality, munificence 

*£* samh pi. ^-If simah magnanimous, 
generous ; kind ; tolerant ; indulgent ; 
merciful; smooth, smoothly flowing | 
i»«*Jl iw^Jji the merciful law (i.e., Islam- 
ic Law) 

•Asf samah magnanimity, generosity; 
kindness; liberality, munificence; indul- 
gence, forbearance, tolerance, forgiveness, 
pardon; permission (<_j for, to do s.th.) 

4^-Lr - samdha magnanimity; generos- 
ity; kindness; liberality, munificence; 
indulgence, forbearance, tolerance; o-lr* 
His Eminence, Jill S^lc His Eminence 
the Mufti (title of a mufti) 

p^C samlh pi. »U»r* sumaha" 2 generous, 
magnanimous; kind, forgiving; liberal, 
openhanded 

»Um~JI i<LJ-l al-hanifa as-samka the 
true and tolerant (religion, i.e., Islam) 

4^L~« musdmaha pardon, forgiveness; 
(pi. -at) vacation, holidays 

£-LJ tasdmuh indulgence, forbearance, 
leniency, tolerance 



£>*-* 



masmuh bihi allowed, 



per- 



mitted, permissible, admissible j CjU-j— ~ • 
licenses, privileges, prerogatives 

*Ll* mutasdmih indulgent, forbear- 
ing (£• toward), tolerant 



tjUmX- simhdq pi. t 
(ana£.) 



9-Lc - samahlq 2 periosteum 



1 -ir samada u [sj£" aumud) to raise one's 
head proudly, bear one's head proudly 
erect (also with ,J\j\ ) II to dung, manure , 
fertilize (j^jVl the soil) 

jLc samdd pi. SA-r'l asmida dung, 
manure, fertilizer | Jjj\ ilr* (azoti) nitro 
gen fertilizer; ^plJL* .sir" (sitwTi) chem- 



ical fertilizer; ^j-^ -slf fwdwi) organic 
fertilizer; 4j jUX »jlc I {kimawiya) chem- 
ical fertilizers 



> tasmid manuring, fertilizing 

-uL- samid: ^fjii -uU *. ar-ra'a with 
head erect 

oIa*-** musammiddi fertilizers 

2 D -Uc" samid {— JLt" ) semolina; a kind of 
bagel with sesame seed on it (eg.) 

jjifi" sumdur pi. jolr* samddir 2 dizziness, 
vertigo 

.LuC samid semolina 

^r" samura u (ly sumra) to be or turn 
brown; — samara u (samr, jyf sumur) 
to chat in the evening or at night; to 
chat, talk (generally) II to nail, fasten 
with nails (Jl a s.th. to or on); to drive 
in (j^JLl al-mismar the nail) III to spend 
the night or evening in pleasant con- 
versation, chat at night or in the evening 
(• with s.o.); to converse, talk, chat {* 
with s.o.) V to be or get nailed down, 
be fastened with nails; to stand as if 
pinned to the ground VI to spend the 
night or evening in pleasant conversation, 
chat with one another at night or in 
the evening; to converse, talk, chat 
IX — I samura 

yr samar pi. jU* I asmar nightly, or 
evening, chat; conversation, talk, chat; 
night, darkness 

lyf sumra brownness, brown color 

j If samar [eg.) a variety of rush used 
for plaiting mats (Juncus spinosus F., 
bot.) | i_JL*> ^xj* jLr* (hindi sulb) a variety 
of bamboo 

(^jlc* samari (n. un. *) a variety of wild 
duck (zooL) 



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j£* samir companion in nightly enter- 
tainment, conversation partner; enter- 
tainer {in general, with stories, songs, 
music, amusing improvisations) 

Ijf samira woman partner in nightly 
or evening conversation; woman enter- 
tainer; woman companion (who enter- 
tains with lively conversation) 

jf\ asmar 2 , f. *\yr samrd' 2 , pi. je" 
sumr brown; tawny; pi. f. Cj\j\ ,r* sam* 
raivat brown -skinned women | ♦Ij^-JI SjUJi 
(qdrra; Alg.) the black continent 

^Lw. masdmir 2 (pi.) evening or nightly 
entertainments (conversations, also games, 
vocal recitals, storytelling, etc.) 

j\~a mismar pi. j^I~j» masdmir 2 nail; 
peg; pin, tack, rivet; corn (on the toes) 

^jlp-II Ja£M al-katt al-mismdri cunei- 
form writing 

ij*[~* musdmara nightly or evening 
chat; conversation, talk, chat 

j*L> samir pi. jlr - summdr companion 
in nightly entertainment; causeur, con- 
versationalist; entertainer 

j*\j^ sawdmir 2 (pi.) evenings of enter- 
tainment, social evenings; evening or 
nightly entertainments (conversations, 
also games, vocal recitals, storytelling, 
etc.) 

j*~a musammar fastened with nails, 
nailed on, nailed down; provided, or 
studded, with nails; hobnailed 

^L*. musdmir companion in nightly 
entertainment, conversation partner 

a »j*UI aS'Sdmira the Samaritans 

f£j*\*> sdmirl Samaritan; (pi. -tin, IjSf 
samara) a Samaritan 

z jy* pi. jAc" look up alphabetically 



d^r* samarqand 2 Samarkand (city in Uzbek 
S.S.R.) 

j~s* aamsara to act as broker or middleman 

lj~sr samsara brokerage; (Mor.) the 
knock-down (at an auction), award to the 
highest bidder; caravansary 

jl-r - simsdr pi. S^U* samdsira, ^U" 
samdsir 2 , j*\f samdstr 2 broker, jobber t 
middleman, agent | ^V jt~r" s. al- 
ashum stockbroker; j^LIi jL~r* housing 
agent 

samsira (ir.) go-between, match- 



I 



maker 



iir" samata u (samt) to scald (a s.th.); to 
prepare (a s.th.) 

■W" simp pi. S?j£" sumut string, thread 
(of a pearl necklace) 

J»lr" simdt pi. -at, Jar" sumut, ikr" I 
asmita cloth on which food is served; 
meal, repast 

It*-*, masmat pi. Ja«L* masdmit 2 scald- 
ing house (where the carcasses of slaugh- 
tered animals are scalded) 

O -Ja.*--* mistrial pi. J«U-* masdmit 2 
vine prop 

*£" samia a (sam\ fir" samd T , «pU" samd r a, 
**-~. masma") to hear (a, a s.o., s.th.; c-> 
of or about s.th.; ^ a s.th. from s.o.); to 
learn, be told (j- a of or about s.th. 
from s.o.); to listen, pay attention (Jl 
or J to s.th.; j* to s.o.), hear s.o. (j*) 
out; to learn by hearsay (^ about s.th.); 
to overhear (c-j s.th.); to give ear, lend 
one's ear ( Jl or J to s.o., to s.th.) | <o ^*— j ^ 
(yusma") unheard-of II to make or 
let (* s.o.) hear (a s.th.), give (a » s.o. 
s.th.) to hear; to recite (a s.th.}; to say 



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(a one's lesson); to dishonor, discredit 
(i_> s.o.) IV to make or let (« s.o.) hear 
(a s.th.), give (a o s.o. s.th.) to hear; to 
let (« s.o.) know (a s.th. or about s.th.), 
tell (a » s.o. about s.th.) V to give ear, 
listen, lend one's ear (J(, J to s.o., to 
s.th.); to eavesdrop, listen (secretly) 
VI (j-UI «u )uL" people heard about him 
from one another, word about him got 
around, he became known among people 
VIII to hear, overhear (a s.th.); to listen, 
listen closely, give ear, lend one's ear 
( Jl or J or a, 6 to s.o. or s.th.) ; to eaves- 
drop; to auscultate (J* s.o.) 

£C sam e hearing, sense of hearing, 
audition; ears; (pi. ^IH asma') ear | 
«^J1 A*U earwitness; ie-UaJlj «**JI as- 
sam r u yxx-t'ta' atu and ^tUj U** sartCan 
wa-fd'atan I hear and obey! at your 
service! very well! ^r*' c^- in their 
hearing, for them to hear; **~Ji <3jL-i 
istaraqa s-sam'a to eavesdrop; to moni- 
tor, intercept; «tJI «jw~j JJl (alqd) to 
listen to s.o.; **£" -u madda sam'ahu 
to prick up one's ears 

^ycf sam r i auditory, auditive, hear- 
ing {used attributively); acoustic; acous- 
tical; traditional | oL**~Jl U Him 
as-sam'ii/dt acoustics; tSjr-*J ^jt" (basari) 
and i^j^ojj ^yur - audio-visual 

<*jt* sum" a reputation (3pecif., good 
reputation), credit, standing, name | 
WJI ( t >~>- or) Ojj- (hasan) reputable, 
respectable; Z**-J\ (J*-» or) *^j radi 
[sayyt) as-s. ill-reputed, disreputable 

fix* samd* hearing, listening, listening 
in; auditioning, audition; hearing, re- 
ceiving [i.g.y of a verdict); {gram, and 
lex.) generally accepted usage 

^le* samd r i acoustic; acoustical; au- 
dible; (gram, and lex.) sanctioned by 
common usage; derived from tradition, 
traditional, unwritten {I si. Law) 



oLpLc sam&iydt acoustics (phys.) 

£-£■" sami* pi. »Lfi* 8uma t a >2 hearing, 
listening; hearer, listener; *-*-JI the 
All- hearing (one of the 99 attributes of 
God) 

ifrlx* sammd'a pi. -at earphone; ear- 
piece; (telephone) receiver; stethoscope; 
ear trumpet ; knocker, rapper (of a door) 

oUr sim'dn 2 Simon (name of the 
apostle surnamed Peter) 

«*-~* masma' earshot, hearing distance | 
^ *+*** Jp in the hearing of, within 
earshot of; 4L. £*-~* Jp for him to hear, 
so that he could hear it 

***** misma? pi. «L*. masdmi' 2 ear; 
O stethoscope; (telephone) receiver | 
^jwL~* J*, in their hearing, for them to 
hear 



misma'a earpiece; (telephone) 
receiver 

£*~j tasammu* auscultation (med.) 

«*L- sdmi pi. -un hearer, listener 

£>•— * masmu r audible, perceptible | 
iJSJl p^-w» m. al-kalima one whose word 
carries weight, is paid attention to 

a*x-~* mustami' pi. -wn hearer, listener; 
pi. jJ jh«:.»U the audience 

Jjix" and *Jjix* see jtjJu^* 

1 Jx* samaqa u (3y* sumuq) to be high, tall, 
lofty, tower up 

3y? samuq very high, towering; tall 
and lanky 

J*U sdmiq very high, lofty, towering 

a (j}lr" summdq sumac (Rhus; bot.); its highly 
acid seeds which, after being dried and 
ground, serve, together with thyme, as 
a condiment 



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jLr* Jt= hajar summdql porphyry 

kfV II to make thick, thicken (a s.th.) 

<iir* samlc roof, ceiling 

iix" sumh thickness 

die* samah (coll.; n. un. S) pi. iJU* 
simak, liLr - I asmdk fish | jL*J dir" 5. tu f * 
ban (eg.) eel; ^i dir* (dahabl) goldfisli; 
oU-JU dir 1 5. sulaimdn and jjJL- dir - 
5. salmun salmon; ^yfi die" s. al-qirs 
shark; jTl^! ^Jf - s. al-kardkv/, dU" 
( _^SOI 6*. al-kurkl pike; ^j^ die <?. mum 
sole (200L) 

3SCr* samaka (n. un.) a fish; 4$C*JI 
Pisces, Fishes (constellation; astron.) 

t Jjr* samakl fish-like, fishy, piscine, fish 
(in compounds) | <Sjf Ijj (tarwa) abun- 
dance of fish 

i\\tf simak : uS"^! as-simdkdn Arc- 
turus and Spica Virginis (astfr<m.) | iilfJl 
*IJI Arcturus (asfron.); J^pVI lilpJI (a'zal) 
Spica Virginis (astron.); <yS'\ c J\ J I t>U- 
(hallaqa) to have high-flown aspirations 

6{f sammdk pi. -«m fishmonger; fisher- 
man, fisher 

dJL** samik thick 

45" If samaka thickness 

dLL^. masdmik 2 fish stores, sea-food 
stores 

S^S^" samkara tinsmith's trade, tinsmithing 

tSj^s" mmkari tinsmith, tinner, white- 
smith 

aj Jss* samkariya trade or work of a 
tinsmith, tinsmithing 

y samakt, u {saml) to gouge, scoop out, 
tear out (<c-t "ainahu s.o.'s eye) ; — samala 
U (djf sumul, liy? sumula) to be worn, 
tattered, in rags (garment) IV to be worn, 



tattered, in rags (garment) VIII to gouge, 
scoop out, tear out («c-a 'ainahu s.o.'s eye) 

Jr" samal pi. lJU"1 asmdl worn gar- 
ment; tatters, rags; last remainder of 
a liquid in a vessel | J*—N J~ j-tSOl ^y^ 
to drain the cup to the dregs 

y samina a (siman, 4Jlf samana) to be 
or become fat, corpulent, obese, stout, 
plump, fleshy, put on weight II and 
IV to make fat or plump, fatten (« s.o.) 

y samn pi. Ojf sumun clarified 
butter, cooking butter | JlJ y (nabdtl) 
vegetable butter, margarine 

y siman fatness, plumpness, fleshi- 
ness, stoutness, corpulence; obesity 

or* simna fatness, plumpness, fleshi- 
ness, stoutness, corpulence; obesity 

y summun (coll.; n. un. 3) pi. ^Js" 
samdmin 2 quail (zool.) 

,>?• samin pi. jlc* siman fat; cor- 
pulent, plump, fleshy, stout, obese; thick 

olr* summdn (coll. ; n. un. «) quail (zool.) 

obr* sammdn butter merchant 

ijlf samana: J*-jJl ijlc s. ar-rijl calf 
of the leg 

Jlr - sumdnd (coll.; n. un. SUbe su* 
mdndh) pi. oUIjt" sumdnaydt quail (zool.) 

musamman fat 



C^s" samnata to cement (a s.th.) 
jiic (Sp. cemento) cement 

J^r* samanjum and J^ U* samanjunl 
sky-blue, azure, cerulean 

jX^f samandar salamander 
J-Uj* samandal salamander 



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iSj+s* samhari tall and husky, extremely 
tall, of giant stature (luLSJl <£^ff); spear 
(originally epithet of a strong, tough 
spear) 

(yf) If $ama u {yf sumuw) to be high, 
elevated, raised, erect, lofty, tall, eminent, 
prominent; to rise high, tower up; to 
be above or beyond s.th. or s.o. (^J, 
rise above, tower above (<jfr); to be too 
proud (ijc- for); to be too high or difficult 
(jc for s.o.), be or go beyond the under- 
standing of s.o. (^}, exceed s.o.'s (^) 
understanding; to rise (Jl to, Jp above 
or beyond); to be higher (Jp than); 
to strive (Jl for), aspire (Jf to, after) j 
<i If to lift, raise, elevate, exalt, lead up, 
bring up s.o. or s.th. (Jl to); to buoy s.o. 
up, boost, encourage s.o. Ill to seek to 
surpass or excel (» s.o.); to vie for superi- 
ority or glory (o with s.o.) IV to lift, 
raise, elevate, e:.alt, lead up, bring up 
(a, « s.o., s.th.) VI to vie with one an- 
other for glory; to be high, elevated, 
raised, erect, lofty, tall, eminent, prom- 
inent; to rise high, tower up; to be 
above or beyond s.th. or s.o. (j&), rise 
above, tower above (j^); to claim to be 
higher in rank ( Jr than s.o. else), claim 
to be above s.o. (J*); to deem o.s. highly 
superior 

jtf sumuw height, altitude; exalted- 
ness, loftiness, eminence, highness | 
JjAJI jtf His Grace the Duke; <_-*-L*7 
Jlill _j**Ji (malaki) His Royal High- 
ness; JULil j*-Jl i^L* Her Royal High- 
ness; tJoU-^l jf nobility of character 

»lf mma m. and f., pi. CjIjLx* (C->ljf ) 
samdwdt heaven, sky; firmament | »lf 
oljlpJI the highest heaven 



Jlf samai heavenly, celestial; 
blue, azure, cerulean 



sky- 



(^jlf samawl heavenly, celestial; sky- 
blue, azure, cerulean; descended from 



heaven; open-air, outdoor, (being) under 
the open sky; divine, pertaining to God 
and religion | **Jjf CjUU.> (diyandt) re- 
vealed religions (Islam, Christianity, 
Judaism) 

jf samly high, elevated; exalted, 
lofty, sublime, august 

^f ! asma higher, farther up, above; 
more exalted, higher (in rank), more 
eminent, loftier, more sublime 

* L samin pi. 5 If sumak high, elevated; 
exalted, lofty, eminent, sublime, august | 
^U^l (amr) royal decree; <jU\ <_jjjdl 
the High Commissioner; — ^L sdml 
look up alphabetically 

jy? sammur pi. j**lf samamir 2 sable (Martes 
zibellina; zool.) 

^f II to name, call, designate, denominate 
(a, o s.o., s.th., ^ or a by or with a name), 
give a name (a, o to s.o., to s.th.); to 
title, entitle (a or u a s.th, as or with); 
to nominate, appoint (<J e s.o. to s.th.); 
to pronounce the name of God by saying 
<*jji ^-j | <uIp ajjI ^jf (sammd llaha) or 
<uL jf to invoke God over s.th. by 
saying au! — j IV to name, call, desig- 
nate, denominate (a, « s.o., s.th., «-> or 
a by or with a name), give a name (a, * 
to s.o., to s.th.); to title, entitle (a s.th., 
a or l_j as or with) V to be called, be 
named | *Ij> l ^J he was named Zaid, he 
called himself Zaid 

-*l ism see 1 >* 

^f samly namesake 

<L «...;> tasmiya pi. -at naming, appella- 
tion, designation, name, denomination; 
nomenclature; = iL—j basmala (use of 
the formula *ul —j) 

) _ ? *-~. musamman named, called, by 
name of; — (pi. C->L***» musammaydt) 



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designation, appellation, name; sense, 
meaning (of a word) | ^-~. J*-i Jl (ajalin) 
for a limited period, ^^-^ jf J*r i Jl for 
an indefinite time, sine die, until further 
notice; . . . ^^-JJ a certain . . . {with foil. 



> 



r" 



! r" 



( i H 



x i— sana pi. 6>— sinun, ol^— sanawdt 
year | Sj-U* 4— (muhammadiya) Mo- 
hammedan year; iJTj-^ i— - (dau'it/a) 
light year; i*-^ ^-* leap year; i— 
V»~~* (maslhlya) year of the Christian 
era, A.D.; *j^ i— (hijriya) year of 
the Muslim era (after the hegira), A.H.; 
Aij%* <— (miladiya) year of the Christian 
era, A.D.; SlJi as-sanata in this year 

t^y- sanawl annual, yearly; bji* £<z* 
navnyan annually, yearly, in one year, 
per year, per annum 

*^L*. musanahatan annually, yearly 

2 i— sina see j*-j 

3 ( j** aimta w (sann) to sharpen, whet, hone, 
grind (a s.th.); to mold, shape, form 
{a s.th.); to prescribe, introduce, enact, 
establish (a a law, a custom) | \jjj\j ^y> to 
enact, or pass, a law II to sharpen, 
whet, hone, grind (a s.th.); to indent, 
jag, notch (a s.th.) IV to grow teeth, 
cut one's teeth, teethe; to grow old, 
to age; to be advanced in years VIII to 
clean and polish one's teeth with the 
£i[^; to take, follow (a a course or way); 
to prescribe, introduce, enact, establish 
(a a law, a custom) | -U£ £— ^.-1 (sun* 
nata m.) to follow the Sunna of Mo- 
hammed 

j*» sann prescription, introduction, 
enactment, issuance (of laws) 

(y* sinn f., pi. 6b— I asnan, «i-*l asinna, 
j*\ asunn tooth (also, e.g., of a comb, of 
a saw blade); jag; cog, sprocket, prong; 
tusk (of an elephant, of a boar, etc.); 



fang (of a snake, etc.); point, tip (of a 
nail), nib (of a pen); (pi. 6b— I asnan) 
age (of a person); — {eg.) coarse flour, 
seconds | xtjl <y- s. ar-rusd legal age, 
majority; Hi* 1^1 1 j- s. al-murakaqa age 
of puberty; SJ^ilaJi ,y- early childhood; 
J^! j** s. al-fil ivory; jJI j^» 
young; ^S jS old; <>J1 j ^ to be 
advanced in years, be aged; jJI *j ^^ij 
(taqaddamat) to grow older, to age; to 
be advanced in years 

O cjbu-l asnani dental (pkon.) 

Si* sunna pi. ^ sunan habitual prac- 
tice, customary procedure or action, norm, 
usage sanctioned by tradition; 4lJI or 
^1 o «. an-ndbly the Sunna of the 
Prophet, i.e., his sayings and doings, later 
established as legally binding precedents 
(in addition to the Law established by the 
Koran) | i-J) JaI ahl as-s. the Sunnites, 
the orthodox Muslims; <^J*J1 i— law of 
nature 

J- sunnl Sunnitic; (pi. -un) Sunnite, 
Sunni 

i>>- sanan customary practice, usage, 
habit, rule 

6b— sindn pi. i— I asinna spearhead 

6^— sanun tooth powder 

6 b— sanndn pi. -un grinder, sharpener 
(of knives, shears) 

i y>\ asann 2 older, farther advanced in 

years 

y^* misann pi. -af, 6L~» masann 2 whet- 
stone, grindstone; razor strop 

<>^J tasnln cutting of teeth (children), 
teething 

6_^-~. masnun prescribed (as Sunna), 
sanctioned by law and custom; sharp- 
ened, whetted, honed; tapered; pointed 



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(e.g., mustache, features); stinking, fetid 
(mire) 

(>-** musannan toothed, serrated, den- 
tate, denticulate, indented, jagged ; point- 
ed, sharp; sharp -featured (countenance) | 
<jL*."^U«p Cajala) cogwheel; «J» [^1 <>-~* 
deckle-edged (paper) 

<J-~. musannana pi. -at cogwheel 

j-«. musinn pi. -un, OL* masdnn 2 old, 
aged, advanced in years | ,>jLmJJ jb 
home for the aged, old folks home 

U** see _^x*- 

jy\^» senator senator 

Sjl^- sinndra pi. juU- sandnir 2 fishing tackle; 
fishhook 

^■iLJU sunbddaj grindstone, whetstone ; emery 

JijJL- sunbuq pi. J^j^— sanablq 2 barge, skiff, 
boat 

1 c*lJU- sunbuk pi. dLL«- sandbik 2 toe of the 
hoof; hoof; awl, punch, borer 

2 ^U- sunbuk pi. dbb— sandbik 2 and iijJu- 
sunbuk pi. iiJLjL- sandbik 2 barge, skill', 
boat 

JJL- sunbul (coll.; n. un. •) pi. -a(, <Jj^— «?* 
nabil 2 ear, spike (of grain); UJUl Virgo 
(asfron.) | tj"jj' Jr*-J' (rumi) Celtic 
spikenard (Nardus celtica; feo£.); J^i—'l 
^Jiiil (hindi) Indian spikenard (Nardo- 
stachys jatamansi; bot.) 

JJu- stmbuli spiciform, spicate, shaped 
like a spike or ear (bot.) 

ciJU^JL- sambusik, sambusak, J*-fci- triangular 



meat pie with 
- cent 



a wavy bread crust 



_^Lu- santilitr centiliter 

jw^u-, jL-^U santimitr pi. -at centimeter 

-iL- (Fr.) santim pi. -a( centime 

1 4>c^' scm/a pi. ^-- sinaj, oUju 

■weight (placed as a counterpoise on the 
scales of a balance) 

2 ^^u- a%a (from Turk, siingu) pi. ^L* magr 
bayonet (e^,) 

3 r-L-- s£«aj soot, smut 

uU^- sinjdb gray squirrel; fur of the gray 
squirrel 

jUjl- sinjdbi ash-colored, ashen, gray 

J>-A** sanjaq pi. J*- L- sandjiq 2 standard, flag, 
banner; sanjak, administrative district 
and subdivision of a vilayet (in the 
Ottoman Empire) 

^-* sanaha a (sunk, sunuh, ^jL* sunuk) to 
occur (J to s.o.), come to s.o.'s mind 
(J, idea, thought); to present itself, 
offer itself f J to s.o., esp. an opportu- 
nity); to afford (<_-> J s.o s.th.); — to 
dissuade (j* * s.o. from his opinion), ar- 
gue or reason (^ « s.o. out of his opin- 
ion) [ »Js>U~ «j (li-kdtirihi) it occurred 
to him, it entered his mind 

f\*> sdnik pi. jMj— sawdnih 2 turning 
its right side toward the viewer (game or 
bird); auspicious, propitious; favorable, 
good (opportunity); pi. f\_y auspices, 
good omens, auspicious signs; ideas, 
thoughts 

^L sdniha opportunity 

^m sink pi. ^b— I asnak> r>«- sunuk root, 
origin; alveolus, gingival margin of a 
tooth (anat.) 



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sivJl sanak rankness (of oil), fustiness 
^w- sanik rank, rancid (oil), fusty ■ 
i>-U- sandka rankness (of oil), fustiness 

*.L- sanada u (-v^-*- sunud) to support o.s., 
prop o.s,, rest ( Jf on, upon), lean, recline : 
(Jl upon, against) II to support, stay, : 
prop, lean (a s.th.) Ill to support, back, j 
assist, help, aid (e s.o.) IV to make (e ; 
s.o.) rest (Jl on); to make (* s.o.) lean or 
recline (Jl against, on); to lean (Jl * s.th. 
against); to rest, support, prop (Jl a 
s.th. on); to base, found (Jl a s.th. on); 
(science of Islamic traditions:) to base 
a tradition (*) on s.o. (Jl) as its first ; 
authority, i.e., to trace back the ascrip- 
tion of a tradition, in ascending order of 
the tradition aries, to its first authority i 
so as to corroborate its credibility; j 
(gram.) to lean a term (*) upon an- j 
other (J I) being the subject of the sen- 
tence, i.e., to predicate it, make it its 
predicate; to entrust (J or Jl * s.th. to 
s.o.), vest (J or Jl * s.th. in s.o.); to at- 
tribute, ascribe (a J or Jl to s.o. s.th.); 
to incriminate, charge (a Jl s.o. with); 
to lean (Jl against, to, on), rest (Jl on); 
to be based, be founded ( Jl on) | i+fl\ X-l 
Jl (tuhma) to direct one's suspicion on 
or toward ...; Jf i*^Ji CjX^>\ (usnidat) 
suspicion fell on . . .; Jl flfVI «^-l (iiti- 
Kama) to bring a charge against . . . (jur.) 
VI to support one another, give mutual 
support; to support o.s., lean, rest; to 
trust, rely VIII to lean, recline, be re- 
cumbent (J*, Jl against, on) ; to rest one's 
arms, one's weight (J*, Jl on), support 
one's weight (J^, Jl by); to be based, be 
founded (J*, Jf on); to rely (J*, Jl on), 
trust, have confidence (Jp, Jl in) ; to use 
as (documentary) basis (J* s.th.), rest 
one's case on (J*) | iJU-i Jl XjL*\ to be 
leaning or standing against the wall; 



i j^jj'^} jlL-1 (arba r in) to be pushing forty, 
be on the verge of forty 

.u— sanad pi. -at, abu-l asnad support, 
prop, stay, rest, back; backing; (pi. 
iL-I) ascription (of an Islamic tradition), 
the (uninterrupted) chain of authori- 
ties on which a tradition is based ] 
"L>J^i~ oi-lu- (kasaHya) wooden struts, 
wood bracing; — (pi. -at) document, 
deed, paper, legal instrument; voucher, 
record; commercial, or negotiable, paper, 
security, bond; debenture, promissory 
note, note of hand, debenture bond j 
«JLiJI ^£ JLi— 5. iahn al-b. bill of lading; 
JL_J1 JU-j informants, authorities, sources 

OIjil* sanddn, sinddn pi. <joL** sanadin 2 
anvil 

.£**• misnad, masnad pi. aJL*» masa* 
nid 2 support, prop, stay; rest, back (of 
an armchair) ; cushion, pillow 

SjJI — . musanada support (of s.o. or s.th.) 

iLi-l isndd pi. JlJUl asdnid 2 ascription 
(of an Islamic tradition), the (uninter- 
rupted) chain of authorities on which a 
tradition is based; JLJL-1 (documentary-) 
proof, vouchers, records, documents | 
Ji «_w»LU .sLJ bestowal of offices on 

iLlJ istindd leaning (Jf against or 
upon); dependence (Jl on) | Jl IjUwI 
based on, on the basis of, on the strength 
of 

-U— * musnadjth JJL~. masdnid 2 (science 
of Islamic traditions:) a tradition the 
ascription of which is traceable, in (un- 
interrupted) ascending order of the tra- 
ditionaries, to its first authority; mesh; 
x~±\ predicate (gram.); 4JI x-J.1 subject 
(gram.); -U — II and .C-JJ Jai-I (katt) the 
Himyaritic (Ancient South Arabian) script 



mustanid relying, in reliance 
(Jl, Jp on), trusting ( Jl, J* to) 



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xl~j* mvAtanad reason, cause; mo- 
tive; — (pi. -at) document, paper, deed, 
legal instrument; voucher, record; re- 
ceipt; pi. (documentary) proof, record*, 
data; legal evidence (jur,) | ol-uU.1 jb 
archives, office of public records; oIjlL— 
j^Jjl m. aS-Sahn bills of lading; J^-? xXw 
m. sarf delivery note 

2 oiJI as-sind region extending along the 
lower course and delta of the Indus 
river; the province of Sind, of West 
Pakistan, with the capital city Karachi ; 
the inhabitants of this region 

tjsjj-^ sandarus sandarac (a resin obtained 
from the sandarac tree, Callitris quadri- 
valvis) 

tfX** sundus silk brocade, sarcenet 

^01*. sundusl (made) of silk brocade 
or sarcenet 

Jl-u- = jl-CL*- (see above) 

uLjll** sindiydn (coll.; n, un. ») evergreen 
oak, holm oak (Quercus ilex; boi.) 

(jUx^> sindiyani oaken; like oak, oaky 

.iL-L- (Ft. syndic) sandik syndic, agent of 
a corporation 

\}j^> sinnaur pi, jvb** sandnlr 2 cat 

2 Sjb— sinndra pi. j*Jb-» sandnir 2 fishing 
tackle, fishhook; crochet needle 

LL^fSLjLJI aS'Sanslcritlya Sanskrit 

1 Ja^- sant a variety of sant tree (Acacia 
nilotica; bot.) 

2 5k-^ santa (eg.) wart 



jJoL* santur dulcimer (= j^-) 

j^j^k— sintoros Centaurus (astron.) 

j\a^ sintir, santir psalter; dulcimer 

Sj^Ui- singdfura Singapore 

JUiJI as-singdl Senegal 

(Jl> sinf (coll.; n. un. S) pod, capsule, hull 
(bot.) 

ljjc*> sanfara emery 

tjjSi^ sankarl pi. S^b— sandkira tinsmith, 
tins man, tinner, whitesmith 

jL5j-^ sinaksdr synaxarion, martyr ologium 
(Chr.) 

•SL* (Turk, siingu) smge bayonet {syr.) 

Vjj$Cj* sinkund cinchona {bot.) 

f V to ascend, mount, scale (* s.th.); to 
climb (a to s.th., also to a high office); to 
enter, take over (a a position, an office) | 
JUil 2jji ^LJ (darwata 1-mcCdll) to 
attain to greatest honors 

i^- sanama height, summit, peak 

>»b— sanam pi. iui*-! asnima hump (of 
the camel) 

-i~lJi »U ma at-tasnim the beverage 
of the blessed in Paradise 

<U-j tasannum accession to the throne 

A— musannam convex, vaulted, arched 

\)\j-* sinimmdr 2 : j^ *lj»- olj*- jazdhu 
jaza'a $. he repaid him as they had re- 
paid S., i.e., he requited evil with good 



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J*" 



8 *jj^-' sanamura anchovy; salted and 
smoked fish 

*4-« V to become stale, spoil (food) 

a lf.*U. musdnahatan annually, yearly 

X L- sand, ^* b- s. makki, ^ U- 5. makka 
(bot.) senna (tree); senna leaflets (pfazrm.) 

2 (j^» and J-) b> aaraa « (»l^ sawa') to gleam, 
shine, glisten, be resplendent, radiate ; to 
flash (lightning) II to facilitate, ease, 
make easy (a s.th.) V to be easy, be 
possible, be feasible (J for or to s.o.), be 
rendered possible or feasible (J for s.o.), 
be put in s.o.'s (J) power; to rise, be 
elevated, be exalted 

^- and L— sanan brilliance, resplend- 
ence, splendor; flare, flash, sparkle 

»t-< sand* brilliance, resplendence, splen- 
dor, radiance; flash, flare (of lightning); 
exaltedness, sublimity, majesty, high rank 

^ saniy high, sublime, exalted, 
splendid 

J*-l asna more shining, more radiant, 
more brilliant 

IJU saniya pi. o\j** sawdnin water 
scoop 

2L~» mumnndh pi. oLJL** rnusannaydt 
jetty, dam 

3 * ; -*» tf>> and ^L** see 1 j r < 

j»*£*>> (Gr. auvo8o<;) sinodos synod 

tf-ji*- sanusl Senusi, Senusian; <~**j~J\ the 
Senusis, a religious order in N Africa 

_jj_ji- sununu swallow (zool.) 

^^ IV to speaH at great length, talk in 



detail (^ about, of), enlarge, elaborate, 
expatiate, dilate (^ on) 

k^^m sukb pi. <-r>_H- suhvb level country; 
steppe region 

^l^-t ishdb elaboration, elaborateness, 
expatiation, long-windedness, prolixity | 
t-»L^-U elaborately, in detail, at length, 
lengthily 

v< .„. mtcshib, mushab prolix, long- 
winded, lengthy, detailed, elaborate 

JL^ sahida a {sahad) to be sleepless, find no 
sleep II to make sleepless, keep awake, 
deprive of sleep {* s.o,) V = I 

x$~> suhd sleeplessness, insomnia 

X&* suhud insomniac 

j»l^-- suhdd sleeplessness, insomnia 

-UbU sahid sleepless, awake 

j4*> sahira a (sahar) to be sleepless, find no 
sleep, pass the night awake (also with 
JJU1) ; to stay up at night, spend the night 
( J* in or with some activity) ; to pass the 
evening or night (J, e.g., in a club, night 
spot); to watch (Jp over), guard (Jp s.o.'s 
interests, etc.), look after (Jp), attend to 
(Jp s.o.'s interests, etc.) | Ua^- (j jf to 
attend a gathering in the evening or at 
night IV to make sleepless, keep awake 
(. s.o.) 

j^sahar sleeplessness, insomnia; wake- 
fulness, vigil; watchfulness, vigilance ( Jp 
over) | t£j+** »axp JU» I spent a long eve- 
ning with him 

Ij^m sahra pi. sahardt evening; evening 
party, evening gathering, evening show 
or performance, soiree | VJ lj+* (lailiya) 
do.; 3^-fJI (tj-V or) t-»LJ evening dress, 
formal dress 

b\jf sahrdn sleepless, awake, wakeful; 
watchful, vigilant 



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jl$- suhdr sleeplessness, insomnia; 
wakefulness, vigil 

j If- sahhdr one who is habitually up 
and abroad at night, a nighthawk 

O,.^*-! ashar spermatic duct (anat.) 

j+~j* mashar pi. y>L~» masdhir 2 night- 
club 

jaU sahir sleepless, awake, wakeful; 
watchful, vigilant ; evening, night (in com- 
pounds), nocturnal, nightly, taking place 
by night; (pi. -un) participant at an eve- 
ning party, guest of a night club; night 
reveller | SytL SJLU- (hafla) evening party, 
evening gathering, evening show or per- 
formance, soiree; SytU aJU (laila) an 
evening social event; a night passed sleep- 



SykU sahira pi. -at female participant 
at an evening party, woman guest of a 
night club 

sahifa a (sahaf) to be very thirsty 



*J»lf-< suhdf violent thirst 

J^-* sahula u (iJ^f- suhula) to be smooth, 
level, even (ground); to be or become 
easy, facile, convenient (Jp for) | N 
ui Jf-j hardly ... II to smooth, level, 
even (a the ground); to facilitate, make 
easy, ease (a J or Jp for s.o. s.th.); to 
provide, furnish, supply (a J or J* s.o. 
with facilities); (gram.) to read with- 
out hamzah (a a word) HI to be indul- 
gent, mild, forbearing, obliging (* to- 
ward s.o.), show (<> s.o.) one's good will | 
a~Ju JaU (nafsahu) to take liberties 
IV to purge (med.) ; to relieve (a the consti- 
pated bowels, said of a medicine) ; pass. 
ushila to be relieved (said of constipated 
bowels), have a bowel movement, have 
diarrhea V to be or become easy (J for) 
VI to be indulgent, mild, forbearing, 
obliging, tolerant (~ toward s.o., also 



J) ; to be negligent, careless (J in s.th.) 
X to deem easy, think to be easy (a s.th.) 

J<- sakl and sahil smooth, level, even, 

soft (ground); easy, facile, convenient 

(Jp for s.o.); simple, plain; fluent, 

flowing, facile (style); — (pi. J^- su* 

hut) level, soft ground; plain | Jt^Vi J-p 

handy, easy to handle or to use, con- 

| venient for use ; ^^Li i J«- s. al-hadm easily 

j digestible, light; U$- U^ ( f unda) soft 

| currency; Up J^Jl ^ J If to be easy 

for s.o., come easy to s.o.; t^f-j tA*i see 

I O *L*- sahla (proof) planer [typ.) 

j~4>- suhuil Canopus (astron.) 

J>f- sahul purgative, laxative, aperi- 
ent (adj. and n.) 

j ^fr-* suhula easiness, ease, facility, 

\ convenience | «J>4H easily, conveniently 

! J-fr-1 ashal 2 smoother, evener, leveler; 

easier; more convenient 

| tWfr" •> tashll pi. -at facilitation, ease- 

| ment; pi. facilities | Uj>e" Ot>L$-J (tarn- 

tvlliija) easements of financing, financial 

aids 

Jl$-i ishdl diarrhea 

JaLj tasahul indulgence, mildness, 
leniency, forbearance, tolerance; care- 
lessness, negligence 

J^-^ mushil purgative, laxative, ape- 
rient; (pi. -at) a purgative, a laxative 

Jf-** mushal suffering from diarrhea 

JaLX. mutasdhil indulgent, mild, leni- 
ent, forbearing, tolerant 



mustashal easy, facile 



f&* sahama u (r>f- suhum) to look grave, 
have a grave expression III to cast, or 
draw, lots (« with s.o.); to participate, 



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take part ( j in), partake (J of s.th.), share 
{,3 s.th.) IV to give a share (j J to s.o. 
in), make s.o. (J) share s.th. (J); to take | 
part, participate (J in, at) 

*^— sa^m pi. pL^- sihdm arrow; dart; 
pointer; cosine (math.); — (pi. *^-i as* 
hum) portion, share, lot; share (of stock); 
sahme, a square measure of 7.293 m 2 
i E Q-) I iSJ^ (•«- rocket; ^\J\ ^ Sagitta 



Jit : 



:U»; 



(constellation); <Uf*. ^li* see ^U?; p-f-*' 
j-i-ljl and LvL" *^-l founders' shares, 
original shares; ^y^ pf-' «• al-qard 
bonds, government bonds; (%-f-V «JL*- 
hmnalat al-a. shareholders, stockholders; 
plfJIj *jUJ! (rimaya) archery; *^JI JUj 
the die is cast; ,3 i-^w *^^.-> i^yJ 
{musibin) to take an active part in, 
participate actively in . . .; *^— j VLr-^ 
j <-jl^j (wa-nasibin) do. 



p^ suhum graveness; sadness, mourn- 



ing 



-I ashumi share-, stock- {in com- 



pounds) 

S>L~. musahama participation, taking 
part ( j in), sharing { j of) | XXJJ ^"yi 
sr'rftai a£-m. joint-stock company, cor- 
poration 

Ap4 tsAam participation; collabora- 
tion, cooperation 

jfcL- sahim with earnest mien, grave - 
faced 

^L^. musahim pi. -«.n shareholder, 
stockholder; pi. f. CjI^L*. stockholders 
(firms, companies, countries) 

0*") U*" 5a ^ « (sahw, suhuw) to be in- 
attentive, absent-minded, distracted; to 
neglect, omit, forget, overlook (^ s.th.) | 
^ ^4* mMya 'alaiki to be lost in 
thought 

jf- saAw inattentiveness, inattention, 
inadvertence, absent-mindedness, dis- 



tractedness ; negligence, neglectfulness, 
forgetfulness | \j^> sahwan inattentively, 
distractedly, absent-mindedly, heedless- 
ly, negligently; inadvertently, by mis- 
take 



W 



sahwa a kind of alcove 



<ji_j^-- sahivdn 2 inattentive, heedless, 
distracted, absent-minded, forgetful 

•U *aAm inattentive, absent-minded, 
negligent, forgetful | L*V L*U sakiyan 
lahiyan amusing o.s. in a carefree manner, 
completely at ease 

1 (oj*') *L* saa u (*j*» sau) to be or become 
bad, evil, foul, wicked; to become worse, 
deteriorate (condition); to grieve, sadden, 
afflict, hurt, vex, torment, trouble, 
offend, pain, make sorry, displease 
(» s.o.) j ">^i— »L-» (sabllan) what an 
evil way (= what an evil practice) this 
is! his <o *U (zannan) to think badly of 
s.o., have a poor opinion of s.o.; <uHW *U" 
(tali*uhu) he was under an evil star, was 
ill-starred, he was unlucky or unfortunate; 
J h^j yasuuni I am sorry II to do badly, 
spoil, harm (a s.th.); to blame, censure 
(j> Jj^ s.o. for s.th.); to disapprove (a 
of s.th. J* in s.o.), dislike (Jp a s.th. in 
s.o.) IV to do badly, spoil, harm f* s.th.); 
to deal badly (Jl with s.o.), act meanly 
or evilly (Jl toward s.o.); to do evil 
(Jl to s.o.), wrong (Jf s.o.); to harm 
(Jl s.o.), do harm (Jl to); to hurt, offend, 
insult (Jl s.o.); to inflict pain ( Jl on s.o.) | 
Js^Ji »UI (tasarrufa) to misbehave, 
comport o.s. badly; j iJs^^azJl *l— I to 
go about ... in an evil manner; «u Jill »UI 
(zanna) to think badly of s.o., have a 
poor opinion of s.o.; 4JI J^\ *U! he did 
him an injustice with his opinion; »L-I 
^wcJl to choose a poor expression, express 
o.s. poorly; d\*z«\ *L! to misuse, abuse 
s.th.; <cLU. »Ul {mil amalatdhu) to mis- 
treat s.o., treat s.o. badly; *4iJi »L*1 (fak= 



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fahmuhd they were misunderstood (e.g., 
s.o.'s remarks) VIII to go through 
rugged times, fall on evil days; to be 
unpleasantly affected; to be offended, 
hurt, annoyed, indignant, upset, angered, 
displeased (j- about, at, by); to be dis- 
satisfied, discontent (^ with); to take 
amiss (,y* s.th.) 

*y m* pi. »!>-l aswa? evil, ill; iniquity, 
injury, offense; calamity, misfortune | 
C^JI *j*> s. al-bakt misfortune, bad luck ; 
Jii-1 *_y s, al-hazz do.; -Ui-1 ^j-J un- 
fortunately; jU-'l *j~> s. al-kuluq ill na- 
ture, ill-temperedness ; JU-I *j** bad 
conditions; iiU-l *y bad situation, pre- 
dicament; SjIjV' +y* s. al-iddra mal- 
administration, mismanagement; >y 
iS^UI bad behavior, misbehavior, mis- 
conduct; Js^-axJ! *j" s. at-tasarruf bad 
conduct; jkJi *j- s. az -zann poor opinion ; 
CjU^U]! »j- bad relations; iLUil ^- .5. 
al-mu'dmala mistreatment; Jj^VI *y 
abuse, misuse; .^iJl +f s. al-fahm mis- 
understanding; jfcliJl ^ s. at-tafahu7it 
mutual misunderstanding, disharmony, 
discord; JL^ell ^ s. al-qasd evil, intent; 
<JI *j*> 3. an-nlya do.; ^**tl *j^ s. al- 
hadm indigestion; J^lyJI *y ■». at-tawdfuq 
discordance, incongruity; *jji\ Jlij ri/atf 
as-5. corrupt companions, bad company 

o\j*>, 1*jm> salt* a pi. -at shame, dis- 
grace; disgraceful act, atrocity; private 
part, pudendum; pudenda | d$ l*j^> 
(sau'atan) shame on you ! 

1$*"' *is* sa yy* ^ a< ^' evu > u ^» ^ ou ^ I 

Jii.1 *-^ 8. al-hazz unfortunate; unlucky 
person; jJU^l *^ s. al-kuluq ill-natured; 
Ijjlll >^» $. at-tarbiya bad-mannered, 
s. as-suma 



Jl. 



badly brought up; 
ill -reputed, disreputable; ^iaJl *^ s. 
at-tab r ill-natured, ill-tempered; ^JUJI ^ 
unlucky, unfortunate; unlucky person; 



1^-1 Jl *^ ,y (aswa'a) from bad to 
worse 



4?x~> sayyia pi. -at sin, offense, mis- 
deed; bad side, disadvantage {of s.th.) 

UL^a masaa pi. [zJL** masdwi' 2 evil 
deed, vile action; pi. disadvantages, bad 
sides, drawbacks, shortcomings 

SfL-1 isa'a misdeed; offense, affront, 
insult; sin, offense | j^Ji *»UI i. az. 
zann poor opinion («-j of); iLUil ;»U 
i. al- mu'dmala mistreatment ; JUx^VI «»U 
abuse, misuse 

»LL-I istiya' dissatisfaction, discontent, 
indignation, displeasure, v annoyance, 
vexation 

t^ must displeasing, unpleasant, 
offensive; harmful, disadvantageous, per- 
nicious; insulting 

*b~» musta offended, displeased, an- 
noyed, vexed, indignant (j* about, at, by) ; 
dissatisfied, discontent (<> with) 

2 ^_y see <jj*» 

<Jj\j*" sawdrl horseman, cavalryman, sowar; 
horsemen, cavalry 

ajjI^ (Ft. soiree) sowarefi: *jj[^- *U*- haflat 
s. public evening event; evening per- 
formance, soiree 

C-Sjlvj-* (Engl.) subarmarkit supermarket, 
shopping center 

oLJj>- (Fr. soutien) sutiydn pi. -at brassiere 

^Sy {Fr. sat^d) soteh sauteed 

1 t-U look up alphabetically 

2 4^-^*-i see 7-L*- 



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*** 



L- saha u to travel, rove, roam 



about 



5p-L- saAa pi. -at, *-L» saA courtyard, 
yard; square, place, plaza; arena; field 
(fig.); scene (of an event, an occurrence) ; 
forum (critical public) | «-»jJU 4»-l— «?. aJ- 
ftar& theater of war; S*U*U oU-U courty, 

tribunals; ^jyJi <U-I It the whole Arab 

world; (J J>\j>c^\ o-U parade grounds; 
JUSJI <>-U battle field, war zone; U-U 
•UUJI 5. al-qada tribunal, forum; i>-U 
<_jLJVI athletic field, sports field; o>-U [/ 
barra'a sahatahu to acquit s,o. 

9-Ijh- sawteeth pi. -im traveler, tourist 

^U aa't'A pi. -«», ^U- suyydh, ^\j^> 
suwwdh traveler, tourist; itinerant der- 
vish; anchorite (Chr.) 

(£>-») £-U $aka u (^j- sank) to be or be- 
come doughy, soft, slippery (esp. ground), 
yield like mud; to sink (,_^jVl j in the 
ground, of the foot) | *>-jj CotU (ruhuhu) 
to become faint, swoon 

^j** II to make black, blacken (a s.th.); to 
draft (a a letter, etc.), make a rough 
draft (a of s.th.); to cover with writing 
(a sheets), scribble (a on sheets) | <^>-_j j^- 
{wajhahu) to expose s.o., show s.o. up, 
make a fool of s.o., bring s.o. into dis- 
repute, discredit, disgrace, dishonor s.o. 
IX to be or become black 

•ilj*- sawdd black color, black, black- 
ness; (pi. Jo^l astvida) black clothing, 
mourning; arable land, tilth; shape, 
form; inner part, core; majority; multi- 
tude | alj-jl or <jj(_^l jij*- the rural area 
of Iraq; iap^l atj-J! the great mass, 
the great majority, the largest part; 
j-bJ! il^. the common people, the masses; 
j\JI ilj** «. al-ain eyeball; ij-dl jIj^- 
suburb, outskirts of the city; JJU1 .sij^ 
a. al-lail the long, dark night 



*j+»\ aswad 2 , f. *i^- muda' 2 , pi. >j- 
Si«2 black; dark- colored; — *j*>\ as* 
wad 2 pi. ob_j- suddn a black, Negro | 
jlj^JI (i^j) the Sudan; »b^ fU£ 
severest reproaches; j^-l a^j (yaum) 
black day, unlucky day; **-li j^*l coal- 
black, jetblack; *j*>\ j^- b (A:a6ar) such 
bad news! »!a^* «l* black list 

»lij** savda' 2 black bile (one of the 
four humors of ancient medicine); mel- 
ancholy, sadness, gloom 

»I-U^>- suwaida* 2 black bile (one of the 
four humors of ancient medicine); mel- 
ancholy, sadness, gloom ; *lJbj~J! Suweida 
(capital of the Jebel ed Druz) | *\^ij^ 
cJUUI s. al-qalb the deepest folds of the 
heart, the inmost 

t£jbj-* saudawl melancholic, depressed, 
dejected 

otaj-Jl (-»b) [bilad) as-sudan the Sudan; 
4-jLlyj^ jJ! uiij-Jl 4jj^^; (jumhuriyat ass.) 
Democratic Republic of the Sudan 

titaj*- Sudani Sudanese; (pi. --Sn) a 
Sudanese 

-U j^j taswid and SAjj^J rough sketch, 
rough draft 

2j_j*>. musawwada, musivadda draft, 
rough copy, rough sketch, notes; day- 
book | >JsJI <bj— • m. at-tab* proof sheet, 
galley proof 

2 (j^) jU sdda u (ioL- - siyada, ^J** sudud, 
su'dad) to be or become master, head, 
chief, chieftain, sovereign, lord, over- 
lord (a, o of or over people, of or over 
s.th.), rule, govern (a, * s.o., s.th.), reign 
(a, « over); to prevail (e.g., view), reign 
(e.g., calm); to be predominant, predom- 
inate, have the upperhand (Jp over) 
II to make (* s.o.) master, head, chief, 
chieftain, sovereign, lord, overlord 

pi. .sL-1 asydd, oU sdda t 



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£>taU sdddt master; gentleman; Mister; 
Sir; lord, overlord; chief, chieftain; 
title of Mohammed's direct descendants | 
t£X~>* (sayyidi, colloq. sldl) honorific 
before the names of Muslim Saints 
(esp. magr.) ; o^i JUJ! Mr. So -and- So; 
o^ ^.u- (magr.) do.; JieVI j^*JI -JL- 
Supreme Commander of the Navy; LlJU- 
sayyidnd (eg.) form of address and title 
of a teacher in former elementary schools 
(Koran schools) 

54-*- sayyida pi. -at mistress; lady; 
Mrs. | dLJb SjuJI ('aqilatuku) his wife; 
Z~^» S.uJl Mrs. So-and-so; S^UJI XjuJI the 
virtuous lady {honorary title of a saint in 
Islamic folk religion, in Eg. esp. of 
e^j 3-UJI the lady Zainab) 

oL- siydda command, mastery; dom- 
ination, rule, dominion; supremacy; 
sovereignty; title and form of address 
of bishops (Ckr.); siyddat ... (with foil, 
genit.) nowadays, in Egypt, general 
title of respect preceding the name, 
SoiL-* = you, a respectful address in- 
troduced after the abolition of titles of 
rank and social class in Egypt | o\JA\ oL- 
s. al-mutrdn His Eminence the Metro- 
politan; Lr jJJi oL- approx.: His Ex- 
cellency the President [Eg.); oli SJjj 
«jL- (daula) sovereign state 

."J-- su'dudy sudad dominion, dom- 
ination, rule, reign, power, sovereignty 

4jU said prevailing (opinion, feeling, 
mood, calm, etc.) 

3 0jj~Ji, ^Jj^- look up alphabetically 

*SiU look up alphabetically and under 2 *j** 

5 ^iU and 4j^U look up alphabetically 

03j*> saudana to Sudanize (Eg.) II tasaudana 
to become Sudanized 



If j j** suriyd Syria 
o j j- surlya 2 



4JJ- 



{\^V-) c^^ - 5 ^ 5tt u (^■"V" siydsa) to dom- 
inate, govern, rule (« s.o.); to lead, 
guide, conduct, direct (a, * s.o.. s.th.); 
to administer, manage, regulate (a s.th.); 
— sawisa yaswasu to be or become 
worm-eaten, be moth-eaten II and V = 
sawisa; to become carious (tooth); to rot, 
decay, become rotten (wood, bones) 

^y sus (coll.; n. un. S) pi, jUx- 
sisdn woodworm, borer; mothworm 

(j-j- s£«s licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra; 



ija^** saudana Sudanization (%.) 

x jj>" H to enclose, fence in, wall in, surround 
with a railing or wall (a s.th.) Ill to leap 
(* at s.o.), beset, assail, attack, assault 
(* s.o.); to befall, overcome, grip (» s.o., 
emotion) V to scale (a a wall, a cliff, etc.) 

jy sur pi. jlj— 1 aswdr wall; enclosure, 
fence, railing 

»jy sura pi. j^- suwar chapter of 
the Koran, sura 

*jy scram vehemence, force, violence; 
severity (of cold) 

jj~* musawwar surrounded by a wall; 
fenced, hedged in 

% j\y siwdr, suwar pi. jy sur, ljy\ aswira, 
jjL-I asdwir 2 , JjjUl asdwira bracelet, 
armlet, bangle; armband; cuff, wrist- 
band 

3 <SJ^ l°ok up alphabetically 
*j\y\ look up alphabetically 

6 iSjy suri Syrian; (pi. -tin) a Syrian | 
'V.Jj—J' <sO*" \jj+J~\ (jumkurlya) Syrian 
Arab Republic 



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V 



hot.) | ^j* tV> e irq s. licorice . root ; 
j«j*JI VJ rubb as-s. licorice rob, thick- 
ened licorice juice 

i-L- siydsa pi. -a£ administration, 
management; policy; **-L*- siydsatan 
for reasons of expediency (/si. Law) | 

<JjjJl i*LJl (duwaliya) diplomacy; S--U- 
*~JUj educational policy; 4JUJ! SL-L-JI 
( r awia%a) practical policy, Realpolitik; 
O a-j=JI 3-*L-* 5 * ai-tawassu f policy of 
expansion 

yj*L* siydsl political; diplomatic; — 
(pi. -fi», 2L-U sasa) politician; diplomat, 
statesman | v-LJI ./Ij-aJI political circles ; 
^j-LJi clJLJi (siZfc) diplomatic corps; 
y^UJI iUaxSVl 1a ('Urn al-iqtisdd) po- 
litical science, political economy 

^-j-j tasawwus (dental) caries; rotten- 
ness 

j-JL- 5a* is pi. <L-L 5a\sa, ^^ suw* 
was, ^L* suyyds stableman, groom; 
driver (primarily of animals); manager, 
leader; (eg.) ^l- say is pi. ^L- suyyds 
jockey 

(j^>«* musawwis worm-eaten; decayed; 
carious (tooth) 

\ri>-" as-suwes Suez (seaport in NE Egypt) | 
j-Jj-JI SU5 qanat as-s. Suez Canal 

l 5-*|j*- see ,£j~> 

v ^y susa 2 Sousse (seaport in Tunisia) 

c*y susta pi. -at, c~-_^, C— - susat (eg.) 
zipper; spring (of a car, upholstery) 

t>*j- musan, susan lily of the valley (bat.) 

(J»_^) J*U sdta u (saut) to whip, flog, lash, 
Bcourge (» s.o.) 

J*>* saut pi. J»1j*-I aswdt, JtL- 0tj/£j 
whip, lash, scourge 



I 



JU^mmi miswat stick or similar implement 
used for stirring 

apU sa f a pi. -at, fL* sa f (short) time, while; 
hour; timepiece, clock, watch; icLJI the 
Hour of Resurrection; as-sd'ata now, at 
present, by this time, at this moment, in 
this instant; at once, instantly, immedi- 
ately, just I iSj^j **l- ,>j (wa-ukrd) from 
hour to hour; 4*LJl J>- until now; 
itUl j* from now on, henceforth; j* 
<cpL- immediately, presently, instantly, 
at once; 4cUI JL. from now on, hence- 
forth; axpU oU he died instantly; 
4mjUI SpUI j at 7 o'clock (magr. also 
•■•J*)» vs^' ^^ 5 * &l>-j®$> pocket 
watch; 5JLj 4^L (ramllya) hourglass; 
X^^P 5eL* (Samslya) sundial; JU*j 4*L- 
s. rasa* stop watch; JUll *cL- 5. al-yad 
wrist watch; <cpL- ^i t£«. sd'atihi transi- 
tory, ephemeral; i^Ul <~~bt- the public 
speaker of the hour; apLJI JlUw. the 
questions of the hour; cJjJl J- *pL- 
(waqt) a while, a short time 

.k^U sd'ataidin in that hour 

JUL- sa'a^ pi. -ya watchmaker 

<>oj<" suwai'a pi. -at little hour, little 
while 

{'fj**) H- 6'fl^a « (sawt/, M-* masdg) to be 
easy to swallow, go down pleasantly 
(drink, food); to be permissible, be per- 
mitted, allowed (J to s.o.); to swallow 
(a s.th.); to permit, allow, accept, 
tolerate (a s.th.), put up (a with s.th.), 
swallow, stomach s.th. (a, fig.) II to 
make permissible, permit, allow (a J 
to s.o. s.th.), admit (a s.th.); to justify, 
warrant (t-» * s.th. with, iLp <d s.o. in 
his behavior); to lease, let (a s.th.) IV to 
wash down, swallow easily (a s.th.); 
(fig.:) to take, swallow, stomach (a s.th.), 
stand for s.th. (a), put up with s.th. (a); 
to make bearable, tolerable (a s.th., e.g., 



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s.o.'s misfortune) V to lease (a s.th.), 
take a lease (a of s.th.) X to regard as 
easy to swallow, find pleasant (a s.th.); 
to taste, enjoy, relish (a s.th.); to ap- 
prove (a of s.th.), admit, grant (a s.th.), 
deem (a s.th.) proper 

9\ — . masdg easy access; possibility; 
permission j J UU-* *lai~j i {yas 
tail) he couldn't put up with ..., 
couldn't reconcile himself to . . . , couldn't 
swallow ...; diiJJ f-L* ♦ V (masaga, Salck) 
one cannot possibly doubt it 

Aj>~j taswig hiring out on lease, 
leasing j ij^-JJlj ^y^ o^JU (qard) Lend- 
Lease Act (pot, Tun.) 

iJU saig easy to swallow; tasty , 
palatable; permissible, permitted, al- 
lowed 

9j~a musaivwig pi. -at justifying fac- 
tor, justification, good reason; pi. oUj*. 
support material for an application, 
application papers 



f-LJL^ mustasdg easy to swallow; tasty, 
palatable 

J>y II to put off (e s.o,); to postpone, draw 
out, delay, procrastinate (a s.th.) 

*J»^- saufa (abbreviated form .- sa) 
particle of future tense, e.g., (jj ' <3j^ 
(tara) you will see 

£jL~» masafa pi, -at, (_3jL~. masdwij 2 
distance, interval, stretch; (mus.) in- 
terval | «L»* J* at some distance 

(_aj^-J taswif pi. -at procrastination, 
postponement, delay, deferment 

Jjj-J taswif i dilatory, delaying, pro- 
crastinating 

Jlk**i>- sufistal sophistic ; (pi. -un) Sophist , 
sophist 

ylk*Jj*- sufistcbiya sophistry 



<^.Jj*" sov yet, c^j- sovyet and oL*^ mv* 
yat, sufyat Soviet; c~i»-Jt etc., the Soviets 

j^-jj-- sovyeti, i&zpj** sovyeti and JUj* 
suvydti Soviet (adj.) | <^J>JI il^VI {Ufa 
had) and ( J^JjJl) JLijJl :>UVl the Sovi- 
et Union 

{3 j**) JL- sdqa u (sauq, «U- siydqa, JL. 
masdq) to drive, urge on, herd (a, ( 
prisoners, cattle); to draft, conscript 
(L-L^ li-l-jundiya for military service); 
to drive (a an automobile); to pilot 
(a an airplane); to carry along, convey, 
transport (a s.th.); to send, dispatch, 
forward, convey, hand over (Jl a s.th. 
to s.o.); to utter (a s.th.); to cite, 
quote, propound, put forth (a s.th.) | 
«1 — . JU (masdqahu) to follow the 
example or path of s.o.; ti-j.U-1 JU to 
carry on the conversation; <uJI <1j.UJ JL 
to address s.o.; ^«U-1 JL~j tfJLJl (yusdqu) 
you are the one that is meant II to market, 
sell (a merchandise) III to accompany 
(e s.o.); to go along, agree (a with s.o.) 
V to trade in the market, sell and buy 
in the market; to go shopping (in the 
bazaar) VI to draw out; to form a 
sequence, be successive, be continuous, 
be coherent; to harmonize YII to drift; 
to be driven; to be carried away, be 
given over | Jf *j JLil to carry s.o. away 
to ..., drive or urge s.o. to ... VIII to 
drive, urge on, herd (a cattle) 

i5>*- sauq driving (of a car); draft, 
conscription (*i-xJ^ li-l-jundiya for mili- 
tary service), induction (of a recruit; esp. 
Syr.)-, mobilization (of troops, also of 
forces, energies, etc.) [ J>JI ojl>-l ijazat 
ass. driving license 

O ^?j" sauqiya strategy 

JL* sag f., pi, 3j*» suq, 0U~* siqdn 
shank; thigh; leg (also geom.); side 
(geom.); (m.) trunk (of a tree); (m.) stem, 
stalk (of plants) | /»UJ-I JL* #. al-hamdm 



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bugloss (Anchusa officinalis; hot.); *kjj 
JU1 rabtat ass. garter; JUI ~<&*ij ^Uj 
Order of the Garter; JUi ^ 'azm 
ass, shinbone, tibia; ^SUI tfjLS* mtt=* 
tasawl ssaqain isosceles (geom.); c.l» 
JU Jp o^A. I (harbu) the war was or be- 
came violent, flared up; war broke out; 
l$SL- tf- *-jj^-\ cJlZS' (kasafat) do.; <_a-i5"* 
aSU a*- j*Vi the matter became diffi- 
cult; J -U-I JU Jp ^asj {5. al-jidd) to 
apply o.s. with diligence to, take pains in, 
make every effort to; JJUj *45 Js (ga* 
toi) in full swing, carried on most ener- 
getically (undertaking, preparations, etc. ) ; 
^jji 4L- {jJLUi) J-yl arsala (atlaqa) sd* 
qahu li-r-rih (or <usL- saqaifii), pi. 1_jJ-yt 
«jJH j^'U- - (!>*^') to speed along like 
the wind ; to run away head over heels, 
bolt; SwbJj ISL [>>v^ they marched out 
in step 

45U saqa rear guard, arriere-garde 

jj- swg mostly f., pi. Jl^i aswdq 
bazaar street; market; O fair 1 jjM J** 
uU>-*yij 5. ahbirr wa-l-ihsan charity 
bazaar; d~£t>li J^- flea market; Jj-Jl 
Sji-I (hurra) the free market; uL^-Vl <3^-« 
charity bazaar; aj.^- J>- (kairlya) do.; 
Pj--VI i5>- 5. al-usbu' weekly market; 
*\iyS Jj-Jl (sawda') the black market; 
iSj^iil J>-JI (mwstarak) the Common 
Market; JjyJI Jlj-I a. assarf exchange 
markets; curb markets; ioLaaVl <3^-Jl 
the economic market; -uJl 3j*» s. an- 
naqd money market (stock exchange); 
oV>*»**il Jl>*-1 produce markets ; j>j5* 3j>* 
f Ja2i\ s. *uqud at-qutn cotton exchange 

SijK su^a subjects; rabble, mob 

jj*- 5%t market (in compounds); 
plebeian, common, vulgar, low 

Jlj* sawlq a kind of mush made of 
wheat or barley (also with sugar and 
dates) 



ijij** suwaiq and 4jvj*> muuiqa stem, 
stalk (of plants) 

i4j_j- sutoaiqa small market 

i5L-* siyaq succession, sequence, 
course, thread (of conversation) ; context 

SSL-* siydqa driving (of a motor vehicle) 

3\j* sawwdq pi. -un driver (of ani- 
mals) ; driver,chauffeur ; (railroad) engineer 

JU* masdq trend of things, course, 
development, or progress, of s.th.; oL« 
JI it amounts to . . . , comes to . . . , winds 
up in . . . , is ultimately aimed at ... ; also 
see JU saqa above | CjUIj^jI ^ JL~. 
course of studies; JI JL.ll Lj L pki\ we 
have come to the point where ... 

Jj j-J taswiq marketing, sale (of mer- 
chandise) I Ju^ Jjtf j* commercially 
unfeasible, unprofitable 

Aij^-J taswiqa (eg.) bargain, advan- 
tageous purchase 

Jij LJ tasavmq coherence, interrelation, 
connection, context; harmony 

JL.JI insiytiq state of being driven 
(emotionally), of being carried away, 
thoughtlessness 

JjU saiq driving; driving force; — 
(pi. -un, <aU saqa) driver (of animals); 
chauffeur, driver; cabman, cabby; street- 
car motorman; bus driver; (aircraft) 
pilot I j^TIj JjU taxi driver 

J*j~j> musauqar (tun.) — _fij~*» musaukar 

(£y) ilU saka u (sauk) to rub, scrub, scour 
(a s.th.) II to clean and polish, brush, 
clean (oil— V the teeth) 

iil^- siwdk pi. i\y suk a small stick 
(the tip of which is softened by chewing 
or beating) used for cleaning and pol- 
ishing the teeth 



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iSlj--* miswdh pi. dbjL*. masawil 2 

^^j— saukara to insure (a goods, etc.); to 
register (a a letter) 

jfj+~» musaukar insured; registered 
(letter) 

1 ijj^ II to talk or argue s.o. (J) into s.th. 
evil or fateful (a) ; to entice, seduce (J s.o., 
said of the Devil) | <u~iJ <J cJ^-. (naj- 
suhu) he let himself be seduced (a to) 

2 (J^~J tasawwala (for JLj tasa"ala) to beg 
J^-J tasawwul begging, beggary 
J_j*Jl. mutasawivil pi. --££?& beggar 

uli^J^ sulufan (eg.) cellophane 

1 (rj-) pU 6ama w (sawm) to offer for sale 
(a a commodity); to impose (a o upon 
s.o. a punishment or task), force (a * 
upon s.o. a difficult task); to demand 
of s.o. (*) s.th. (a) beyond his power | 
U~^- <uU (jcasfan) to treat s.o. un- 
justly, wrong s.o.; to humiliate s.o.; — - 
(4>L~ siydma) to ordain, consecrate (a 
priest, a bishop, etc.; OAr.) II to impose, 
force (a 6 upon s.o. a difficult task), 
coerce (a a s.o. to s.th. difficult); to de- 
mand of s.o. (a) s.th. (a) beyond his 
power; to assess, estimate (a the value 
of an object); to mark, provide with a 
mark (a s.th.) Ill to bargain, haggle, 
chaffer over a price (o with s.o.); to bar- 
gain, haggle ( j or Jp, <_> a with s.o, over) 
IV to let (a cattle) graze freely; to let 
(a the eye) wander VI to bargain, haggle 
(j over, f or) VII to be ordained, con- 
secrated (priest, bishop, etc.; Chr.) 
VIII to bargain, haggle, chaffer (._-> or J, 
Jp over, for) 

i*L*< siydma ordination, consecration 
(of a priest, bishop, etc.; Chr.) 



i»jL-* musawama pi. -at bargaining, 
haggling 

X/U sa'ima pi. p\j~> sawa'im 2 freely 
grazing livestock 

2 fU, t/U look up alphabetically 

3 j»L**, oUL** <L»L** see 2 *— - 

^.j^ sumir 2 Sumer 

t£j*j** sumirl Sumerian (adj.); (pi. -un) 
a Sumerian 

IJkiAj** Sumatra Sumatra 

OIjh-I look up alphabetically 

^Uj- swMgi Sohag (city in central Egypt, on 
the Nile) 

(jj~> sawiya a to be equivalent, be equal 
(a to s.th.), equal (a s.th.) II to even, 
level, nivellate, flatten, straighten (a 
s.th.); to smooth (a s.th.); to smooth 
down (a s.th., e.g., folds, wrinkles; 
<uLj j* one's clothes); to equalize, 
make equal (<-> a s.th. to s.th. else), put 
(a s.th.) on the same level (<_-> with s.th.); 
Wd i£j*" *° P ut two persons on an 
equal footing, treat two persons as 
equals, reconcile two persons; to make 
regular, make good (a s.th.) ; to cook prop- 
erly (a s.th.); to regulate, arrange, make 
up, smooth over, settle, put in order (a a 
dispute, a controversy, etc.) j 4pJi>-l (jj^ 
to crush s.o.'s pride III to be equivalent, 
be equal (a to s.th.), equal (a s.th.); 
to be worth (a s.th.); to equalize, make 
equal («_-> a s.th. to s.th. else), put (a s.th.) 
on the same level (<_-> with); to establish 
equality (,>■!_? — &J between — and); 
.j^-j ^jU to make them equals, equalize 
them, put them on the same footing; to 
regulate, arrange, make up, smooth over, 
settle, put in order (a a dispute, a contro- 



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i$J~ 



versy, etc.); W~> <jjU = L^~j ^j- {saw* 
wa) VI to be equal or similar; to be 
balanced, keep the balance VIII to 
be even, regular, equal; to be equivalent 
(a to); to be on the same level; to be or 
become straight, even, level; to stand 
upright, erect, straight; to straighten up; 
to sit down (Jp on), mount (Jp s.th.); 
to sit firmly (Jp on an animal); to be 
properly cooked, be well done; to ripen, 
mature, be or become ripe 

tSy siwan, suwan equality, sameness; 
(with foil, genit. or suffix) other than, 
except | ^j^ Jb- Jp (haddin) equal(ly), 
indiscriminate (ly), alike, the same; ^Uii 
a I j- Jp faddalaku f ala siwahu he preferred 
him to everybody else; (£y — V » w ^ 
£y — only, nothing but 

*\j~> sawa equal; equality, sameness; 
sawcCa except | *^ Jp 4jJ *y (la* 
daihi) it is all the same to him, he is in- 
different to everything; »[^-j *\y (sa* 
waan) equally, indiscriminately, with- 
out distinction; together; *l^Jl Jp like- 
wise, in like manner, equally, evenly, 
indiscriminately, without distinction; all 
the same, making no difference; Jp *\y 
it doesn't make any difference for ...; 
(jl) >l — »\jm> (sawa' an) regardless 
whether — or . . . , no matter whether — 
or..., be it that ... — or ..., pi — *y 
do.; jj,..:.jiJVl J** *\y \?\jA** JU-»"^ : 
0^-4* VI j^-j the disciples of Socrates, 
both Athenians and non- Athenians ; 
(4*^1) Jj-JI *!_>-- (mahajja) the straight, 
right path 

($j*> sawly pi. *lj_j--i aswiya 2 straight; 
right, correct, proper; unimpaired, in- 
tact, sound; straight -bodied, straight- 
shaped, of regular build or growth; even, 
regular, well-proportioned, shapely, har- 
monious; \iy sawlyan in common, 
jointly, together 



\y sawiya pi. Uj- sawaya equali- 
ty; sawlyatan together, jointly 

^ siyy (for m. and f.) pi. *\y\ aswa 
equal, similar, (a)like | jL*- U* they 
are alike, are the same; ^-Up oL- L^ 
they are both the same to me 

Ip-- V la siyyama especially, in par- 
ticular, mainly | ulj L~* V (wa-anjia) 
especially for the reason that . . ., par- 
ticularly because . . . 

*~*\y sawdsiya (pi.) equal, alike | 
<~*>\y (<y>) f they are equals 

4j_j*j taswiya pi. -at leveling, nivellation ; 
settlement, arrangement, adjustment (of 
controversies, etc.); equalization; settle- 
ment (of a bill); compromise | \j~3h Jj*^ 
land settlement officer; aj^-JJI cj£ out- 
standing, unsettled, unpaid (com.) 

SljL*. musawah equality, equivalence; 
equal rights, equality before the law; 
settlement, composition (com.) 

jLj tasawin equality, equivalence, 
sameness; equal rights, equality before 
the law | ^jLlJI Jp or ^jUUU likewise, 
in like manner, equally, evenly, regularly 

•■lji-1 istiwa straight ness ; standing 
straight up, vertical stance; upright pos- 
ture; evenness, levelness; equality, reg- 
ularity, steadiness | *ij2-*V «U>- katt al~ 
ist. equator 

J\jZ*\ istiwa % equatorial, tropical j 
aJ\j1^^ I iukJJ (mintaqa) or jl»Uil 
ILJl^-VI the tropics 

jL-» musawin equal, equivalent, simi- 
lar 

jLJU mutasawin equal, similar, (a)like; 
even, equable, equally strong; of equal 
weight, equipoised, equiponderant | ^jLJi* 
iUo^l equidistant; WjjJl tljUl. m.z-zawd* 
yd equiangular (geom.); <>iUl ^jU-I* tn. 



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520 



s-sdqain isosceles (geom.); 9%*^\ ^jL-I- 
equilateral (geom.) 

j^~+ mustawin straight, upright, erect; 
even, smooth, regular; well done (cook- 
ing); ripe, mature 

(£ji~* mustawan level, niveau, stand- 
ard | .Li I <sjp~* water level; <jjz~1\ 
iJ d*l\ ( e ilmi) scientific level; SU~I (Sjl** 
m, l-haydk standard of living; Xt^X\ ^y~* 
m. l-maisa do.; (jy~* j (with foil, 
genit.) on an equal level or footing 
with . . .; JjaJI (_£yull Jp (duwali) on an 
international level 

J&j^ (Engl.) swetS (eg.) switch (el.) | J^U 
JZij** switchboard operator 

-b>JI (Ft. la Suede) as-mwed Sweden 

tj-Xtj** suwedl Swedish; (pi. -un) Swede 

^r-j^Ji as-suwes Suez (seaport in NE Egypt) | 
(j^j^JI Sbi qandt ass. Suez Canal 

\j~tj*> (It- Svizzcra) swisra, suwisra Switzer- 
land 

^j-jj- swisri, suwisri Swiss 

1 4 5 - siya pi. -ai curved part of a bow 

2 D (£- 5t short form of JU- sayyid, <^-L*- Mr., 
Sir (esp. magr.) j 

\s- **yy, <jW- see ^^ ! 

pL- siyam Siam, Thailand I 

oL- $iyd?i cyanogen 

(«-ju-) w>U sa&a i (saib) to flow, stream, run 
(water); to run along, speed along, glide 
along, creep along, crawl along; to walk 
fast, hurry; (egf.)to leave, give up, relin- , 
quish (a s.th.); (eg.) to neglect (a, * s.o., 
s.th.) ; (eg.) to release, let go, free (a, « s.o., ! 



s.th.) II to leave, give up, relinquish [* 
s.th.); to neglect (a, * s.o., s.th.); to re- 
lease, let go, free (a, a s.o., s.th.) V to 
behave carelessly, without restraint, let 
oneself go, be undisciplined VII to 
flow, stream, run (water) ; to pour, flow 
(Jf into), enter (Jl s.th.); to peter out, 
seep away, exhaust itself; to speed 
along, glide along, run along, crawl or 
creep (along); to glide, slip (j« between); 
to walk fast, hurry; with foil, imperf.: 
to begin at once to do s.th. 



jL-Jl insiyabl, jSCill jUJl 
stream-lined 



s4aH 



<_JL- sd'ib forlorn, lost, (a)stray; free, 
loose, lax, unrestrained 

^iJ^rir" sibiriya Siberia 

1 £r - H to fence in, hedge in, surround with 
a hedge (a s.th.) V pass, of II 

^L- siydj pi. -at, 4>-j**\ aswija, y-L-l 
asydj hedge; fencing, fence; enclosure; 
(fig.) bulwark, shield (of a country, of 
a nation) 

2 £-U look up alphabetically 

jU~- sigdr (Eg. spelling) pi. -at cigar 

SjU^, sigara (Eg. spelling) pi. J\*^ sagd'ir*, 
j^U— sagdyir cigarette 

(^r") %^** sdha i (saih, uU«~** sayakdn) to 
flow, run (water); to melt, thaw, dis- 
solve, become liquid (snow, metal); — 
(saih, 4^U- siydha) to travel, journey; 
to rove, roam about II to make flow, 
cause to flow (a a river, etc.); to melt, 
dissolve, liquefy, smelt, fuse (a metal, 
and the like); to melt, clarify (a butter) 
IV to make flow, cause to flow (a s.th.) 
VII to spread, pour forth 



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4»-L- siijdha tourism; (pi. -at) trip, 
travel, journey 

^U- siyahi tourist (in compounds) 

f-L- say yah pi. -un traveler; tour- 
ist 

^U sa'ih pi. -un, ^L- suyyah, $uu- 
wdh traveler; tourist; itinerant dervish; 
anchorite (CAr.) 

«~w. musayyah fluid, liquid; striped 
(garment) 

to sink into the ground or mud 

2 ^-*- 5-1& pi. ^-L— -I asydk spit, skewer; foil, 
rapier; iron prong or bolt 



X^f, a ^™" 



'^ 



»j!jl-- sidara pi. -«£ (see «jt-U) an Iraqi head- 
gear, commonly of black velvet; overseas 
cap 

{>") J^ fi^m i (jw satr, Sjjj^-- sairura, 
>. masir, lju~» masira, jL~j tasyar) 
to move (on), set out, strike out, start, 
get going; to move along; to march; 
to travel, journey; to ride (in a vehicle); 
to go, go away, leave, depart; to run, 
operate (j — ,>j between — and, of a 
train); to flow (electric current); to run, 
be in operation, function, work, go 
(machine); to progress (e.g., work); to 
make (Jl for s.th.), be headed (Jl for 
s.th.), approach (Ji s.th.), be directed, 
be oriented (Jl toward s.th.); to be on 
the way (j£> toward s.th.); to circu- 
late, make the rounds, be or become 
current (proverb); to follow, maintain 
(Ijv- sairan a behavior, Jp s.th.); to 
behave, conduct o.s.; to proceed, act 
Jp or (S ^ju bi-muqtadd according to); to 
go or be guided by (Jp) ; to take as a norm 
or criterion (Jp s.th.) | «*j jU to lead s.o., 



lead s.o. away; o\Sj\ <o jU see «_-f b 
rdkib; &*\jj jU- to follow, pursue s.o.; jU- 
LUij 4^- {jV atari wa-dahdban) to walk 
up and down, go back and forth; ,j jL- 
l y*.*d\ J~j-* (5. it-tahassun) to be on the 
road to recovery; l?j jU J? I SkA-1 
(kitta) the course he followed; 41-*- lj^ jU 
(siratan hasanatan) to behave well; j^— 1 
OtAs 2jv- (strata fulan) he follows the 
behavior of, behaves just like So-and-so; 
<u»As Jp jL- (qadamaihi) not to be dead 
and forgotten, be still much alive, be a 
tangible reality; L.Jb jL- (quduman) to go 
ahead, progress, move forward; to make 
progress; <_j L-UjL- (quduman) to promote, 
push, expedite s.th.; j j-'U^a (with foil. 
masdar) he continues to do it ; he is making 
headway in (an activity); j+ sir march! 
(command; mil.) II to set in motion, 
drive (a s.th.); to make (a s.th., e.g., an 
automobile) go, cause to start (a a train, 
etc.); to start, start up, let run (a a ma- 
chine); to move to action, get going (j*a 
people); to go in (a for a task), run, carry 
on, ply, practice (a a trade); to arrange 
for, organize (a a trip, journey); to drive 
(a a car), pilot, steer (a s.th.); to send, 
dispatch, send out (a, * s.o., s.th.); to 
circulate, put in circulation (a s.th.); to 
stripe (a a garment, etc.) Ill to keep up, 
go along ( 6 with s.o.); to walk at s.o.'s (*) 
side; to pursue (a s.th.); to show o.s. 
willing to please (e s.o.), comply (* with 
s.o.'s wish); to be in agreement, be con- 
sistent (a with s.th.); to be familiar, inti- 
mate, be hand in glove, get along (* with 
s.o.); to adapt o.s. (a to circumstances, 
events, etc.) IV to set in motion, drive 
(a s.th.); to send, dispatch (a, s.o., s.th.) 
VI to walk together 

jv sair trip, tour; walk, errand; 
march, procession; marching, parade 
(mil.); walking tour; ride (in a car); pace 
(of a car or vehicle); movement, motion; 
departure ; course, progress (of an under- 



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taking); progression, historical develop- 
ment or course ; procedure, practice, con- 
duct, behavior; (way of) life; observance, 
pursuance (J* of s.th.) | jj^dl j^> s. al- 
*umrdn progress of civilization; l y^~ 
iJ^JUIj s-J\ (husn ass.) blameless life; 
<^>ji. *\jj j\+S\ j (garadiki) in pursuance 
of his intention 

j~* sair pi. jj~* suyur strap, thong; 
(leather) belt; girth; drive belt, trans- 
mission belt | 4^. jv- (mutaharrik) con- 
veyor belt, assembly line 

lj*» saira (n.vic.) walk; march; course 

Zj^m slra pi. j^> siyar way of walking; 
march; way of acting, conduct; life; 
reputation, fame; course of life; biog- 
raphy; tale (about somebody's deeds 
or life); heroic epic; pi. heroic deeds, war- 
like episodes, campaigns; S^^Jl the biog- 
raphy of Mohammed | r-U*^l *jw s. ihtijaj 
protest march; ^Jli Sj*- (ddtit/a) autobi- 
ography; >JI i rr ?S' kutub ass. biographies 

jL- sayyar traveling frequently, al- 
ways on the move, continually moving; 
itinerant, roving, roaming about; circu- 
lating; (pi. -at) planet, also jl^ <-£j* 
(kaukab) | SjL* CaS? (suhuf) or »jU* OjI^ 
daily newspapers, dailies 

SjL* sayyar a pi. -at automobile, car | 
lj>-\ SjL- s. xijra taxi, cab; 4pj-U SjL^ 
(rnvdarra'a) armored car; 4jj>s 3jL- (dau- 
riya) patrol car; <_jIT) SjL- s, rukkdb 
passenger, car; ciU—Vl SjV* s. al-is'df 
ambulance; 4*Ju*z* ojL- (musaffaha) ar- 
mored c'ar; JiJl 3jU- s. an-naql truck, 
lorry; SjL-JI JjU (automobile) driver, 
chauffeur 

jL*. masar pi. -at path (of rays, 
of a star, etc.) ; orbit (of a planet) ; trajec- 
tory (of a bullet); route (of a bus line, 
etc.) 



jy~* maslr travel, journey, tour; march 
{mil.); departure; marching off; distance 

Syw. masira travel, journey, tour; 
march, procession, parade, public demon- 
stration; departure; route; flight path, 
course of flight; distance 

jL-J tasydr stroll, tour 

jftj-J tasylr dispatch, sending out; set- 
ting in motion (car, train), operation (of 
a machine); putting into operation (of 
a railroad); propulsion, drive (ttchn.); 
steering; (Tun.) guidance, direction; ar- 
rangement, organization (of a tour or 
trip) j (jtiJI^wJji (naffdti) jet propulsion; 
Jli jwj self -guidance; jwj jl^- jdhaz 
t. steering gear 



musdyara adaptation, adjust- 



ment 



j-L- sd'ir going, walking, running; 
walker, wayfarer, wanderer ; widely avail- 
able; generally known, current (proverb); 
see also Ji» | S/L. i*4>- (kidma) pi. aJL*. 
vU (kidam) day laborers; seasonal la- 
borers ; personnel without fixed employ- 
ment, not on regular appointment (eg.) 

jw. musayyir pi. -un (Tun.) director, 
leader 

>~* musayyar directed, controlled 
(._j by); guided, remote-controlled; not 
endowed with free will (philos., as opposed 
to j^m* mukayyar) 

^j"-* siras (syr.) glue made of the yellow 
powder of a pulverized root, used esp. 
for pasting leather 

*j\j^> slrajlm seraphim 

rjw slraj sesame oil 

ilj^» (Fr. cirque) sirk circus 



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J^ 



Jb, 



*Jb>- — JL 



yi*, 



Lyjjw saizofrinya schizophrenia 

jL*^ saisabdn sesban (an indigenous Egyp- 
tian shrub whose leaves have a purga- 
tive effect, Sesbania aegyptiaca Pers.; 
bot.) 

<s ^ sisi pi. oL-jl- stsiydt, ^-L- saydsl 
{eg.) pony; young rat 

jij-Lu- (IV. sechoir) seswar hairdryer (in 
beauty parlors) 

jl«*- saitara to command, dominate, con- 
trol (J* s.th.); to be master or lord (J* 
over s.th.), reign, gain power (J* over 
s.th.}; to seize (J* s.th.), take hold (J* 
of s.th.) II tasaitara = J* t * 

ZJ*^ saitara rule, dominion, domi- 
nation, command, supremacy, power, 
authority (Jp over); decisive influence 
(J* on); control (J* over) 



:r ** musaitir ruler, sovereign, over- 
lord 

J^ saif pi. J»_^ suyuf, JsU-l oayo/, 
^Ju^lasyuf sword; sabre; scimitar j ^Jw- 
jOt-Vi s. al-isldm (formerly) title of prin- 
ces of the royal house of Yemen 

i_Ju- sif pi. »J»L*-i Gts^/a/ bank, river- 
side ; seaside ; side of a valley 

JsU- sayydf executioner 

iiU* musdyafa fencing (with sabre 
or foil) 

"W* sf / 5 » siphon; flush tank (of a toilet); 
water flushing 



L^y 15^- sailcatiniya, slkatiniyd psychasthenia 

j 151- sigdr pi. -atf cigar 

SjlSw- si^ara pi. yiS^ sagd'ir 2 cigarette 

ul^Sl*- saikurdn, saikardn henbane (Hyoscy- 
amus niger; bot.) 

ob^Sw- saikobat, sikobdt psychopath 

dkj>~* saikobdti, slkobatl, Jb^SL- 
saikobdti psychopathic 

LJl^SL- saikobdtiyd, sikobdtiyd psycho- 
pathia 

^Jj&r (It. sicurtd) sikurtdh insurance | 
(♦W 11 ) Ji>i •KjjSL* {haydh) fire (life) 
insurance 

jLj-y5w- saikosomdti, sikosomdti psycho- 
somatic 

^j-jljSl^ saikoloji, sikolop psychologic(al) 

^rj^J^r" saikolojiyd, slkolojiyd psy- 
chology 

HJr") JL- sdla i (sail, o!>L- sayaldn) to 
flow, stream; to be or become liquid; to 
melt | J* <uUJ JU (lu'dbuhu) his mouth 
watered for ... II to make flow, cause to 
stream, liquefy, melt, dissolve (a s.th.) 
IV to make flow, cause to stream (a s.th., 
Jf into) 

J~*- sail pi. Jj~-. s?ty«f flood, inunda- 
tion; torrent, torrential stream | J«- 
fl^. furdm) huge quantity, tremendous 
flood; JjJI J^JI ^L ( 2 «&a) the matter has 
reached its climax, has come to a head; 
jr* J-- a flood, huge number of . . . 

*L** saa7a stream 

*Jjj-- suyula liquid state, liquidity, 
flow(ing) 



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JL- sayydl streaming, pouring, tor- 
rential; fluid, liquid; a liquid; stream; 
a fluid | JL- ]S {qalam) facile pen, fluent 
style 

4JL- sayydla rivulet; pocket 

OtjL- sayalan flowing, flow; running; 
deliquescence, liquefaction; gonorrhea 
(med.); see also below 

J~~. masll pi. JjU* masayil 2 river 
bed, rivulet; drain, outlet (of water) 

JjL- sd'il fluid, liquid; (pi. Jj'j- sa* 
wa y il 2 ) a liquid, a fluid | O Jj[>-J' J* 
Him as-s. hydraulics; JjU -uj (zubd) 
melted butter 

4JL*U- sa'iliya fluidity, liquid state of 
aggregation (phys.) 

2 j*>L^ silan % Ceylon; — slldn pi. ^JL-* sayd- 
lin 2 garnet (precious stone) 

^ sima (pass.) to be consecrated, be ordain- 
ed (priest, bishop, etc.; Chr.), see Hf^* - ) 

%*> siyyama see ^j- 
^lo— sima' 2 see next entry 

4, {J ^f sima ({^ sima) , A^ sima 2 , 4-*-^-- 
sima pi. pf siyam mark, sign, charac- 
teristic; mien, expression 

dJLuLs*' simantik semantics 

ijjju~» simfoni, simfunl symphonic 



"^Jyu^M simfoniya, simfunl ya pi. -at 
symphony 

L*^ sirniya, »L*-- simiya 1 natural magic 

^ sin name of the letter ^ 

ijjuJl aa^^I al-a£i r 'a as-slniya, S rays 

Uju- ama and »hx* amd' 2 Sinai 

j^jUu- senator senator 

^iJ^r 1 (Fr. scenario) senaryo, sindryo pi. 
ol&^jjb^- stage directions (theat.); book, 
script {of a movie) 

JU^Jl = JUlJI 

L^u- (Fr. cinema) sinamd y usually f., pi. 
oUi^- sinamdt cinema, motion -picture 
theater | Ujo-JI jjj ater as-s. motion- 
picture theaters, movies; <uL» Liu* 
(cU) silent film; (jkU) 4J&U Uu- or 
(cJLo) «jUs» Ujju- sound film, talkie 

sjUjju- sinamd'i cinematographic, cine- 
matic, cinema-, movie- (in compounds); 
— (pi. -tin) film creator, film-maker; 
motion-picture actor, film star | 4jIjj 
yU^Ju* motion picture, film, movie 

(Jil^U^- (Fr. cinematographe) sinimatufj* 
rdf cinematograph 

^jSL'l*^ (Fr. cinemascope) sinimaskub cin- 
emascope 

^.ivju- (Gr. awo(5og) sinodos synod 



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jb 



cT 



jS abbreviation of f-jli San* street (St.) 

»U &T (coll.; n. un. SU Saft) pi. «1^ sizodh, 
»Li £%aA sheep; ewe 

V^-P Su*bub pi. vii*^ «a'a&i6 2 downpour, 
shower 

jjU saiiV tent; storehouse, warehouse, 
magazine 

o||jiU sddarwdn fountain; a small water- 
driven gadget adorned with bells, and 
the like, resembling a mobile 

tfjjLi sarubim cherubim 

^U Sdsi, 4—*li (Fr.) $dseh pi. oL^li chassis 

5JLi &afa root | <ili J-^LlJ iskCsala $a* 
fatahu to extirpate, root out, eradicate 
s.th., remove s.th. drastically 



J*S\J> sdkus and ^j^ sakuS pi. ^J^f^ 
satodkU 2 hammer | ^jTli _^l hammer- 
head (shark) 

JUt Ml pi. -at, O^Li siZaw shawl 

*JU (Fr. chalet) saleh pi. -ai hunting cabin, 
shooting lodge; beach cabin, cabana 

fli VI to perceive an evil omen (j* or ^ in), 
regard as an evil portent (j- or <_j s.th.); 
to foretell calamity <j* or <_-> from); to be 
superstitious; to be pessimistic X to 
perceive an evil omen (*_y in), regard as 
an evil portent (i_j s.th.); to foretell 
calamity (cj from) 

flill as-sa'm, aS-mm the northern re- 
gion, the North; Syria; Damascus | UU 
lie,j {yamanan) northward and southward 

t^U aami Syrian; (pi. -wn, ^\ji. 
&iwam) a Syrian 

^U sa'aml SjTian (adj. and n.) 

r$i Mm calamity, bad luck, mis- 



fortune; evil omen, portent | LUdl *jU *Sl 
Uj-i {tamla\ dunyd) (don't fill the world 
with evil omen!) approx.: talk of the 
devil and he will appear! 

ftil a^am 2 , f. (jj5 m^jnd inauspicious, 
ill-omened, ominous, portentous, sinister; 
calamitous, disastrous; unfortunate, fatal, 
accursed 

pjliJ tasd'um pessimism 

fjjS~» maFum and *j£» malum pi. 
oS\JUa ma^d'im 2 inauspicious, ill-omened, 
ominous, sinister; unfortunate, unlucky; 
calamitous, fatal, accursed | pjj^w *■** 
fadad) unlucky number 

j^Lilt mutasaim pessimist 

oti san pi. Ojji svtun matter, affair, con- 
cern, business; circumstances, state of 
affairs, case; nature, character, quality, 
kind; situation, condition, state; signif- 
icance; importance, consequence; stand- 
ing, prestige, rank; cranial suture; pi. bjji> 
tears; Mwi like, as | jtij bi-sa'ni regard- 
ing, with regard or respect to, relating 
to, pertaining to, concerning, as to, 
about; <uU J>- (jalla) the Sublime (of 
God); Lft^-Vl Ojj£i\ \)\}j Ministry of So- 
cial Affairs ; v^-jU-- ' Oj_yti\ (kdrijiya) foreign 
affairs; utiJl ji, f. jtiJI olj the responsible 
man, the man in charge, the man directly 
concerned with the matter; jlill Jj\ ulu 
s-s. and uLiJl jji datvu 3-$. the influen- 
tial people, the competent people ; those 
concerned with the matter; *Li-l Oj$$ 
$. al-haydh worldly affairs; jLiJI j&&- of 
great importance; OLi ji significant, 
important; oil! I «Jj high-ranking; 
(formerly, Tun.) title of members of the 
Bey's family; OUJi l _ r -*-U» the one con- 
cerned; olti\ (-jUs»1 those concerned; 
the important, influential people; »_a1SC 
bjJZS ii (mukallaf) charge d'affaires (dipl.) ; 



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. . . Jl 6b dll j ^ <ub (sanuhu . . . Sanu 
I- . . .) in this matter he fares just as 
the . . ., he is, in this respect, in the 
same situation as the . . .; <ub IJu J>-j 
(m'nuhu) a man whose situation is this, 
a man who can be described as . . ., a 
man in this situation; diib kanaka or 
lililij Col anta wa-sa'naka please your- 
self! do as you like! JuJ [»j diiU (fa'naka) 
do as you please! just as you wish! ^o 
<j\J*j (da f ni) let me alone! <obj jSj tara* 
Jcahu wa-Sa'nahu to let s.o. alone; to let 
s.o. go; not to pay any attention to s.o.; 
ub ,jjti he is concerned with a matter; 
4J b 1 4* that's his affair; *iijLi L. what's 
the matter with you? what do you want? 
\Jj>j dljli L what have you got to do 
with this ? what business of yours is this ? 
ja^\j -db L. (amra) what has he got to do 
with the matter? dU j J Jb U what have 
I got to do with that? what business of 
mine is that? iJU j dU ub <jl (a^yw 
Sa'nin) what business of yours is this? 
what's that to you? dJJi j ob <d he has 
s.th. to do with this, he has a hand in 
this; dUi <j *J ob V (sa'na) he hasn't 
anything to do with this, he has no part 
in this; dlfj j uU J ^J I shall have 
nothing to do with that, that is none of 
my business, I shan't meddle in that; 
4j J ub V (stfna) I haven't anything to do 
with it, it's none of my business; ub *** J 
j+\ (dkar) I still have a bone to pick 
with him; <ob ^jj v *j> (U-bcfdi sanihi) 
he attended to a task; he went to do s.th. ; 
<ob J I o^ail (insarafa) he left to do his 
work; l^b ^ c*JL»l (aslahat) she 
made herself up; <ub J^i ahmala 
Sa'nahu he neglected him; <ub dUi that 
is his habit; U*b ^b 1.1* he is always 
that way; <--j^i 6b Sana l-g. after the 
manner of a foreigner, like a foreigner; 
j <jb (sanahu) as he used to do in . . .; 
. . . ^ m <ub (sa'nahu) as he used to 
deal with people who . . .; <ub j* 6 IS* it 



was his wont, he used to . . .; 6 1 <ib j» 
it is in his (its) nature that . . . , he 
(it) tends to . . .; it is his business to . . .; 
6 I <u Li j. ^j-jJ it is not his affair or business 
to . . . ; it is inappropriate for him to ... ; 
it does not tend to , . ., is not conducive 
to . . .; ULi Jjj-^JI iJL$J 61 (rajuli) there is 
a man to keep an eye on, this is an 
important man; there is s.th. about this 
man! 6j_p 4aU- j «u> (kalqihl) God has 
created all kinds of things {meaning: 
strange things can happen in this 
world!); UU1 oJJ, s. at-talaba student j 
affairs; jvLUII 6jJii Sjbl (Marat s.) person- 
nel department (of a company) 



£&U (Fr. cliantage) santdz blackmail 

tslfAJli sanghay Shanghai 

•Li mh shah; king (chess) | i^L *U (ballid) 
chestnut tree (bot.); oL «U checkmate 
(chess) 

JLaU sah&ni the shah's, pertaining to 
the shah; imperial j SJUli o[>i decree 
of the Sultan (in Ottoman times) 

^li sa hi (saitd.-ar.) tea 

6^U saAtn pi. > A iP sawahiw? shahin, an 
Indian falcon (zool.) 

(jLi) U Sa'd u (jb IdV) to overtake in 
running, outrace (• s.o.) 

jU sa'u? highest point, summit, peak; 
goal, object | jtiJI -L»u far-aiming, far- 
aspiring; very ambitious; j «/li iL 
(mwahu) to get as far in s.th. as s.o. 
else, match s.o. in s.th.; Ijl*j Ijb iL 
jjl J (ruqly) to undergo tremendous 
progress; J-*Ji jtiJl ^b to carry off the 
prize, hit the bull's eye 

<*jji5,sdwurma,sawirma (also <t)j^) charcoal- 
broiled mutton, cut in thin slices and ar- 
ranged conically on a vertical skewer 
(leb.-syr., eg.) 



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Jijli sdwus {tun.) pi. ^il^i suwwas sergeant-; 
office boy, handy man; doorman, gate- 
keeper 

^jU mwis pi. -f#a sergeant (formerly, Eg., 
Sudan; mil); (eg.) police sergeant; police- 
man | JUJi J^>j^ drill sergeant (mil.) 

■t$U 5d?/ tea | f LjJ <jU £ «a r wa r peppermint 
tea 

i_*£ «a66a i (<-r"Li #abdb, 4~u3 sabxha) to 
become a youth or j^oung man, to 
adolesce, grow up; — i u (^Li * 4 & (/ ^> 
t^j^Ji safci6) to raise the forelegs as if 
about to jump; to rear; to prance (horse) ; 
— i {^jJ' subub) to burn, blaze (fire); to 
break out (fire, war); — u (sabb, subub) 
to light, kindle (*fire) | u^l uljw c^w 
(nirdn al-harb) war broke out; j* ^-^ 
Jjlall (fcwg) to be over the initial stages, 
with neg. : to be still in its infancy II to 
rhapsodize about a beloved woman (^-) 
and one's relationship to her, celebrate 
her in verse; to flirt (If. with a woman) 
V to rhapsodize about a beloved woman 
(1^) and one's relationship to her, celebrate 
her in verse ; to compose love sonnets ; to 
take fire, blaze up 

^i sabb (= <^L£ sabb) youth, young 
man 

«_Ji sabb alum (chem.) | ^ti\ J= ha jar 
a£-£ alum stone, alunite (min.) 

<J> sabba alum (chem.); (pi. -at) styptic 
pencil 

IJ. sabba (— sabba) young woman, girl 

^p sabab fully grown (steer) 

<J\J. Sabab youth, youthfulness ; youths, 
young men, adolescents, juveniles | x>^ 
<_jLiJi rejuvenation 

ujLi sababi youthful, juvenile 

t-jj-^ subub outbreak (of a war) 



SjLt sabbaba reed flute 

a^jJ- sablba youth, youthfulness; 4«xiJi 
the youth (coll.) 

u->li sabb pi. 6 Li subban, v^ * rt ^a& 
^J; sababa youthful, juvenile, young; 
youth, young man; lad, youngster 

<jU sa66a pi. -at, ^\^ Sawdbb*, i-JLS 
sabaib 2 young woman; young girl, teen- 
age girl 

t-jjJ^i masbub lighted, kindled, ignited, 
flaming, burning; beautiful 

^jJ. si&tM dill (Anethum graveolens; bot.) 

l ^jJ: sabita a {sabat) and V to cling, cleave, 
hold fast, hang on, attach o.s., adhere 

(v to) 

it^J- sabat pi. olixi sibtdn spider 

^_j±j tasabbut tenacity; attachment, 
adherence, fidelity; stubbornness, obsti- 
nacy 

JUxil* mutasabbit tenacious; attached, 
adherent; stubborn, obstinate 

2^i sibitt dill (Anethum graveolens; bot.) 

*yi sa&a/i, safc/t pi. ^-j^ s?a6m7*, ^-Lil a«&a/t 
blurred, indistinct shape; apparition; 
phantom; ghost, specter, spirit; night- 
mare; (pi. 7-L^ 1 ) shape (of a person), 
figure, outward appearance (of s.o.) 

x j£ Sahara u i (sabr) to measure (a s.th.) 
with the span of the hand II do.; to 
gesticulate, make gestures, to gesture 

j& sibr pi. j\JA asbdr span of the hand | 
\j^s ijvi {ja-sibran) inch by inch; j£ 

O^J^I Jr* ( ar ^) a foot of g rcmno '; °-^» 

p-l;Ai Uljjj >io l>i (qalladahu) to im- 
itate s.o. or s.th. religiously; to follow 
s.th. literally 



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528 



bj-r 1 sabbur pi. -at, j*jL£ Sabdblr 2 trumpet 

z »jj+2> Sibbura and *jy\£ sabura (eg,) fog, mist 

3jy$ Sabraqa to tear to pieces, to shred (a 
s.th.) 

4»>i sabraqa pocket money 

i-Jt^i £t&&6 pi. ^J>LJ> sabaHb 2 (a pair of) 
leather slippers 

1 ii r i Sabata to cling, cleave, hold on { j to) 

3 iUt subdt™ February (Syr,, It., Leb., 
Jord.) 

Ms^ babbitt (n. un. 5) pi. i^Li sabdblt 2 carp 
(zoo?.) 

£^ &r&» r a a (sab\ Hba') to satisfy one's 
appetite {j- or a with s.th.), eat one's 
fill (^ or a of s.th.); to be or become 
sated, satisfied in one's appetite; to be 
full (^ or a of); to be or become fed up, 
surfeited (j* with), be or become sick 
and tired (<y of), have enough (^ of) 
II to sate, satiate, fill (*_> a, » s".o., s.th. 
with) ; to satisfy, gratify (a the appetite, 
one's desires, the senses); to load, 
charge (a s.th., ^ with electricity) IV to 
sate, satiate, fill (<_j » s.o. with); to 
satisfy, gratify (a the appetite, the 
senses); to saturate (a s.th., e.g., with 
a dye); to load, charge {* s.th., l-> with 
electricity); to go in (a for s.th.) thor- 
oughly; (gram.) to lengthen (a a vowel) 
by writing it plene; pass. uSbfa to be 
replete, full {.-> with, of) | <U #^Ji ^J,'\ 
(kalama) to speak in great detail, at 
great length about s.th., describe or 
explain s.th. elaborately; Ki^J, **^\ 
(darban) to give s.o. a sound beating; 
LjuIj 4*^1 (kCnlban) to reprimand, re- 
buke s.o. severely V to be sated, saturated 



(v with); to be filled ( v with), be full 
( V of) ; to be loaded or charged ( v with; d.) 

*J> sab r sufficiency, satiety, satiation, 
saturation, repletion, fullness 

£~i Sib', siba" s.th. that fills or satis- 
fies the appetite, fill 

£-i Saba* saturation (chem.) 

4*~Z Sub" a a fill 

uUJ; sab' an 2 , f. ^^ sab' a, pi. AJ, 
$abd f a, ^Li Hba,' sated, satisfied, full; 
rich 

^Lil isbd" satiation, saturation, reple- 
tion, filling; satisfaction, gratification 

£?t* muSabba% musba* satiated, sat- 
urated (c-. with); replete, filled ( v with), 
full { v of) | .U^b g±* (kahraba:) 
electrically charged 

1 j r i mbiqa a (sabaq) to be lewd, lecherous, 
lustful 

J~* Sabaq lewdness, lechery, licentious- 
ness, lust; sexual desire 

ijJ> Sabaql lewd, lustful; shameless 

Jj- sabiq lewd, lecherous, lustful, 
licentious 

2 jJi subuq chibouk 

1 iLi sabaka i (sabk) to entwine, entangle, 
join (u or j * s.th. with s.th. else); to 
wrap (4tlji dira'ahu one's arm, <]y- 
around s.o. or s.th.); to fasten, tighten, 
attach (a s.th., uor j to) | ntSj* <*\J, 
l|*!>*i (dird'ahu) he linked his arm with 
her arm II to weave (a s.th., e.g., strings 
into a net, also a a mesh or lattice from 
wire); to interjoin, intertwine, interlace, 
interweave, entangle, complicate (ju or 
a s.th.); to crochet (a s.th.) V to be inter- 
joined, intertwined, interlaced, inter- 
woven, entangled; to be or become 



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<jr" 



complicated, involved, intricate, con- 
fused VI to be intertwined, interlaced, 
interwoven, entangled; to be inter- 
meshed, be interwoven like a net | ^i5o LiJ 
p^pjil (adru'uhum) they had their arms 
linked VIII to be or become interjoined, 
interlaced, interwoven, net-like, reticu- 
late; to be intertwined (branches), be 
interlocked (hands); to be or become en- 
tangled, snarled; to get entangled, invol- 
ved, ensnared, embroiled, implicated, 
mixed up (J in) ; to come to blows or to 
grips (uj or ** with s.o.); to be or become 
complicated, involved, intricate, con- 
fused (matter); to join, unite, combine, 
coalesce, merge, fuse (oj with); to meet 
(eyes, glances) | £j-b~ J dJLl£l to be drawn 
into a conversation, become engrossed in 
a discussion; <-?j>- J JXSJ*\ (harb) to 
become involved in a war 

&Li sabka {eg.) engagement present 

aSw> Sabaka pi. -at, fJLi sibdk net; grid 
(el.); netting, network (techn., el., radio, 
etc.), system; fishing net; hunting net, 
snare | i&U &Li barbed-wire entangle- 
ment, concertina; XSlS^ j£LJ> (la sil~ 
kiya) radio network; 5j_aJU ^SLi s. talfaza 
TV network; Cj^K^Sj* iSw. s. muwdsaldt 
traffic network, communications system; 
aj4j.U-I tilSs-Jl <Ss-.i s. as-sikak al-hadldiya 
railroad system; C^SoJl iSLi s. al- r an- 
kabut cobweb, spider web 

£j- mbakl reticulate, reticular, netted, 
net-like; retinal; of framework 

iSLi sabakiya retina (anat.) 

iSLw sabika pi. dULi sabaik 2 lattice, 
grating 

£jLi dubbdk pi. vi-L>Li mbdblk 2 netting, 
network; plaitw r ork; grid, grill; window; 
wicket (post office, box office, etc.) | iJLi 
jTi-UI ticket window; ^j^l iJLi s. as- 
sarf paying window; <o>U illJ; cashier's 



window; ,_^*H ilL£ & al- f ard show win- 
dow, showcase, display case 

ciJLJL. misbak pi. dLUL. masabik? hook; 
clasp; clamp, clip; fibula; brooch; hair 
clasp, bobby pin; clothespin | Jij^l di~L* 
m. al-waraq paper clip 

dJLiliJ tasdbuk interlacing, interweaving 
(of several things with one another) ; con- 
fusion, intricacy, obscurity, abstruseness 

iJLXil istibak entanglement, involve- 
ment (J in); — (pi. -at) complication; 
hand-to-hand fight, scuffle, melee (** 
with), clash (^ with) | j iJLXiVi pA* 
JbJtJ! ( r adam al-ist.) nonintervention in 
battle; iJLXiVI dli fakk al-i. disengage- 
ment of forces (mil.) 

dl^* musabbak plaited, resembling 
plaitwork; (pi. -at) window (or door) 
adorned with plaited latticework 



mustabik entangled, involved, 
complicated, intricate 

tiJLli^ mtiJtabak plaitwork; thicket (of 
branches) 

2 dUi subuk chibouk 

3 iL > i look up alphabetically 

J-J IV to take care (J* of s.o.), look (J* 
after s.o.), take s.o. (J*) in hand 

J-i. sibl pi. jLil asbdl lion cub; a capa- 
ble young man, brave youth, young 
athlete 



j\Jz kibin, sibln pi. ^Li sabdyin 2 godfather, 
sponsor {Chr.); best man, groomsman 
(Chr.) 

<c^ Sablna, sibina pi. -at godmother, 
sponsor (Chr.); bridesmaid (Chr.) 

j*~il ixbin pi. <>jUI asdbtn 2 god- 



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530 



father, sponsor [Chr.); best man, grooms- 
man (Ckr.) 

i:^! isblna godmother, sponsor (Ckr.) ; 
bridesmaid (Chr.) 

- II to make equal or similar (^orjt* s.th. 
to s.th. else); to compare (uj a s.th, 
with), liken (i_j a s.th. to); pass, subbih'i 
to be doubtful, dubious, uncertain, 
obscure (J* to s.o.) Ill to resemble 
(a, c s.o., s.th.), bear a resemblance, be 
similar (a, * to s.o., to s.th.), be like 
s.o. or s.th. (a, o), look (exactly) like 
s.o. (e) | ^JJj <ol£ Uj and the like 
IV to resemble (a, « s.o., s.th.), bear a 
resemblance, be similar (a, » to s.o., 
to s.th.), be like s.o. or s.th. (a, *); to 
look (exactly) like s.o. (») | iiii ^i Uj 
and the like V to compare o.s. (^ with); 
to imitate, copy (^ s.o., s.th.) VI to 
resemble one another, be similar to one 
another; to be equal to one another, 
be identical; to be ambiguous, unclear' 
VIII to resemble one another, be similar f o 
one another; to be in doubt (j about), 
doubt (j s.th.); to suspect (>j»\ j or 
j s.o., s.th.); to be doubtful, dubious, 
obscure (Jp to s.o.) | ^Vl J v-il the 
matter appeared doubtful to him 

4^ si&A pi. isLil as£>a& (with foil, 
genit. or suffix) s.th. similar to; almost 
the same as; as good as; of the same kind 
as ; a kind of, a certain . . . ; (a)like ; -like ; 
quasi-, semi- | v^r "V* sibhu jazlratin 
peninsula; J^p- *lJ> s. harbl semi-mili- 
tary; o^ill 4*i £ al-munharif trape- 
zoid .(gtom.); ^j a*J. §, rasmi semi- 
official, officious (dipl.); JJaJI <ui 5. az- 
zill penumbra; <jj£~~£- «u^ s. 'askari para- 
military; ojU *Ji subcontinent; «>*II v* 
s. al-mu'ayyan rhomboid (geom.); 4* Li I 
asbahuhu the likes of him, his kind; 
J\~*s- oLil a. husain people like Hussein, 
men of H. 1 s quality; p-ft-A* and the likes 
of them, and their sort (of people) ; <yi j 



Ia\j iJj* ("uzlatin tdmma) all but com- 
pletely isolated, as good as completely 
isolated 

4-J^ sabah pi. oLil axbdh resemblance, 
similarity, likeness; — brass | «UUi ^Ji 
very similar (Jl to); <uiJI pL **-il (fo»i& 
ma 5-s.) to resemble completely (a s.th.) 

a^J> subha pi. ol^J; subhat, subahdt, 
subvhdt obscurity 7 , vagueness, uncer- 
tainty; doubt; suspicion (esp. of criminal 
offense; jur.); specious argument, soph- 
ism; judicial error (Isl. Law) | oL^iJl jj* 
dawu s-subuhdt or ol^JLll «_jU?I dubious 
persons, people of ill repute; i^JtJI CU£ 
suspicious, suspect 

OlfJi sabakan brass 

4_A-i isabih pi. «Li Sibilh similar (t-j to), 
like, resembling (<-> s.o., s.th.) j o^iHj 4^ 
(munharif) trapezoid (f/eom.); ^^^ *^ 
(ra5??*t) semi-official, officious (dipl.); ^ 
J\*l\j (mu'ayynn) rhomboid (geom.) 

±J>\ asbah 2 more similar, more resem- 
bling, more like | ^ a~S\ ja he resembles . . . 
more than anything else, he is just like... 

<u Li-» masdbih 2 similarities, related traits 

a^jJj tasblh pi. at, -ujLj tasdblh* com- 
parison; allegory, simile, parable; ascrip- 
tion of human characteristics to God, 
anthropomorphization (of God; theol.) 

Hf-Li* nntsdbaha pi. -a£ resemblance, 
similarity, likeness 

■^iJ tasabbuh imitation (<~> of) 

4jUj tambuh resemblance, similarity, 
likeness; vagueness, haziness, indistinct- 
ness, obscurity; O assimilation (phon.) \ 
O (J^ J/r, <j*rj) <_^-^ *i^J tasdbuh 
taqaddnmi [raft, juzi, JcuUl) progressive 
(regressive, partial, total) assimilation 
(pAow.,) 

aULil iMibdh resemblance, similarity, 



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r 



likeness; dubiousness, doubtfulness, ob- 
scurity, inscrutability; doubt, misgiving, 
suspicion 

ojJt^ masbuh suspicious, suspect; 
dubious, doubtful; notorious; a suspect 

ajLIL. mtisdbih similar 

«uliJu mutasabih resembling each other 
or being the same; pi. CjL^-UJU obscure, 
not clearly intelligible passages in the 
Koran 



(muMabah) or 



Oja\ J 



(amrihl) suspicious, suspect; a suspect; 
i_j <ui «uLt- suspected of s.th. | a*^* j <lL1* 
(sari'ihi) of doubtful make 

Li saban tip, point | oLi j- Ji (falla) to 
weaken s.o. 

3 Li sabdh pi. Cj]^ Sabawat tip, point; 
sting, prick 

£j> ialfo » (£aK, obi£ ictfaf, c*-Ii sa/^) 
to be scattered, be dispersed, be dis- 
solved; — satta i to scatter, disperse, 
break up (f a crowd, etc., a s.th.) | 
j*$if c~i (samlahwn) to disperse or 
break up the gathering of people, dis- 
solve their unity II to disperse, scatter, 
break up ( .* a crowd, etc., a s.th.) | cXi 
j^Lr - (Samlahum) = *^ir' cui IV — II 
V to be scattered, be dispersed, be dis- 
solved, scatter, disperse, break up; to be 
splintered; to be dissipated, be split in 
many directions (attention, interests) 

£j> satt pi. C>b£l astat dispersed, sep- 
arate^), scattered, dissolved; — pi. 
oL-l manifold, variegated, diverse; scat- 
tered fragments, single pieces, sections 
{,y of); varieties, various kinds of . . . | 
JjTUl oLil varieties of food; different 
dishes or courses of a meal 



oki satat dispersed, 
scattered, dissolved 



separate (d), 



C~££ satit pi. JLi satta dispersed, 
separate(d), scattered, dissolved; pi. 
JLi diverse, sundry, various, different, 
manifold, miscellaneous, all kinds of [ 
L^-j JLS what a difference between 
the two of them! how different they are! 

ohJ> sattana; U^jj <jli£, L-$^. L» ob^;, 
j — (jij ub£ what a difference be- 
tween . . . and , . . ! how different they 
are! 

cX*3 tastit dispersion, scattering, 
dissolution; disruption, splitting, splin- 
tering 



1 jJ- satara i to cut off, tear off, rip off (a 
s.th.); to tear (up) (a s.th.) 

2 Cj\j£ sitrat citrate, salt of citric acid 

Jii satala i to plant, transplant {» a plant) 

iiii Satla pi. satalat, <J>^i £w£wZ, J1U-S 
£atail 2 , coll. Jx-S safZ seedling, set, trans- 
plant ; small nursery plant, layer 

JiJL* makal pi. JJLi. masatil 2 (plant) 
nursery, arboretum 

Jli satama i u (Satm) and III to abuse, 
revile, vilify, scold (* s.o.) VI to vilify 
one another, abuse one another, heap 
curses upon one another 

Xi satm abuse, vilification 

j»lii sattdm one who indulges in fre- 
quent abuse or vilification; impudent, 
insolent, impertinent, abusive 

~£ satlm abused, reviled, vilified, 
insulted 

i*JL£ satlma pi. flr-i sataim 2 abuse, 
vilification, vituperation, insult 

ajLL. mumtama vilification, vituper- 
ation 



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532 



j-cli sutambir (Mot.) September 

(jii) U-l £afa u (satw) to pass the winter, 
to winter («_j at a place); to hibernate 
II — I; to rain V to pass the winter, to 
winter, hibernate (^> at a place) 

#bJi Utcb pi. I£il aStiya, J-t sw2t?/ 
winter ; rains, rainy season 

iSy-Z Satawi, (egr., s yr.) Htwl wintery, 
hibernal, winter (adj.) 

^L* maHan pi. CjLJL. maSatin winter 
residence, winter quarters ; winter resort ; 
winter vacation region 

SLxJL* maStdh pi. uL. masatin (alg.> tun.) 
village of settled Bedouins 

oil Satin wintery, hibernal 

J!JL* mus'attan winter residence, winter 
quarters; winter resort 

J^ sattd pi. of c~ii <£a<*J (see c~i) 

^.-t sajja u i (sajj) to break, split, cleave, 
fracture, bash in (a s.th., esp. the skull) 

5^=* sajja pi. r-L^ 1 «/o; head wound 
which lays open the skull ; skull fracture 

^& sajaba u (Sajb, ^j^ Sujub) to afflict, 
grieve (e s.o.) ; — Sajaba u (sajb) and II to 
condemn (esp. morally, e s.o., a an action), 
criticize sharply (a s.th.); to damn, curse 
(a s.th.) IV to afflict, grieve (* s.o.) 

^_~f sajb destruction, routing, crushing 

i_*(f sajab sorrow, grief, worry; dis- 
tress, affliction 

^Ltf" si jab pi. «_ r wtf' sw/wfr clothes hook 
(attached to the wall) 



mis' jab pi. u*»-lLt masdjib- 
clothes hook, clothes rack 

=* sajara u (sajr) to happen, occur; to 



break out, develop (unrest) II to plant 
with trees (a a place), forest (a a region) 
III to quarrel, argue, dispute (** or a with 
s.o.) VI to quarrel, fight, dispute (with 
one another) ; to quarrel, argue, fight {« 
with) VIII do. 

hj>jj\ J»jjl-\ al-huruf as-Sajrlya the 
sounds j, s, d (plum.) 

j£ Sajar (coll.; n. un. 5) pi. jUsM 
as jar trees; shrubs, bushes | 5^ jltfl 
(mutmira) fruit trees 

lj£ sajara pi. -at tree; shrub, bush | 
«-— *N h? &' ^n-nasab genealogical tree 

jj* sajir woody, wooded, abounding 
in trees 

jj£ sajir pi. »\j£? sujara" 2 bad com- 
panion, bad company 

»j&r sujaira pi. -at little tree; shrub, 
bush 

jU^ si jar (wooden) bar, bolt 

j& \ aSjar 2 , f. *\j& sajra 2 woody, 
wooded, abounding in trees 

jvyJiJ tasjlr afforestation 

jLf 1 si jar fight, quarrel; dispute, 
argument; see also above 

S^-Li- musajara fight, quarrel; dispute, 
argument 

_^JL* musajjar figured with designs of 
plants, branched (cloth) 



musjtr abounding in trees, 



wooded 



2 o\j£ sajardn shagreen (leather) 

*jf saju'a u (~*s\& saja r a) to be courageous, 
brave, valiant, bold II to encourage, 
embolden, hearten (Jp * s.o. to); to 
favor, support, back, promote, further 
(a, o s.o., s.th.) V to take heart, pluck up 



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courage; to show o.s. courageous; to bo 
encouraged 

pljf" suj&\ Hja pi. l*£ saja'a, olu^ 
fotfan courageous, brave, valiant, bold ; 
hero; P-U^iJi Hydra (astron.) 

*~j£ Aiji* pi. m. »U^ suja r a" 2 , 
uU£ su fan, pi. f. ^jlf 1 saja?% z , gL£ 
ity'd*" courageous, brave, valiant, bold, 
audacious 

Hftljtf sajaa courage, bravery, valor, 
valiance, boldness, audacity 

*^ 1 asja' 2 , f. »Ujtf safa 2 courageous, 
brave, valiant, bold, audacious 

«jtf I a^V, *£/»' pi. ^Ul asdji' 2 (prox- 
imal or first) phalanx of the finger 

a~>£j toijT encouragement, heart- 
ening, animation (Jp to); favoring. 
furtherance, promotion, advancement 

£»JL* musajji' encourager; promoter, 
supporter, advocate, proponent 

jf sajina a to be sad, grieved, distressed, 
worried; to coo (pigeon); — ■ sajana u 
{sajn, dj£ sujun) to sadden, grieve, 
distress, worry (a s. o.) II and IV — sajana 

tf? sajan pi. oy? sujun, jl^ 1 ! asjan 
worry, anxiety, apprehension; sorrow, 
grief, distress, sadness; (pi. sujun) twig, 
branch [ j^f 1 JS*j4JLI conversation drifts 
from one topic to another 

{j# and ^jf) {£ sajd u (j& Sajw) to 
worry, trouble, grieve, sadden, distress, 
fill with anxiety (a s.o.); — ^f sajiya a 
(Ltf Sajan) to be or become worried, 
troubled, grieved, sad, distressed, anx- 
ious, apprehensive II to move, touch, grip 
(• s.o.) IV to grieve, worry, trouble, 
sadden, fill with anxiety (* s.o.) 

p-1 sajin, f. **.*? sajiya worried, troubled , 
grieved, sad, anxious, apprehensive 



j# sajw grief, worry, distress, anxiety, 
apprehension, sadness; fear; affectedness, 
emotion ; wailing, plaintive, moving strain 
(of a tune, of a song, of an instrument) 

i$jfi~ Sajawi worried, troubled, grieved, 
distressed, sad 

Ijtf and j~ sajan foreign body in the 
throat which inhibits breathing; \jf 
affectedness, emotion, being moved, a 
touching, pathetic mood.; also — y? sajw 

*~ Sajly worried, troubled, grieved, 
distressed, sad; anxious, apprehensive, 
fearful; gripping, heart-rending, touching, 
moving (vocal part, music); sentimental 

«JL. musajjin moving, touching, grip- 
ping, pathetic 



~i sahha (1st. pers. perf. saJiahtu) u i (suhk) 
to be or become stingy, tight-fisted, 
avaricious, miserly, niggardly; to stint, 
economize (Jp or u with or in s.th., 
Jp toward s.o.); to be covetous, greedy 
(J* or V f° r )J t° become short, run 
out, decrease, dwindle III to stint, be 
niggardly, be sparing; to withhold (^ 
from s.o., Jp s.th.) 

™J> suhh stinginess, avarice, niggard- 
liness; greed, covetousness ; scarcity, 
paucit}-, sparsity; ebb 

PfJ: sahih pi. AJ? mhah 3 iM asihfia, 
*l£\ asihfia 2 , pi. f. f\£ saha'ih* 
stingy, tight -fisted, niggardly, miserly, 
avaricious (Jp or <~> with, Jp toward); 
short, scarce, meager, sparse; greedy, 
covetous (Jp for) | ^U^iJl *bVI [ayymn) 
the rainless days, the dry season 

i»-li* musahha: dlii j <u-lL* ")} {mu* 
sdhhata) that is incontestable; a*-IL* V 
jl it is incontestable that . . ., indisput- 
ably . . .; 4>-Li* Vj incontestably, in- 
disputably 



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534 



stone, hone 

j£ II to soot, besmut, blacken with soot (a 
s.th.) 

j\J? suhhar soot 

j>^L» rrtashar charcoal kiln, pile 

i$f^*' maShari charcoal burner 

jjj£ suhrur pi. jjJ: sahdrir 2 thrush, 
blackbird (zool.) 

j>Jl» musahhar sooty 

Ja^ sahata a (saht) to be far away, distant, 
remote ; to strike (a a match) ; to strand, be 



»_^ sahaba u a {^j£ §uhub), sahuba u 
{isj** suhuba) and pass, suhiba to be or 
become pale, wan, sallow, emaciated, 
lean, haggard; to look ill, sickly 

Vj^ SuhUb paleness, pallor, wanness, 
sallowness, emaciation 

^U £dhib pi. i— »-]^A sawdhib 2 pale 
wan, sallow; emaciated, lean, haggard 
dim, pale (e.g., light); dull, faded (color) 
wan (smile) 

□ c^ sahata (= X£) to beg, ask for alms 

D^l^ sahhat pi. --im, I beggar | Q oU? 
t>Ji 5. al-'ain sty (wed.) 

□ 5jI< sahhdta pi. -a£ beggar (fem.) 

jj^ sahada a (sahd) to whet, sharpen, 
practice, train, strengthen (a s.th., also, 
e.g., the intellect, one's forces); to hone, 
strop (a a knife); to beg, ask for alms 
(. s.o.) 

iU? sahhad pi. -un beggar | <>JI iL^ 
s. al-'ain sty (med,) 

ol£ sahhdda pi. -<J£ beggar (fem.) 

*il£ sihdda beggary 

mishad, iX^L* miShada whet- 



stranded, run aground (ship); to ground 
on a sandbank II to strand, be stranded, 
run aground (ship) ; to ground on a sand- 
bank; to strand (a a ship) 

iL^ sahta pi. -at stripe, braid (on a 
uniform) 

iUU^ Sahhdta pi. ~af (syr.) match, 
lucifer 

Uu^ suhhaita {syr.) match, lucifer 

Ja*-U#z$#far (away), distant, remote, 
outlying, out-of-the-way; stranded 



^ sahuma u (i.U? Bahama) to be or become 
fat II to grease, lubricate {a s.th.) 

pjf ia/im pi. fj£ suhum, oUys 1 
Suhumdt fat, suet, grease; axle grease, 
lubricant; tallow, sebum; lard; pulp {of 
fruit) 

<+# sahma (n. un.) a piece of fat, etc. 
(see ^#) | oiVl 3*^ s. al-udun earlobe; 
(j^j^i <*^ s. al-ard truffle; ^\ 4*J? 
8. al-'ain eyeball 

i j+& sahml fatty, sebaceous, stearic 

pf* iahim pulpy, mushy, pappy 
(fruit) 

^ sahlm fat, fatty 

O *^>J^ mishama pi. ^Lt* mamhim? 
grease box (of a wheel) 

ff^j tatihlm lubrication, greasing, 
oiling (of a machine) | ^^Jl c^j j lubri- 
cating oils, lubricants 

j yj>^t3 tasahhum fatness, obesity 

(^ musahham fat, fatty, greasy 

mushim pulpy, mushy, pappy 



(fruit) 

^ sahana a (sahn) to fill up (^ a s.th. 
with); to load, freight (^ a a ship with); 
to ship, freight, consign (a goods); to 



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535 



load, charge {<-* a s.th. with, el.); to 
drive away, chase away, repel (• s.o.) 
Ill to hate {* s.o.); to quarrel, argue, 
fight (« with s.o.) IV to fill up (i-» a 
s.th. with); to load, freight (^ a s.th. 
with) VI to hate one another; to quarrel, 
have a feud 

^ sahn loading, freighting; shipment, 
freightage; cargo, lading, load, freight; 
transportation (of loads) | j^wJI *-jJjj 
bullsat as-s. bill of lading; j^ SjL- say* 
yarat s. truck, lorry 

4L& sahTia pi. sahandt cargo, lading, 
load, freight; charge (el.) j oi^^ix* i^ ,-?'. 
mutafajjirat explosive charge 

k.Jt Hhna police, police force 

*U^ sahna 2 grudge, rancor, hatred, 
enmity 

4o-LL. musahana pi. -af grudge, 
rancor, hatred, enmity; quarrel, feud, 
controversj r 

^U la/*i» loaded, laden, freighted 
(esp. ship) | O Xj>\ Jjo-ti <s. al-markavi 
battery charger 

i^-li sahina pi. -a* truck, lorry; 
baggage car | oULDI £l?~U i, an-nufayiit 
garbage truck 

OjxJ^ mashun loaded, laden, freighted 
(esp. ship); charged (eh); pi. C^UpmJL. 
cargo, lading, load, freight 

j^ Sahwara to soot, besmut, blacken with 
soot (a s.th.) 

jys 1 sdhwar blackbird (zool.) 

jijjtf* suhwar soot, smut 

~i safc&a « (mkk) to urinate, piss, make 
water 

j*-i mkk urine, piss 

i-\& sakdk urine, piss 



)U*iJL. miskaka public lavatory 

^.'^ sakaba u a (sakb) to flow, stream, run, 
pour forth, gush forth 

JL'^ sakbata to scribble, scrawl (in writing) 

jji£ saktur, hj& pi. jJU£ sakdtlr 2 large, 
flat-bottomed (wooden) barge; punt 

J& sakara i (jv£ sakir) to snore; to snort; 
to neigh, whinny; to bray (donkey) 

±t£& saksaka to rattle; to clatter; to clink; 
to rustle 



saksaka rattle; clatter; clink; 
rustle; baby's rattle 

'4J*Jl£ sukseka pi. j^-AI^ sakdsik 2 (eg.) 
baby's rattle 

,ja£ sakasa a (^J^ sukus) to rise, tower 
up; to become high, lofty; to rise, ascend 
(star); to appear (J to s.o.); to stare, 
gaze (J! at, of the eye), be fixed (Jl on, 
of the glance) ; to be glazed (eyes of a 
dying person); to start out, leave, 
depart (Jl to see s.o., for a place), 
travel, journey (Jl to s.o., to a place); 
to pass ( Jl ^ from one state or condition 
into another) | a^aJ ^^ (basarahu) or 
Oj-^j ijA** to fix one's eyes, one's 
glance (Jl on), look fixedly (Jl at s.o.), 
stare, gaze (Jl at) II to represent as 
a person or individual, personify (a 
s.th.); to specify (a s.th.), identify (a, * 
s.o., s.th.); to act, play (a a part, of the 
actor); to perform (actor) | Lj>j* ^a^ 
(maradan) to diagnose a disease IV to 
send off, send out, dispatch (« s.o.) V to 
appear, be revealed, show o.s. (J to 
s.o.) 

^^ sales pi. ,j-*ljtfl askas, <y>J& 
sukus individual, person; figure; char- 
acter (of a play); someone, somebody j 



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tg^Ju u *£ (ma'nawi) artificial, conven- 
tional or juristic person, a body corporate 
as a subject of rights and duties, <^U ^^ 
(mdddl) physical, real person (jur.) 

^^ Saksi personal, private, of one's 
own; [~*a.£ mkslyan personally | O^JU 
I-^JJI Jj^-Vl (rUaJ or) personal statute 



U'J? sakata {eg.) to shout, bark, bellow ( j 
at s.o.) 

Jijc 1 saklala (eg.) to jingle, tinkle ; to clatter, 
rattle (<~> with) ; to coquet, flirt 



' sakslya pi. -at individuality ; per- 
sonality; personage; person; figure, char- 
acter (of a play, etc.) | SjjUsoI V**^ 
(iHibarlija) legal person {jur.); j^ 
"Lm±}\ identification of a person; SaLfi 
L^aiJtJI ^JJi sahddat t. as-s. identity 
card; iL^JiJI J^- *& qalam t. as-s. 
bureau of identification 

O JUa^ saksani personalistic (philos.) 



O SJl-**^ saksani ya personalism (pA»- 



los.) 

jUa'^ 1 saksdtl (comic) actor, comedian 

^aS^Lj taskls personification; exact 
designation, specification; identification; 
diagnosis; acting, performance (on stage), 
play(ing) (of an actor) | lS J6 ,j^ui*ij 
(najsl) psychodiagnostics 

^t^Jii iaskisi diagnostic j ^^.o^JlH ^-^ 
diagnostician 

j*^Li sdkis fixed, glazed (glance); 
looming (before s.o.'s view), cropping up; 
— (pi. lJ *£-\ J 2 saivakis 2 ) pole, rod; meas- 
uring staff, surveyor's rod (techn.); gno- 
mon, style of a sundial 

j^i*i-. musakkis pi. -un actor, player; 
representative ; diagnostician 

iL^JL. musakkisa pi. -at actress, 
player; personality 

tl»Lai«JLi mumkkisat qualities or factors 
lending s.th. its distinctive character, 
peculiarities, characteristics 



Uli£ suklela {eg.) baby'; 
(of a tambourine) 



rattle; jingle 



j£\ askam 2 , f. »L£ SalcmS 2 gray 



mdda i (Sxi sidda) to be or become 
firm, fast, solid, hard, strong, vigorous, 
robust, vehement, violent, intense; — 
xadda n i (mdd) to make firm, hard, 
strong, solidify, harden, brace (a s.th.), 
strengthen, fortify (a, a s.o., s.th.); 
to draw taut (a a bow), pull tight or 
tighten (a a rope, a sail); to tense, brace 
(a muscles); to lift (a the face), tighten 
(a the facial skin; cosm.); to fasten, tie, 
bind (Jl or Jp a s.th. on, to), lash (J* a 
s.th. on); to saddle (J* an animal); to 
put emphasis (*jT Jp r ald kalimatin on 
a word), emphasize, stress (iJS' Jp a 
word); to pull, drag (a, <_j s.th., * s.o., 
j* o s.o. by, e.g., by his coat, <u il udnahu 
s.o. by the ear); to attract, draw (Jf o s.o. 
to a person, of love, sympathy) ; to charge, 
launch an attack (Jp against, on), assault, 
attack (Jp s.o., s.th.); to press (Jp s.th. or 
upon s.th.), exert pressure (Jp on); to 
brace, prop (a an arm, a leg, Jp against 
or on s.th.); to grab or grip by hand (J* 
s.th.); to insist (j on s.th.) | L.Jii Sadda- 
ma and L JLiJ (la-sadda) (with foil, verb} 
how much . . . ! very often . . . ; very much, 
exceedingly, vehemently, violently; Uxtl 
ji X^jjj^, uEf tremendous was our joy 
when . . .; *jji JJ> (azrahu) or »jj1 j* JLi 
to help, support, encourage, back up 
s.o. ; ajj! :ui (azruhu) to be energetic, 
vigorous, courageous; a*{ $ 4-*i»o 4-i 
(ba'dahu) he pulled himself together; 
fLjJl -i£ to tighten the reins, master the 
situation; <l*Jp j* xi (azmihi) and JJ> 
4x\j£ j* to strengthen s.o.'s determina- 



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537 



JUt 



tion; o-Uk*. xi (adudahu) to strengthen, 
support, bolster, assist s.o.; <u «uJJ xz 
(nafsahu) and s^iij 4-~iJ X$ (bi-zahrihi) 
pi. ft^^kj ^...fltl \jX$> (anjusahum) to seek 
s.o.'s protection (in adversity and mis- 
fortune); «cUij Jp Xi {he saddled his 
female riding camel — ) he started out on 
the journey; JU-JI xi to start out, de- 
part, leave (Jl for); 4*1* j -li (wataqahu) to 
shackle, fetter s.o.; Jp »Aj 4* (tjadahu) 
to adhere, cling to s.th.; <uJb Jp -Li (?/«= 
daihi) to clasp s.o/s hands; U,*-ij -lIj 
(bi4a f rihd) he drags her by the hair; 
j&}\ <uip (jJLi) X* see ^& II to strength- 
en, intensify (a s.th.), make (* s.th.) 
strong, hard, harsh, severe; (gram.) to 
intensify, double, geminate (a a conso- 
nant); to exert pressure (Jp on), press (Jp 
upon); to be hard, strict, stern (J Jp to- 
ward s.o. in); to impress (i_-> Jp upon s.o. 
s.th.) | <uik j jJLi (talabihl) to demand 
s.th. emphatically or inexorably; j<* axi 
-crjp (suddida) he was strengthened in 
his determination III to argue, have an 
argument, an exchange of words (« wit h 
s.o.) V to be hard, harsh, strict, severe, 
stern (Jp or *.* toward s.o.); to be or be- 
come violent, vehement, intense, strong; 
to show o.s. stern, harsh, hard, inexorable, 
be relentless, remain unmoved, unrelent- 
ing VI to argue with one another VIII to 
be strong, powerfully built, be sturdy; 
to be or become hard, harsh, rigor- 
ous, intense, forceful, severe, strong, 
vehement, violent, passionate; to be- 
come harder, harsher, more rigorous, 
more intense, more forceful, seven 1 r, 
stronger, more vehement, more violent, 
more passionate; to intensify, increase, 
grow; to become aggravated, more 
critical; to become tormenting, ex- 
cruciating, distressing, unbearable (J*, 
for s.o.), take a turn for the worse 
(disease, Jp with s.o.); to be advanet-d 
(time of the day); to run, race, dash | 



ftJlpL- Jt£\ (sd'tduhu) to become strong, 
vigorous 

JlS Sadd: JJ-i x£ s. al-habl tug of 
war 

»Xt sadda (n. vie.) strengthening, 
intensification; stress, emphasis; pulling, 
dragging, tugging; tightness, tautness; 
stress, strain; (pi. -at) doubling sign over 
a consonant (gram,); (also t_-jJUI 3jj »xi 
$. waraq al~la r b) deck of cards 

2JLi Sidda strength, forcefulness, power, 
vehemence, violence, intensity, severity, 
force, high degree; (pi. -Jl-ii sadd' id 2 ) 
misfortune, calamity, misery, adversity, 
distress, hardship, affliction, discomfort 

alxi saddd pi. lxt\ asidda riding 
saddle (of a camel) 

JbJLi sadid pi. *\jJ-\ asidda* 2 , .slxi 
siddd strong, powerful, forceful, vigor- 
ous, stern, severe, rigorous, hard, harsh, 
violent, vehement, intense; bad, evil, 
ominous, calamitous, difficult (Jp for 
s.o.); with foil, subst. frequently corre- 
sponding to Engl, "very", e.g., *UxpVI X-U 
very attentive, very careful | S-bXi <J J>yl 
(ard) solid or firm ground; ^Ul xxi s. 
al~ba y $ courageous, stouthearted, bold, 
audacious, brave, valiant; lu-SCiJI X-Ui 
stubborn, obstinate, unbending, unyield- 
ing, relentless; jUiJ*yi xxi 8. al-infijdr 
highly explosive; a^UI -bxi s. al-lahja 
strongly worded, vehement in language, 
sharp in tone; ittpll JUXi s. al-wafa cruel 

#jjJLi- mdida pi. jJl-JLi sadd? id* mis- 
fortune, calamity, misery, adversity, 
distress, hardship, affliction, discomfort 

JLil asadd 2 stronger, more intense, 
severer, harder, worse | used with foil, 
indeterminate abstract substantives as 
paraphrase of simple elatives, e.g., 

Ijl^- xil (saivddan) blacker, L^p -til 
(gadaban) more wrathful, angrier; xil 



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u^So L as strong as could be, extremely 
violent; U\ Jl llL*J' dj& L. JJ.\ *4*-jj 
(rilhuhum, ta'attusan, r ilm) their mind 
thirsts most of all for knowledge 

Jil asudd physical maturity, virility | 
oXt\' ^JL to attain full maturity, come of 
legal age; to reach its climax 

-iJL. misadd pi. -at corset, stays 

OjjJU tasdld intensification, strength- 
ening; {gram.) intensified pronunciation, 
gemination, doubling (of a consonant); 
doubling sign over a consonant ; pressure 
(>on) 

oU»* musddda exchange of words, 
squabble, argument, quarrel, fight, con- 
troversy, conflict 

JalSI istiddd aggravation, intensifi- 
cation, increase; deterioration 

ojJUL. masdud tense, tight, taut 

j-UL. musaddid: Z*XL* ^jp aggra- 
vating circumstances 

iXL* musaddad doubled (letter; gram.) ; 
emphatic, intense; severe, stern 

ixZZ* mutasaddid strict, rigid (e.g., 
principles, views); (pi. -un) stern zealot, 
bigot, proponent of a stern viewpoint 

4--Li sadaka a (§adk) to break, shatter, 
smash, crush (a s.th.) II do. V pass, of II; 
to burst, crack, be broken into pieces 

j-aU sadir pi. ji|^ sawadir 2 tent; storehouse, 
warehouse, magazine 

JijiU saduf pi. <Ju^l^ sawddlj 2 (eg.) shadoof, 
counterpoised sweep for raising irrigation 
water 

Ju-i V to speak in an unrestrained or loud- 
mouthed manner; to talk big, brag, speak 
in high-sounding terms (^ about); to 



boast (^ about, of) | ^l£Jlj j.i£J to speak 
affectedly 

C5-U Sidq pi, Jl-ii! asddq corner of the 
mouth; jawbone | «J-U (»J*) »Jx <il*s» 
dahilca bi-miVi {miVa) sidqaihi to grin 
from ear to ear 

J-lil asdaq 2 , f. »lSxi sadqa 2 loud- 
mouthed, bragging 

<jxZX* mutasaddiq pi. -un braggart, 
boaster, bigmouth 

u-U sadana u to be weaned, be on its own 
feet (young animal) 

j^U mdin pi. j^l^i sawddin 2 gazelle 
fawn 

<ui Sadahu a to confuse, perplex, baffle (o 
s.o.) 

&jXJl* maMuh perplexed, appalled, 
baffled 

(jxt) 1-ii Sadd u {sadw) to sing; to chant (a 
s.th.); to acquire or have education, be- 
come or be educated (^ in a field) | IjU 
^j^J! j* l^i to know a little Arabic, have 
a smattering of Arabic 

jOi sadw song, chant 

ali sddin pi. jjpli sadun educated, 
trained (e.g., mil j linguistically) [ 
<jjU iLJ Jat7a sadiya soiree of vocal 
music 

ijiU sadiya songstress, singer 

Jlui sidyaq pi. iiljLi saddyiqa subdeacon 
(CV.) 

Xi .sariWa i w (sa^f, ijJU sudud) to segregate, 
separate, isolate o.s. (jc from), be sep- 
arated, isolated (j& from), be outside 
s.th. (j,t), elude (j& s.th.); to be alone; 
to be irregular, deviate, stand out (J* 
or ,%& from), be an exception (J* or jp 



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y 



to); to be wanting, lacking; to decrease, 
dwindle 

JU sadd irregularity, deviation, anom 
aly, exception (^ to) 

ijJU irregularity, deviation, anomaly, 
exception {^ to); abnormality (psychic, 
sexual); curiosity, eccentricity, eccentric 
character 

jti sadd pi. 3 1 XS suddad, jj^i sawddd 2 
isolated, separate(d), detached, alone; 
abnormal, anomalous; irregular (gram.); 
extraordinary, exceptional, singular, cu- 
rious, queer, odd, peculiar, strange, ec- 
centric; noncanonical (version); pi. ij^i 
exceptions j J^U-V' ili of deviant (= in- 
ferior) character; «JaJl iU & at-tab f , Sti 
^LLJI, j^VI JLi eccentric, extravagant, 
crazy; J> 1**^1 ilJLS the foreigners, the 
strangers 

*l*li|^i sawddddt peculiarities, idio- 
syncrasies 

^JU mdaba i u (sadb) to cut off, sever (a 
s.th.); to trim, clip, prune, lop (a hedges, 
trees); to adapt, doctor, modify (a 
s.th.) II do. 



15 V to be scattered, be dispersed; 
scatter, disperse 



to 



Sjli §adra 
particle, bit, 
section 



pl. sadarat, jj\Z> sudvr 
tiny piece; fragment, 



ji. jJLt \j*jJu tajarraqu sadara madam, 
sidara midara they scattered in all di- 
rections 

j-U sadw fragrance of musk 

1-U sadan fragrance, scent, aroma; bou- 
quet (of wine) 

tjli sadly fragrant, aromatic 
ji mrra (1st pers. perf. sarirtu) a, (1st pers. 



perf. sarurtu) u (Sarr, lj$ sirra) to be 
bad, evil, wicked, vicious, malicious, 
malignant 

j£ Sarr pl. jj^J surur evil, ill, mischief; 
calamity, disaster; iniquity, injustice; 
harm, damage, injury; wickedness, vi- 
ciousness, malice; vice, sin; — (pl. jlyJtl 
asrdr) bad, evil, wicked, vicious, mali- 
cious; evildoer, culprit; — sarr (as elative) 
worse, more evil | ^cj* ji ffj* (sarra 
hazimatin) he brought utter defeat upon 
them 

jt^i sarrdni evil, vicious, malicious 

"«>jt Mrra evil, ill, mischief; calamity, 
disaster; iniquity, injustice; harm, dam- 
age, injury; wickedness, viciousness, 
malice; vice, sin; vivacit}^ enthusiasm, 
fire of youth 

j jt, sarir pl. J^l asirra 2 bad, evil, 
wicked, vicious, malicious 

j j$ sirrir very bad, very evil, very 
wicked, very vicious, very malicious; 
scoundrel; jjJd\ the Evil One (= Satan) 

jjt sarar (coll.; n. un. *) sparks 

fjjj^> sarar l spark (used attributively) 

j\j5 sarar (coll.; n. un. 3) sparks 

lj\j£ sardra pl. -at spark | Jjl^iJl ^Jr 1 
mm f at as-s. spark plug; ejl^iJl ?-UjL. 
miftah a#-£. ignition key (automobile) 

^jl^Ji sardrl spark (used attributively) 

j\ji sarrdr sparkling, scintillating, 
emitting sparks 

vLr^ ihaabba to stretch one's neck in 
order to see s.th. (J or JI), crane one's 
neck for (J or Ji); to carry one's head 
high (out of vanity) ; to leer ( J I at) 

«_* \j* surrab pl. -at stocking, sock 



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540 



^l^i Siras glue, paste 

1 «-yi sariba a {&urb, <_. yi* masrab) to drink 
(a s.th.); to sip (a s.th.) | <**. j^ 
{hubbiki) to drink s.o.'s health, toast 
s.o.; DU-4J1 t-jp (dukana) to smoke; 
iLS^Vi <-^ {argila; syr.) to smoke a 
narghile; <ij£ ^yi {nakbahu) to drink to 
s.o.'s health, toast s.o. II to give (a « s.o. 
s.th.) to drink, make or let drink (a 
s.o. s.th.); to drench, soak, saturate, 
impregnate ( v a s.th. with); to inculcate, 
imbue (a » s.o. with s.th.) Ill to drink 
in s.o.'s (0) company, have a drink (e 
with s.o.) IV to give (a » s.o. s.th.) to 
drink, make or let drink (a » s.o. s.th.); 
to drench, soak, saturate, impregnate 
(^ or a a s.th. with); to inculcate, 
imbue (a s.o. with); — pass, u&riba to 
be saturated (^ with), be soaked; to be 
or become full (a of s.th,), be filled, 
imbued, infused (a with s.th.), be domi- 
nated, permeated (a by s.th.) | J L. ju^M 
V^ (yasrab) to attribute s.th. wrongly 
to s.o. V to soak up, absorb, imbibe 
(a s.th.); to be permeated, imbued, 
infused (a, ^ with s.th.); to be full 
(v-> of), be filled, replete (<_j with) 

uj^p surb drinking, drink; absorption 

4jj$ sarba drink; sip, draught, swallow ; 
dose, potion (of a medicine); laxative, 
purgative, aperient 

*ij£ §urba pi. surubat drink; sip, 
draught, swallow; dose, potion (of a 
medicine) ; see also 2 <ij£ 

sardb pi. hj^\ asriha beverage, 

winfi! fruit, inirw» fruit, simin 



V'./*" 01*7 CW pi. 4Jy-< "-C 

drink; wine; fruit juice, fruit syrup, 
oK^k^f 1 1 mi .jIjj £ at-tuffdh apple 



sherbet | ~\Jhi\ l-ji^j; 

juice; cider; JLujJI ^j\^, s. al-burtuqal 

orangeade; dj+J}\ ^l^JS 5. al-laimun 

lemonade; vLr-^lj fWJl (tcfam) food and 

drink 

<~t\j£ sarrdb drunkard, heavy drinker 



c-jy-i sarlb drinkable, potable 

h\j£ sarrdba, surrdba pi. u^j^ 

sardrlb 2 tassel, tuft, bob | ^l^Jl h\^ §, 

ar-rd'i (European) holly (Ilex aqui- 
folium; bot.) 

^jj^ sirrib drunkard, heavy drinker 

*-*/■*-• m ^srah drink (as opposed to 
food) ; (pi. ^jILa masdrib 2 ) drinking place, 
water hole, drinking trough, drinking 
fountain; restaurant, bar; inclination, 
taste; movement, school (e.g., in philos- 
ophy) 

<s.jt+ masraba pi. c-jjUL. ma§drib z 
drinking place, water hole, drinking 
trough, drinking fountain 

<~{j£* nia§rabiya, muSrabiya and 
ij^Jw. masraba moucharaby, projecting 
oriel window with a wooden latticework 
enclosure; wooden oriel; attic room; 
malrabiya a kind of drinking vessel; vase, 
pot for flowers 

^^ij tasrlb impregnation (for water- 
proofing) 

<->iJ tasarrub absorption, soaking up, 
imbibing 

wjU Sdrib pi. -ww, ^jj. sarb, vj^r- 
surnb drinking; drinker; (pi. ^jljJi 
sawdrib 2 ) mustache, frequently dual: 

<-?jj£* masrub pi. -at drink, beverage | 
i^-jj £j>\jjjJu (ruhlya) alcoholic beverages, 
liquors 



2 \j^ Hrba (eg.) pi. -at and \jjZ> $orba, 
soraba {syr.) pi. -at soup 

'v'^-J hirrdb pi. -at stocking, sock 

iLyi sarbaka to (en)tangle, snarl (a s.th.); 
to complicate (a s.th.) 



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jru^ $arbin cedar (Cedrus libani; bot.); a 
variety of juniper tree (Juniperus oxy- 
cedrua; bot.}, also used for cypress and a 
variety of larch 

X £yJ; saraj pi. r 1^1 asra/ loop, ring, eyelet; 
buttonhole; anus 

j^-i sarajl anal 

V>i look up alphabetically 

3 D Vj^' (aS-sarja) dial, spelling for ^jUJi, 
q.v. 

^-^ Saraha a (sarh)to cut in slices, slice, 
cut up (a s.th.); to cut open, rip open 
(a s.th.); to bare, expose, make clearly 
visible or discernible (a s.th.); to ex- 
pound (a s.th.); to explain, elucidate, 
illustrate, make plain, set forth, describe, 
depict (a s.th.); to comment (a on), 
interpret (a s.th.); to open, lay open 
(«jJu^ §adrahu s.o.'s heart, <J to or for the 
acceptance of) | j-uJl ^JS (sadra) also: 
to cause joy, evoke a gay mood, make 
happy, gladden; «*^U- ^^ {kdtirahu) to 
gladden, delight s.o. II to cut in slices, 
slice, cut up (a s.th.); to dissect, dis- 
member, anatomize (a a corpse) VII to 
be opened (heart); to be relaxed; to be 
glad, happy | ejJU* rj&\ {sadruhu) and 
sJe.U- t-j£>\ {kapiru.hu) to be or become 
glad, happy or delighted, rejoice 

fj$ sarh expounding, presentation, 
explanation, illustration, elucidation, ex- 
position, setting forth; commentation; 
(pi. rjjZ mriih) commentary 

j^j£ sarht explanatory, explicatory, 
illustrative 

JU-^Ji sarha long, thin slice, rasher 

aj£j5 sariha pi. r&j* saraih 2 slice (of 
fruit, bread, toast, etc.); rasher; steak; 
fillet, filet (of meat and fish) ; escalope ; 



slat; (horse) girth; microscope 



slide ; 
§. ha- 



yah a slice of life 

O o-^t» masraha operating room; 
operating table; autopsy room 

£j±> tasrlh dissection ; anatomy ; 
autopsy, post-mortem examination | ip 
£ J £$\ r ihnat-t. anatomy; O ^LjUII f.j-^ 
t. al-muqabala comparative anatomy 

j£ j£j tasrihi dissecting, anatomizing, 
dissective, dissectional ; anatomic(al) 

^!^j! inSirdh relaxedness, relaxation; 
joy, delight, glee, gaiety 

f-j\J> sdrih pi. ■*-\j$ surrah explainer, 
expounder, interpreter, commentator, 
expositor 



C-r- 



mumrrih anatomist 



l ~j£ saraka u (f-jj^ suruk) to become a 
youth, grow from childhood to maturity 

i>jji Mrk prime of youth, spring of 
life 

2 f jJ> Saraka a {eg.)to crack, splinter, become 
cracked 

f-ji, sark pi. t-jj^ suruk (eg.) crack, 
break, fissure, fracture 

ijZ sarada u (a^ Sirdd, ij^ surud) to bolt 
(horse); to run away, flee, take to flight, 
take to one's heels, break loose, escape; 
to roam, rove, wander, stray, go astray; 
to be distracted (thoughts) ; to be absent- 
minded, be confused, be preoccupied | 
oo *j$ (dihnuhu) to be absent-minded; 
JyJ&\ aj ij5 (fikru) he became lost in 
thought II to frighten away, chase away, 
drive away (a s.o.); to scare (* s.o.), fright- 
en (» s.o.) into a panic; to make homeless, 
make into a vagabond (<> s.o.) IV to chase 
away, drive away (o s.o.) V to roam, tramp 
about, lead a vagabond life 



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542 



sjjS, sarud pi. ^ surud running away; 
straying; astray, deviant, aberrant, 
strange, peculiar 

sjjj, surud roaming, straying, wan- 
dering |^CiJ! ijjZ S. al-fikr absent-minded- 
ness, distractedness 

Ajj-i sarld fugitive, expatriated, dis- 
placed, expelled; loafer, tramp, vagrant, 
vagabond 

JojJtS taSrid expulsion, banishment, 
eviction; homelessness ; being without 
shelter ; wandering about, roaming . 
around; vagrancy, vagabondage | et~>- 
-U j^iXJI hayat at-t. the unsettled life, life of 
a vagabond 

^ptJ tasarrud vagrancy, vagabondage 

j;L5 Sdrid pi. ^ Survd, surrad, ijj^i 
saivdrid 2 fugitive, straying, astray; in- 
timidated, frightened, helpless, at a loss; 
a fugitive, runaway, deserter; defector; 
vagrant, tramp, vagabond | rjj\ jjU 
spiritually without ties, uprooted, lack- 
ing stability; J$Lbi\ jjU S. al-fikr absent- 
minded, distracted; <aJJ1 *j\jJ> I. al-luga 
irregularities of the language, linguistic 
anomalies; (c-i^kJl) ^kJ! jjU s. an-nazar 
(an-nazardt) with a blank stare; gazing 
into the void; ibjU J* J* path of errors; 
jjU ^Jb {lubb) mentally confused, ab- 
sent-minded 

ojU sdrida pi. jjl^i Sawdrid 2 pe- 
culiarity, anomaly, exception | ojU dJ^iJ V 
ojlj Vj (tafutuhu) nothing escapes him, 
he doesn't miss a thing 

$jt+ musarrad fugitive, refugee, dis- 
placed person; homeless; wandering 
about, roaming around, tramping; neg- 
lected, unkempt j JLJI j^t, and ( _ r Jcl\ ^Ju 
confused, disconcerted 

ijil* mutasarrid pi. -£?i homeless 
person, tramp, vagrant, vagabond; ad- 
venturer 



o*s" JI tamrdaqa to swallow the wrong way; 
to choke (to death) 

t\ji II tasardama to be jagged, indented 

io^ sirdima pi. (ojyi sarddim 2 , f*\j$ 
sarddim 2 small group, gang, party, 
troop; little band 

^jJ mrisa a (Saras, i-I^J; sardsa) to be 
vicious, malicious, mischievous, ill -tern- 
pered, unsociable, quarrelsome, petulant, 
peevish VI to be cross, quarrel (« with) 

^j~Z Saras = 1^\ J Ji 

^jJ. Saris vicious, malicious, mischie- 
vous, ill-tempered, unsociable, quarrel- 
some, petulant, peevish; wild, ferocious, 
fierce 



iH- 



: trv- ' 



i-l^i sardsa wickedness, malice, vi- 
ciousness, meanness, baseness, villainy; 
ill-temperedness, unsociableness, queru- 
lousness, petulance, peevishness; mis- 
anthropy 

^Ir* Sirds glue, paste, see ^j-*, ^j^> 

^y»j$ sursuf pi. iJl-wI^J; sardsif 2 rib cartilage 

Js-lj-S Saraslfi epigastric, pertaining 
to the anterior walls of the abdomen 

^SjJS II to take root 

^i^J; sirs pi. ^jy^ 3«rfi£ root; (eg., 
also ^Ui ^i^i s. al-laban) whey 

j^J; sursur pi. jv^l^ Sardsir 2 chaffinch 
(zoo/.) 

j^j-i Anw (ey.) wild duck (zool.) 

j2>\j5> SardSir 2 soul, self, nature (of a 
person) 



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QJij* sarsa/ pi. 
bedsheet 



i I^Ji sardsif 2 (leb , -syr . ) 



JsyS sarata i u ($art) to tear (a s.th.); to 
make incisions (a in), scratch, scarify (a ' 
s.th.); to slit open, rip open (a s.th,); to j 
impose as a condition, as an obligation ; 
(a J* on s.o. s.th.), make conditional ; 
(a Jc for s.o. s.th.); to stipulate (a s.th.) , 
II to tear to shreds (a s.th,); to scratch, 
scarify (a s.th.); to make incisions 
(a in) III to fix mutual conditions; to 
make a contract, conclude an agreement; 
to bet, wager (» with s. o.) V to impose 
severe conditions or terms | tif j ]t>j£ 
('amalihi) to be meticulous in one's 
work, do one's work painstakingly VIII to 
impose as a condition, as an obligation 
(a J* on s.o. s.th.); to make conditional 
(a Jp for s.o. s.th.); to stipulate (a 
s.th.); pass, usturita to be prerequisite, 
preconditional { j for) 

bjZ sart pi. S?jj£ surut incision (in 
the skin); long cut, rip, slash, slit; con- 
dition, precondition; provision, proviso, 
clause; stipulation (of a contract) | <jl lis^-i 
(hrtan), b\ J^Jt Jp, J^-tJ on the condition 
that . . ., provided that ...; (Oj-L>) <jjj> ,y» 
bji unconditional; -Li j\ J^ ^ (au 
qaidin) with no strings attached; un- 
conditional (obedience, surrender, etc.); 
jL£l V^i proviso of the right of with- 
drawal (from a contract, a commercial 
transaction, an obligation, and the like, 
hi. Law) 

Jtyi sarta (prep,) under the condition of 

J*^ sarat pi. J? 1^1 asrdt sign, portent | 
ifrUI ^\ji\ the portents of the Day of 
Judgment 

Jj?j5> sarti conditional j *^*j5 *k*? 
{jumla) conditional clause (gram.); J*s 
J>^i ^SjCj> (fi'l mun'akis) conditioned 
reflex [psych.) 



y?p sarhya contract, agreement 

iLyi sarta pi. J^i sural stroke, line; 
hyphen; dash 

'&>jJ> surta police; policemen; pi. J*p 
sural police squads | UyiJl j'\ -> police head- 
quarters; SlsyiJi jik- makfar as-s. police 
station; ^iJl j JJH police report; Sl^i 
t-Jl^-VI police handling registration of 
aliens; s_-*iJl Uyi £. as-sa'b people's 
police (in socialist countries) ; h J}L~£ iL^i 
('askarlya) military police; jjj.\ ilsyi 
traffic police; _>Ji U-^i S, as-sair (Mor.) 
do.; Js^l! SJbyJi (i£#.) police in charge of 
public safety and general order 

J»/^ ittrff, suratl pi. -tm policeman, 
officer 

JaJ^ sant pi. JaulyJS sard' it 2 , Si^l 
asnfa band, ribbon, tape; border, trim, 
stripe (on a dress); strip; cord, string; 
leash, line; thong, strap; braid, galloon, 
chevron, stripe; ribbon (of an order), 
medal ribbon, service ribbon; (railway) 
track, line; film strip; film (also JaJ^-i 
jLjju-); (magnetic) tape | J~>— j ^Hj* 
(audio) tape; (J^L- -ku_^ (saliill) coastal 
strip; jk**jL* Sajj^ (musaggar) microfilm; 
^^Ul iaJ^ (i'lami) educational film; 
^uaIS^s Jajl^Ji (jukdhlya) comic strips; 
^-LaJI -U^JS tape measure, measuring 
tape; J-^V ^ij$ bandaid, adhesive plas- 
ter; jtU JaJ^ pl- ^"^ Jajl^J SOUnd 

film; sound track; magnetic tape; -Uj^ 
JsU conveyor belt; jUl SzijS fuse; -Uj^ 
^Ljj (ivataiqi; Tun.) documentary film; 
.Uj^JJ! ojji dudat as-s. tapeworm 

SLj^ sarita condition; sarltata (prep.) 



under the condition of | 
the condition that . . . 

\pj^a masrat program 



«LLjyJi Jp on 



S?jJL* misrat pl. J*jUL« masdrit 2 lancet, 
scalpel 

Jaj^jj taartjS scarification, incision 



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aLjU^ musdrata agreement, arrange- 
ment 

J»ljwl t£tir£f pi. -at condition, pro- 
vision, proviso; stipulation 

^1^5 Sartana to consecrate, ordain (• s.o., 
CAr.) II to be ordained (Chr.) 

lllsiyi sartana = SJjjlayi 

Vj^yS Sartumya ordination of a 
priest, and any ordination of persons by 
laying on of hands {Chr.); simony (Copt.- 
Chr.) 

jyi sara r a a (sar e , ^Ji #wm') to go (j 
into), enter (J s.th.); to begin, start, 
commence (j or <_j with; with foil, 
imperf.: to do s.th.); to point a weapon 
(a) at s.o. (Jp); to untie, unbind, unlace 
(a s.th.); to fix (a bayonets, Jc on 
rifles); — sara r a a (saf) to introduce, 
enact (a laws), prescribe, give (a J to 
s.o. laws), make laws (a) for s.o. (J) | 
kjT/-^-* Jyi to devise a plan II to draw 
a weapon (a) on s.o. (J*); to legislate, 
make laws IV to draw or train a weapon 
(a) on s.o. (J*) | J| <JU g^Jl ( r ainaihi) 
to cast one's eyes on , . ., turn one's 
glance toward . . .; «uli p^l (qalamahu) 
to draw one's pen = to prepare to 
write VIII to introduce, enact (a laws) ; to 
prescribe, give (a J to s.o. laws), make 
laws (a) for s.o. (J) 

f\s^\ as-saf the Revelation, the 
canonical law of Islam | Uyj U^J 
saran zva-far r an with full right, with 
good cause, by rights; U^Uj U^JJ accord- 
ing to religious and secular law; IJU j *> 
■*»- 1 j £v^ they are alike in this 

,j-jZ mfl lawful, legitimate, legal, 
rightful; Lcyi sar'iyan lawfully, le- 
gitimately, etc. | ^^Jl ^JaJl (tibb) 
forensic medicine; i f J £l\ »Li£Ji (qada) 
jurisdiction based on the Sharia; < M 



*p\j£ Sarra'a peep window, peep hoi 



4*Pj-tJl the religious courts; j^J, jl i] 
legitimate (child) 

Vr saflya lawfulness, legality, le 
gitimacy, rightfulness 

ap^S Sar'a string (of a bow, of 
musical instrument) ; thong, strap 

ltj£ sir' a law; it^tll the Sharia, th 
revealed, or canonical, law of Islam 

£^J; Hra" pi. ^ suru\ 5*^1 am' 
sail; tent 

^lyJ tfi'ra'f sailing-, sail- (in com 
pounds), rigged with sails | v ! r o 
sailship, sailboat; VL?^ v'tL glider 

m r a peep wi 
(in a door) 

Jy^J suru r beginning, start, commence 
ment, inception (J or v with); plar 
attempt^ try ( j for or at s.th.) | t^* 
(JxJ) 2J^ j (sariqa, qatl) attempt© 
theft (murder) 

aaj^J sari'a pi. ^I^J sarcCi' 2 watc 
hole, drinking place; approach to 
water hole; law; iu^l the Sharia, th 
revealed, or canonical, law of Islam; p] 
jjl^ prescriptions of religious law 
" A Hj^ ^ nakr as-L the river Jordan 

5*^ TnaSra'a pi. £jU* masari* 
water hole, drinking place 

£>^j to^rr pi. -<z£ legislation; pi. oU^t 
legal regulations | g^i ikL wZferf a/-£ 
legislative power, legislative, legislatun 

^yo^J tasu f i legislative | vu^UI iUJ. 
[javiiya) the legislative assembly; ; JJt . 
Vd^ (daura) legislative period, session 
VM^I ikUi (sulfa) the legislative power 
the legislative, the legislature 

£lr^Vf U5 tatniyat al-titira' Deu- 
teronomy, fifth Book of Moses 

^/■\J£\ istinVi legislative 



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fjU sari" pi. -tin legislator, lawgiver; 
(pi. ?j]j£ sawari-) street | iS ^Mj fj\£ 
(ra'isi) main street, thoroughfare; pjU 
j»U ( f amm) public street, thoroughfare; 
fjUJI the source and revealer of religious 
law(= God) 

9j^ maSru' legitimate, legal, lawful, 
rightful, licit; legally determined, regul- 
ated by revelation {Isl. Law) ; permissible, 
allowed; (pi. -at, Mj\-t* masdrl" 2 ) project; 
plan, scheme, design, enterprise; com- 
pleted project; on-going enterprise | 
Cjj\j ?jj£-* w. qdnun bill, draft law 

ijt^i* 7nasru r lya legitimacy 

9jL* musarrV pi. -un legislator, law- 
giver 

9 jil* midasarri legislator, lawgiver; 
jurist, jurisprudent, legist 

fj£* mustari" pi. -un legislator, 
lawgiver; jurist, jurisprudent, legist 



ci^ Sarufa u {saraf, *i\jJ> Sara fa) to be 
highborn, high-bred, noble, illustrious, 
eminent, distinguished, high-ranking II to 
make noble, eminent, illustrious, ennoble, 
elevate, exalt, raise to distinction, honor, 
(» a.o. ), confer honor or distinction (« up 
on s.o.); to honor (<-j » s.o. with); to give 
(& s.o.) the honor III to vie for precedence 
in honor or nobility (» with s.o.); to 
approach (a s.th.), come within sight 
(a of s.th.), be within shooting distance 
(* of s.th.); to overlook, command 
(a s.th.), look down (a on s.th.); to 
supervise, control (a s.th.), watch (^ over 
s.th.) IV to be high, tall, lofty; to tower, 
rise (Jp above); to look down ( U on), 
overlook, overtop (Jp s.th.); to com- 
mand (Jp the vicinity, etc.); to open, 
face (J* on, e.g., a window on the 
garden); to look down (Jp upon s.th.); 
to be a spectator, look on (J* at); 
to supervise, oversee, superintend, con- 



trol (J^ s.th.), watch, have the super- 
vision (Jp over), manage, direct, run (J* 
s.th.), be in charge (Jp of s.th.); to 
be near s.th. ( Jp), be close ( Jp to s.th.), 
be on the point of (Jp); to be on the 
verge or brink ( Jp of ruin, etc.) V to be 
honored (<_-> with), have the honor, give 
o.s. the honor (<_* of), Li^-iS taSarrafna 
it is (was) an honor to me X to stretch 
oneself up; to tower over s.th.; to look 
over or down; to look, peer (Jl at); to 
look out, watch (Jl for) ; to review (a s.th.) ; 
to view,tour (a s.th.), see the sights (a of); 
to catch sight (a of), see (a s.th.) 

tjj-i saraf elevated place 

Js^J saraf high rank, nobility, distinc- 
tion, eminence, dignity; honor, glory | 
*3jZ Jp in his honor 

j^J saraf i honorary, honor- (in com- 
pounds) 

43^ surfa pi. sur(a)fdt, surufat, <— s^ 
suraf balcony; balcony loge, bos (the- 
ater) ; battlement 

4s\jJ^ sirdfa sherifate, office of sherif 
(in Mecca) 

*a\j$ surra fa pi. -at balcony; gallery 

^Aij^ sarlf pi. *\ij£ suraf a' 2 , iS»\jJ*\ 
asrdf distinguished, eminent, illustrious, 
noble, highborn, high-bred; honored, 
celebrated; sublime, exalted, august; 
honorable, respectable, honest (trade, pro- 
fession); sherif, title of the descendants 
of Mohammed; iJu^JJl in Ottoman times, 
title of the Governor of Mecca; »U,JJI 
honorable and upright people 

Jj^J; sarlfl sherifian, of or pertaining 
to the house of the sherifs 

Jj^iu masraf elevated, commanding 
site, height; pi. JsjUU masdrif 2 ele- 
vations, heights, hills | J»j[Jl* Je (with 



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foil, genit.) within view of, in the visual 
range of, in front of . . . 

iaj jH taSrifa pi. -at honoring, bestowal of 
honors; pi. taSrlfdt ceremonial, etiquette, 
protocol (dipL) | yClii CjUj^I (mulahlya) 
(formerly) bulletin of the receptions, 
inspections and visits of the King of 
Egypt; oUj^stXJi jX» mvdir at-t., iJ ~^j 
oUj^iXJI chief of protocol, master of cer- 
emonies; Sjij^JUi lyS kiswat at-t. parade 
uniform; iajytUI ^-JtjU gala dress, gala 
uniforms 

O^Aij-tS tasrifati ceremonial; master of 
ceremonies; royal steward; chief of 
protocol | SJUj^j ilju (badla) parade 
uniform 

iijlJL. musdrafa supervision, super- 
intendence { Jp over) 

iJiljjl isrdj supervision, superintend- 
ence, control (J* over); patronage, aus- 
pices | Ct\j£\ £*£■ under the auspices of, 
under the patronage of 

JsjU sari} pi. »J>j]^ Suwarif" old 
(camel mare) 

Js^-t- musarrif honorable; honorary | 
cj^i. j»"iL» an honorable peace 

^j>j±a muhif supervisor, overseer, super- 
intendent | £jjL\ J* Js^JL. {maut) dying, 
in the throes of death, doomed to death, 
moribund 

O^JJL-. mustaSraf terrace 

(j^S mraqa u (mrq, 3jj$ suruq) to rise (sun); 
to shine, radiate; — Sariqa a (Saraq) to 
swallow the wrong way, have a fit of 
choking; to choke (^ on s.th., e.g., «u..ju 
bi-dam r ihi on one's tears); — saraqa u to 
sip, lap, suck in {» s.th.) II to go east; 
to cut in strips and dry in the sun, to 
jerk (a meat, for conservation); see *J"J. 
IV to rise (sun); to shine, radiate; to 
beam (fig.) V to become an Oriental X to 



become an Oriental, adopt oriental man- 
ners; to study the Orient 

3j$ sarq sunrise, east; the Orient, the 
East; tf^ sarqan eastward | a$ji\ 3j> 
i. al-urdunn (till 1950) Transjordan; 
J-iVi J/JI (adnd) the Near East; J^l 
^Vl (aqsd) the Far East; Ja-jV' 3j\\ 
the Middle East 

ji^-i sarqi eastern, easterly; oriental; 
(pi. -un) Oriental; b^S^\ the Orientals 
(of the Christian Church) ; sarqlya (with 
foil, genit.) east of . . . | ljj\ jfp Eastern 
Europe; u^jVI Sji SjU imam* I. J^r* 
^?m (official designation till 1950) Trans- 
jordan 

Jjl^i siraq pitchy pine wood, light wood 

3jj5 Suruq rise (of the sun) 

(ji^i sardql {eg.) unirrigated land not 
reached by the Nile floods 

Jly-i sarrdq suction rose, suction basket 
(of a suction pipe, for water supply) 

~&\jj. Sarrdqa intake port, intake pipe 
(auto; techn.) 

□ ij\j$ mrdquwa (pi. of <jjUp) Le- 
vantines (eg.) 

3jt* masriq pi. JjLi* mamriq 2 place 
of sunrise, east; place of rise; the Orient, 
the East; 615/ill East and West | jjU* 
Uu^-v o-*j^' *«* al-ard wa-magdribuhd or 
<J^-!^!> uU^ill (magribdn) the whole 
world; ^Jdl jj a^>i ! J all over 
the world 

j^. viasriqi eastern, easterly, orien- 
tal; (pi. iSjtL. masdriqa) an Oriental; 
olJrJdl orientalia, oriental studies 

&jZ3 tasriq eastcrnization ; develop- 
ment of domestic production (esp. in 
local industry, with the gradual elimi- 
nation of Europe), drive for (economic) 
independence | Jj ijr iUI fLI ayydm at4. 



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£j 



lr- 



the old name of the three days following 
the Day of Immolation (10th of Zu'lhij ja) 
during the hadj festival 

Jl^il iSrdq sunrise; brilliance (of the 
morning); radiant brightness; radiance; 
beaming (also fig.); radiation, eradiation; 
emanation; Ilhiminism (mysticism deriv- 
ing from Neoplatonism) 

OjJl^'Vl al-isrdqlyun the Illuminists, 
adherents of Illuminism 

jl^iJUV I al-istisraq oriental studies 

4j;l£jl as-sariqa Sharjah, name of an 
emirate on the Persian Gulf 

d^i. mufriq resplendent, radiant, shin- 
ing; beaming (smile); brilliant | 4*iLJl J^iu 
m. at-taUa of radiant, splendid appearance 

3j£J~~* mustasriq having oriental man- 
ners; (pi. -un) orientalist 

3Jj£ saraqraq, 3\J*j^> saraqrdq green wood- 
pecker 

£lyi sarika a (Sirk, aT^ sirha, sarika) to 
share (j *> with s.o. s.th.), participate 
( j « with s.o. in), be or become partner, 
participant, associate (j, » of s.o. in) III to 
take part (j in an event); to share (* * 
or j with s.o. s.th.), participate (J or a * 
with s.o. in), be or become a partner, par- 
ticipant, associate (J or *»of s.o. in); to 
associate o.s. (© with s.o.), enter into part- 
nership (a with s.o.), form a partnership, 
join, combine ( j or a » with s.o. in); to 
sympathize (• with s.o.) | «*jIj 4$jL5 
(ra'yahu) to share s.o.'s opinion IV to 
make ( 6 s.o.) a partner, participant, 
associate (j in), give (» s.o.) a share ( j 
in), have (o s.o.) share (Jin); to tie s.th. 
(a) closely to s.th. (<^>), associate (<~> a 
s.th. with s.th.) | aIjLj ^T^l to make s.o. 
the associate or partner of God (in His 
creation and rule); *»1j ii^JSl to set up 
or attribute associates to God, i.e., to 



be a polytheist, an idolator VI to enter 
into partnership (** with s.o.) ; to partic- 
ipate together (J in), share with one 
another (j s.th.) VIII to enter into 
partnership, to cooperate (^* with s.o.); 
to participate (J £• with s.o. in), share 
(J ma with s.o., s.th.), collaborate, take 
part (<_} in), contribute (j to); to sub- 
scribe (j to); to partake of the Lord's 
Supper, communicate (Copt.-Chr.) 

il^JS $irk polytheism, idolatry | ii^JJI J* I 
ahl as-s*. 
tors 



the polytheists, the idola- 



iip sarak pi. ilji suruk, ill^il 
a$rdk, iiljJi sirdk net, snare, gin; trap | 
lTpi *d i_-^aj to lay a trap for s.o., trap 
s.o. 

ilj£ suruk spurious, unsound, phony, 
false 

i5^J; Sirka f sarika partnership; com- 
munion (Chr.); (pi. -at) association, 
companionship ; company, corporation 
(com.); commercial enterprise (I si. Law); 
establishment, firm, business | u^fejl ^r- 
insurance company; *ij\jf *^ (tijariya) 
trading company, firm; *— V' ^j+f- "&j* 
see J>^, *-Vi v»*- ^S^ see tP" W*J/» 
4^13^1 ^S^i broadcasting corporation; 
iX-JJ iffZ s. al-musdhama joint- stock 
company, corporation; vU* 1 '^j^ ( S4 " s 
hamiya) do.; olT^tJI ^S^i trust (com.); 
ij-^j' iS^S 5. tausiya limited company, 
Ltd.; <S^j*y\ ^jyJi C-jjJl <^ (<?. «z- 
«a»0 Arabian American Oil Company, 
ARAMCO 

ill^J 6'ira& pi. ii^i swrwfc, li^l airafc, 
£JljJ;l asrdk shoelace 

*f 1 J; sirdka partnership (esp. com.) 

ti-bj-i &mfc pi. ^IT^ surakd" 2 , t\\jZ\ 
asrdk sharer, participant, partner, co- 
partner; associate, companion, con- 
federate, ally; co-owner, coproprietor 



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(Isl. Law); accomplice, accessory (in a 
crime) | ^j* ^ij^ (muivassin) limited 
or silent partner (corn.); olT^j (foil, a 
company name; usually without hamza) 
... & Co. 

dh jZ hitaik (eg.) sesame cake 

<£ij£ Sarlka pi. ^L*l^ Sard'ik 2 woman 
partner, woman participant, etc. '(see 
^) 

JL.^ij tahlk: tiLyiDI t-U- siydsat 
ai-t. policy of alliances 

'*fjJL* mumraka partnership, copart- 
nership, participation (j in); coopera- 
tion, collaboration; communion (Chr.); 
complicity, accessoriness (jur.) | '&jl£* 
SJl-u-j (wijdanlya) empathy, sympathy 

iil^il Urak admission (of s.o.) as a par- 
ticipant ( J in s.th.) 

£jjliJ tatidruk joint tenure, partner- 
ship, common participation (J in) 

*\\JJ-\ istirdk partnership, copartner- 
ship, coparcenary; participation, sharing, 
joining, co-operation, collaboration ( j in) ; 
interference (j in); subscription (j to); 
jointness, eommunitj 7 ; communion (Chr.) ; 
(pi. -at) subscription rate; participation 
fee | iJIj^VLj jointly, in concurrence, 
together (~ with); iSj+Z fJL^il (sahrl) 
monthly subscription; monthly fee or 
contribution 

^Ijtil istiraki socialist, socialistic; (pi. 
-un) a socialist 

Zjf\JJ'\ istirdklya socialism 

iJjUL. muSdrik associate, partner | 3b>l 
iljLL. (ustdd) associate professor 

i}j^* muSrik pi. -un polytheist 

£j±* mustarik pi. -wn participant; 
subscriber 

lljll* mustarak common, joint, com- 



bined, concurrent, collective, co- | j»VI 
iJj^J.1 (omw) collective security; i^/JL. *■ ^b 
(baldg) joint communique ; af^ll jjJI 
(siw/) the Common Market; i$Jl£l\ jjxiJI 
community spirit, communality, soli- 
darity; iljlZl\ oL^oJi (daman) collective 
security 

^SjJ. mrkasi Circassian ; (pi. i-Tlj-t sarakisa) 
a Circassian 

# J. Sarama i (sarm) to split, slit, slash (* 

s.th.) 

tji. sarm pi. *jj$ surum cleft, crack, 
split, rift, slit, slot; small bay, inlet 

(yil asram 2 , f. ►Up sarmd" 2 having a 
disfigured nose; harelipped 

ja^pi sarmata (eg., syr.) to shred, tear to 
shreds (a s.th.) 

~<&>yjS> sarmuta pi. Jo-^l^i sardmlf rag, 
shred, tatter; whore, slut, prostitute 

IjLijS, sarnaqa pi. Jj^ sarartiq 2 cocoon (of 
the silk worm); chrysalis (of an insect); 
slough (of a snake), snakeskin; — 
sardniq 2 hemp (Cannabis sativa; hot.); 
hemp seed 

* J, sariha a (sarah) to be greedy (Jl or J* 

for food); to eat greedily, gormandize, 
gluttonize, be gluttonous 

e»j£ sarah gluttony, gourmandism, 
ravenousness, voracity; greediness, greed, 
covctousness, avidity 

6j$ sarih greedy (Jp for food), glut- 
tonous; voracious, ravenous; ravenous 
eater, glutton; greedy, covetous, avid 

h>\y: saralia gluttony, gourmandism, 
ravenousness, voracity; greediness, greed, 
covctousness, avidity 



*j* 



% sarw, sir w honey 



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*Js", iSJj*- f 



1 <ir" 



Jljyi JmtfaJ pi. JjjI^ mrdwU 2 trousers, 
pants; drawers 

fjjS sard i (siran, J^ sird') to sell, vend 
(<_> a s.th. for a certain price); to buy, 
purchase (a s.th.); to bring upon o.s., to 
ask for {e.g., ^Idi troubles, inconven- 
iences) — sard i (siran) to expose 
(a s.th.) to the sun for drying It to expose 
(a s.th.) to the sun for drying VIII to 
buy, purchase (a s.th.); to buy up, 
acquire, obtain by commercial trans- 
action (a s.th.); to sell, vend (a s.th.) 
X to become worse, worsen, deteriorate 

&J* sary (coll.; n. nn. ;) colocynth 

^jS Siran pi. \j$\ asriya purchase, 
buy(ing), bargain 

ijj^ mran an itching skin eruption 

*Sj$ sim purchase, buy(ing) | »^ r ±JI «_J.[j 
eager to buy; O *\ji& J* SjJLaII (maq* 
dura) or Q »l_ r *JI ly quwatas-s. purchasing 
power 

cjl^J sird'l purchasing (in compounds) | 
yi^i Sy {quwwa) purchasing power 

Ijjt sarwa purchase, buy(ing) 

(Sjj^ sarwa: j\j6 (SJjS dSix .V la yam* 
liku s. naqlrin he hasn't a red cent to his 
name, he has absolutely nothing; V 
J**> iSJj^ 1 iS-^r (yujdl) it is of no use at 
ali 

O *ij_~}\ u^"' al-hnmma as-mrawlya 
nettle rash, urticaria (med.) 

o\*j£ sirydn pi. ^jI^J; mraym 2 artery | 
^jIjJJI <_X^j tasallub as-s, arterioscle- 
rosis (med.); ^UII ul^JJI and ob^l 
JJTVl (»&2f2t) coronary artery (anat.); 
^i oby^ (dahabi) vein of gold; gold 
mine, bonanza 

JUyi sirydnl arterial | yij^-tJi Sju-JI 



(swefcfo) embolism (me^.); jLj-2 <_JUaj (to= 
sallub) arteriosclerosis (med.) 

*1Jv\M istird 3 purchase, buy(ing) 

jU $drm pi. Sl^i iVra^ seller, salesman, 
vendor; purchaser, buyer, customer; 
— O lightning rod (also jpl^aJI tfjU); 
o l^iJI as -surah designation of the Khawarij 

JLL* mustarin purchaser, buyer, cus- 
tomer; seller, vendor 

i £JLtl\ al-mustarl Jupiter (astron.) 

ijjw mustaran pi. cA> m jJL* mustarayat 
that which is purchased, purchased 
goods; purchase, buy(ing), acquisition 

ij^-i hazran\ \jj£ Joi to look askance, glare 
distrustfully, angrily or malignantly (Jf 
at s.o.) 

*bj^ (> p <a ^ n sazrS" 2 an eye looking 
askance, distrustfully or malignantly; »JH 
*\jy$ (nazra) distrustful, suspicious glance 

(Fr. chiste) slate (min.) 



a*-U irdsi' far (away), distant, remote; wide, 
large, great (distance); huge, vast, enor- 
mous (difference); roomy, spacious, wide 
(e.g., a hall); extensive (e.g., area) 

jUJL* sasakdn rifled (gunbarrel) 

4jUJLi)l JUJL-1 aslihat as-s. firearms 
ji^iJL. musaskan rifled (gunbarrel) 

l «lS sism seed of the Cassia absus (bot.), 
used as eye powder 

2 l*JiJ, sasma, sisma toilet, lavatory, privy 

^Lz sisnl sample, specimen; sampling 

tj?^J> [eg.) sisnagi assayer (of precious 
metals) 



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^^a-i & pi. Q^j^ai Sttsus fishhook; barb (of 
a hook) 

1^^ sasara a land of gazelle 

iai Satta i u {iaki satat) to go to extremes, 
go too far, exceed the proper bounds, be 
excessive (j in, with); to deviate (jp 
from), digress, stray {fjJ^S ^ from 
the topic) VIII to go to extremes, go too 
far, exceed the proper bounds, be 
excessive ( j in, with) 

Jai salt pi. Jbjki sutut bank, shore, 
coast, seashore, beach, strand | v^*" ^ 
s. al-arab Shatt-al-Arab, river in SE 
Iraq formed by the Tigris and Euphrates 
rivers; the region traversed by this river 
on the Persian Gulf 

«k£ satta a variety of pepper (Capsicum 
conicum Mey.; hot.); small red peppers 

.kki satat that which is excessive or 
exceeds the proper bounds, excess; in- 
road, encroachment, infringement; devi- 
ation ((jp from) 

ila-jki satlta a variety of pepper (Capsi- 
cum conicum Mey. ; hot.) ; small red pep- 
pers 

,k£w muHtt excessive 

y*U mti' pi. y>Jp sawati 2 , jlki sup' an shore, 
coast, seacoast, beach, strand 

<^LZ sataba u (satb) to cut into slices or 
strips (a 's.th.); to strike out, cross out, 
scratch out, write off (Jp or a s.th.); to 
erase, efface (Jp or a s.th., e.g., a word, 
a sentence); to cancel, release (J* or * 
a mortgage); to strike off the list (o s.o., 
a s.o.'s name); to drop, nonsuit (<jj£* 
dawd a case) II to make an incision, a 
longitudinal cut, a slit, a slash (j in s.th.); 
to strike out, cross out, scratch out, 
write off (Jp or a s.th.); to erase, efface 



( Jp or a s.th., e.g., a word, a sentence); 
to cancel, release, ( Jp or a a mortgage); 
to book, enter, post {* an item, an ac- 
count) ; to terminate, finish off (a s.th.) ; to 
refurbish (a a dwelling, etc.), give finish- 
ing touches (a to s.th.) 

<^ki satb cut, slash; incision, scratch; 
crossing out, striking out, writing off; 
erasure, effacement; annulment, can- 
cellation 

t-Ja-S satb pi. ^>J^ sutub tall, strap- 
ping, sturdy, husky 

V;It*o tastlb pi. -at termination ; finish- 
ing touches, final work (e.g., on a new 
construction, in refurbishing a dwelling) | 
<_~LilJl C*£ under construction, near 
completion, available shortly; i-Jtij 
^LJ-1 posting of an account (to the 
ledger); i^Ja-ijJI 4pL- curfew 

«Li sataha a (sath) to roam, rove, stray | 
JL^ j «ki (kayalihi) to make too wide 
a use of unbridled imagination (author) 

i>Ja^ satha pi. satahdt escapade | oUJai 
JU-I s. al-kaydl unbridled excesses of 
the imagination, extravagant fantasy 

JhJ^ mtara u (satr) to halve, divide into two 
(equal) parts, bisect, cut through (a 
s.th.); to cut off, sever (a s.th,); — 
•j^Li Jot (basaruhu) u (jjki- sutur) to be 
squint-eyed; — mtara u (j^ki sutur, 
\jjL^ sittura, Sjlki. satdra) to withdraw, 
separate, disassociate o.s. (^ from); — 
mtara u, satura u (Sjlki satdra) to be 
sly, running, artful, shrewd; to be 
eleve ', smart, bright, skillful, adroit II to 
halve, divide into two (equal) parts, 
to bisect, cut through (a s.th.) Ill to 
halve, share by halves, share equally 
(a « with s.o., s.th.), go halves (» with 
s.o.); to participate, take part (a in 
s.th.), share (a s.th.) | 4>-ji, **l/T a^U 
(dmahu, jarahahu) to share s.o.'s 



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views, s.o.'s joy; aj\j^\ a^U (ahzdnahfi) 
to share s.o.'s sorrow, offer s.o. one's 
condolences (J on the occasion of the 
death of s.o.) V to manifest slyness, 
cleverness, smartness, astuteness, skill 
VII to divide, split (a into, intr.) 

J*Z satr partition, division, separation, 
halving, bisecting; — (pi. j^ki sutur, 
J^\ ashir) a half, moiety; hemistich; 
portion, share, lot; direction; mtra in 
the direction of . . ., toward | *J*£» -UaS 
to move toward s.o M walk up to s.o.; 
»jki ajLUJl J j {walla anzarahu) to 
direct one's glances toward s.o.; Jj 
*JUl <^-j (wajhaku) to turn one's face 
toward s.th. 

*J*£- sitra side, half 

«;lki satdra slyness, cunningness, 
shrewdness, adroitness, skill, cleverness, 
smartness 

•j*Li satlra pi. J\l^ satair 2 sandwich; 
schnitzel, steak 

ZjfilL. musatara participation, sharing 

jlkijl insitdr fission, splitting, cleav- 
age, division, separation | ^jjl jUa-til 
(nawawl) nuclear fission (phys.) 

_^U sdtir pl.jlki suttdr sly, cunning, 
shrewd; scoundrel, villain; clever, smart, 
bright, adroit, skillful 

£jLi sitranj, satranj chess | £j*^\ <^-ji 
lauJiat as-s. chessboard 

Jiki htafa u (salf) to rinse (under flowing 
water), clean with water, wash (a s.th.) 

<Aki sulfa piece, chunk, lump; (pi. 
Jtki sutaf) flint (of a gunlock, eg.) 

liki sitfa splinter, chip, sliver 

l Jki mtana u (satn) to fasten, attach, tie, 
bind (y a s.th. with a rope) 



2 o\laJ^ and jkJiJ see Ji*J> (alphabetically) 



£ sazafa u (sazf) to castrate 

tjiki £asa/ pi. ijsliii iiza/ discomfort, 
hardship, difficulty; ruggedness of life | 
f Jiu&\ »_dki J* *Ufl (& il-'ais) to lead a life 
of hardships 

•Jtlii iazt/ hard, harsh, rough, rugged, 
austere (life, character) 

Jii saziya a (sazan) to be splintered, be 
shattered, splinter, shiver V do. 

*iL£ saziya pi. Jii <?«?%, LILS sazaya 
splinter, sliver, chip; shinbone; bone 



pJ- sa"a i (sa r \ 9-Ui si f (T) to disperse, 
scatter, diffuse, spread; to beam, radiate, 
flash up IV to emit, spread, diffuse (a 
s.th.); to eradiate {a s.th.); to emit 
rays or beams, radiate, beam V to emit 
rays or beams, radiate, beam, eradiate 

mj. su" rays, beams ; spokes 

f-U-2 sofa' distracted, confused, be- 
wildered, perplexed | (^~jj) »jjji jli* 
ULci his mind became confused, bewilder- 
ed or perplexed 

9[*J> siiff (coll.; n. un. I) pi. -at, IUil 
asi"a rays (phys.); beams; spokes; hori- 
zontal wooden crosspieces (on a door or 
window) | U S\ a*J>\ a. iks X-rays; UJI **il 
a. alfd alpha-rays; IL^JI JUi^l (slnlya) 
S rays; ^...i'JI Jj^i 3u£V1 (banafsajiya) 
ultra-violet rays; sl^.JJ <jjj a*^VI (hamra) 
and ^Vl c^ JJl luiVl infra-red rays; 
.iybJl oui! cathode rays; 4*JM ojj^> X-ray 
photograph, roentgenogram; 4*iVl *J^\* 
radioactivity; a^j\ _/lkl nazair al-a. 
isotopes (phys.) 

^Ui su r d e l radiation (in compounds) | 
^Ui »\jp- radiation belt; i^UJi «j>^» 
X-ray photograph, roentgenogram 



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pUSl *£'»' pi. -o* radiation, eradiation; 
irradiation 

^Uil is r a'l radiative, radiational | ji 
,jpUi1 .ULii (naSdt) radioactive 

**JLj ta$a tf iC radiation, eradiation | 
^jl^-l Mt£jJI (hardrl) radiation of heat; 
^.,,..,£.11 jJLlUI (jennri) solar radiation 

-JL. must" radiating, radiant; emit- 
ting rays, radiative; O radioactive 



o« 



> m'ttsi er a radiator 



*J> so/ aba a {m f b) to gather, assemble, 
rally ( * people, a s.th.); to disperse, 
scatter ( j> people, * s.th.) II to form 
branches, to branch; to branch (out), 
ramify, divide into branches or sub- 
divisions (* s.th.) V to branch (out), 
ramify; to be subdivided, form sub- 
divisions; to diverge, move in different 
directions, part company, separate, split, 
break up, become disunited, disorganiz- 
ed, disrupted; to branch off (j* from); 
to result (jp from) VII to branch out, 
ramify ; to branch off (road) VIII to branch 
out, ramify 

<_~*3 sa r b pi. <->j*£ suiib people, folk; 
nation; tribe, race 

^^ sa f bi national, people's; popular, 
folksy, folk- (in compounds) | ^^ wo! 
(adab) popular literature; < 77 »Jii\ < f X\ 
(jabha) popular front; ^L^i Lis-l^o peo- 
ple's democracy (in Marxist terminology) ; 
^^ JLo popular education 

i-^ safbiya popularity 

\3y£ hiCubl adherent of the l~ij*£, see 
below 

ij^wJI as-su r ubiya a movement within 
the early Islamic commonwealth of na- 
tions which refused to recognize the priv- 
ileged position of the Arabs 



<_-jJ: sVb pi. i_jUS si'db mountain 
path, mountain trail; gorge, ravine, 
canyon; gulf, abyss; reef 

L*£ si'ba reef 

\*J, suba pi. i_~*£ su'ab, wUi H'al 
branch, bough, limb, ramification; shoot, 
twig, sprig, spray; prong, tine; (sub-) 
division, section, department, branch, 
cell; field of study, discipline (e.g., at a 
university); part, portion; (pi. i_^ 
suab) bronchus (anat., = hyj X^) \ 
*Ujf IL*£ (Syr.) branch recruiting office 
(mil.); k^-xiJl wlpl bronchitis (med.) 

iS ^- suabl bronchial 

u...ȣ sa r ib disrupted, disorganized, 
disunited, scattered, dispersed 

oL*-i sa'ban 2 Shaban, name of the 
eighth month of the Mohammedan year 

u-»il as f ab 2 name of a legendary 
miser, hence, said of s.o. extremely 
niggardly: ^*J>\ ,y* ^S\ greedier than 
As r ab 

lS »5\ as'abl extremely miserly, avari- 
cious, or greedy ; (pi. -un) skinflint, miser, 
niggard | { ^Ji\ «*U (tea') insatiable greed 

^UL. mis'ab (saud.-ar.) rod, stick 

<_-*iJ tasa rt ub ramification, branching, 
branching off; disruption, split(ting), 
disunion 

«_jUijI insidb ramification, branching, 
branching off; disruption, split(ting), 
disunion 



musa"xb: 



r" 



Ull 



exhaust 



manifold (auto; teckn.) 



,_^il* mutasa rr ib ramified, branch- 
ing; manifold, diverse; many-sided, 
versatile (oUi-l «_-*il« m, al-janabat) 



,_*^jU munSa'ab road fork, furcation, 
branching (of a road) 



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S" 



£ sa'bada to practice jugglery, legerde- 
main, sleight of hand, or magic 

#JL*- ea'bada jugglery, legerdemain, 
sleight of hand, magic 

*& sa'ita a (sa'at) to be or become dishev- 
eled, unkempt, matted (hair) II to 
dishevel, ruffle (* the hair) V to become 
disheveled, ruffled (hair) ; to disintegrate, 
fall apart, decay (of buildings) 

.(ioJS scfat disorder | <&*i> I and am I / 
&J> see J lamma 

vt**^ scfti matted, disheveled, un- 
kempt (hair); having matted, unkempt 
hair 



iofcil as'af, f. *Li*Ji ia r tct % matted, 
disheveled, unkempt (hair); having 
matted, unkempt hair 

iy£ look up alphabetically 

j*Z m r ara u (jj*i ht f ur,j*J> si'r) to learn or 
understand intuitively (l-» s.th., ^1 that); 
to realize, notice («-* s.th., ^1 that); to 
perceive, feel, sense (u s.th., ^! that), be 
conscious, be aware (cj of s.th.); — {sir) 
to make or compose poetry, poetize, ver 
sify | ... j VI j*±j )■ (ilia bi-), j*JLi i 
• . . j V! {ilia wa-) and . . . j V' j*£ U, 
... j VI ^xi I* before he even realized 
it, there was all of a sudden . . .; then, all 
of a sudden, there was . . ., it happened 
that ... IV to make feel, let notice (* » 
or (_j s.o. s.th.); to notify, inform (<_-> or * a 
s.o. of or about) X to feel, sense, notice, 
perceive, realize (i_j, * s.th.), be conscious. 
be aware (a of); to be filled (a with a 
feeling) 

y£ sa r r, mar (coll.; n. un. a) pi. 
jy£ su'ur hair; bristles; fur, pelt; cracks, 
haircracks (e.g., in a vase) 



IjtJH j As ... V (qadra s.) not by a hair's 
breadth 

,jjkZ> sa'ri hairy, hirsute; hair (in com- 
pounds); capillary | \jȣ i-pj' (au'iya) 
capillary vessels (anat.) 

4jj*5 $a r riya pi. -at wire grille, wire 
netting, lattice work; O (without pi.) 
capillarity | iSLiJI \j>£ s« as-subbak 
(latticed) window shade, jalousie 

hj*Ji> si r rli/a (eg.),sariya (ir.) vermicelli; 
spaghetti 

ij\j*£ sa'rdnl hairy, hirsute, shaggy 

j»J> si'r poetry; versification; pi. jUil 
as'dr poems; poetic works | jj^~* j*£ 
prose poetry, free verse; <£j>J* C*J laita 
si r ri I wish I knew . . . ! would that I 
knew . . . ! 



»jK*i 



Stfra (n. un.) pi. sa'arat a hair | 



^jtJ* si'ri poetic(al) 

tSy^ sa'ra pi. t$jU£ samara scrub 
country 

iSyJ^ as-U f rd Sirius, Dog Star (astron.) 

jU-i si'ar pi. -dt f ajmJ>\ as'ira password, 
watchword; slogan; catchword, catch- 
phrase (pol.); motto, device; coat of 
arms; symbol; distinguishing mark; 
emblem, badge | tSJ^f J^ (tijari) trade 
mark; iljAll jUi s. ad-daula official stamp, 
state emblem; jU^ c^- (with foil, genit.) 
under the motto . . . 

jvJ* &a f ir (coll.) barley; (n. un. I) 
barleycorn j <£$>$ j^> (hi hi* I) pearl 
barley; l yX\ Ij^J* s. al-jafn sty (med.) 

O '*j*z sa'lra bead (of a gun sight, 
mil,; Syr.) 

»jv£ §a c ira pi. J\*£ so," air 2 religious 
ceremony, rite, cultic practice; pi. also: 
places of worship, cultic shrines 

IjjJ^ su'aira pi. -at little hair | *j>o ayi*^ 
(damawl ya) capillary vessel (anat.) 



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~<Ijv£ $a r iriya vermicelli 

jy£ su f ur knowledge, cognizance; 
consciousness, awareness ; perception, dis- 
cernment; perceptive faculty; sensation; 
sentiment; feeling; perceptiveness, sen- 
sitivity, sensibility; mood | <cl. jy£ j& J* 
{gain su r urin) without his being aware 
of it; jj*JtS\ jp u-jU to lose consciousness; 
jj*^5\ a*U unconscious, insensible; jj*£JI 
^j-jLJLj (nafs) self- consciousness ; jj*JiS\ 
olJULj do.; jj»Jl}\ £0 diqqat as-s. sensi- 
tivity, sensibility; iJjLiii j^*-Ul {muita* 
rak) community spirit, communality, 
solidarity; j^jwJI fJ# unfeeling, insen- 
sitive; jj*J-*^\ the unconscious {psych.) 

i$jj*£ su'uri conscious; emotional | 
i£jy£ V unconscious, subconscious 

tjjUZ sa'drd (pi.) goats 

j[aJ> sa"dr pi. -un, ^LJ. scCtfir 2 (ir.) 
male dancer who does female roles 

S>J*\ as'ar 2 hairy, hirsute, long-haired. 



jjj*£ Su*rHr poetaster, versifier, rhyme- 
ster 

j*i^ suwai'ir poetaster, versifier, 
rhymester 

j*JL* mas T ar pi. j^^t~* masa'ir 2 ritual 
site, esp. in and near Mecca, involved in 
the religious rites of the hadj ; sensory 
organ; pi. jtlL* senses, feelings, sensa 
tions; religious rites, customs, ceremo- 
nies | fl>J-i j*li\ {hartim} the hadj station 
of Muzdalifa east of Mecc.t 

jU-M is r ar pi. -at notification, infor- 
mation (^ of, about), notice 

jc\2> sa'ir knowing (by instinctive 
perception), endowed with deeper in- 
sight, with intuition; (pi. Aj*Z su f ara" 2 ) 
poet; (common designation for) popular 
storyteller, narrator 



ljc\£ sd'ira pi. -dt,jc\_£ &awa'ir 2 poetess 

(jj£-\J> sa r iri poetic(al) 

aj^U sd'iriya pi. -at poetic power or 
capacity; the realm of creative poetry; 
poetic character (of s.th.) 

js\ji sawd'ir 2 attacks, diatribes, invec- 
tives, calumnies, defamations 

jj*L* mas'iir split, cracked; mad, 
crazy, idiotic 

Jl^^-IL* mvA'arani hairy, hirsute, shaggy 

^t^t sa'sa'a to mix with water, dilute [a 
a beverage); to shine, beam, radiate, 
glitter 

nmsa'sa" half drunk, tipsy, 



fuddled 

Ji*-i sa'ata a to scorch, sear, singe 

\a*j^ sa'fa pi. iJjLJt M'df summit, top, peak 

JjJ: sa'ala a {sa'l), II and IV to light, kindle, 
ignite, inflame, set on fire (a s.th.), set 
fire (a to s.th.); to set ablaze, fan {a 
s.th.) VIII to catch fire, start burning, 
ignite, burn, flame, blaze, flare up, 
break out (fire) | L*ic JaX-M {gadaban) 
to be flaming with rage; Lxi *J\j Jjcil 
{saiban) his hair was, or turned, white 

iLci su'la pi. J*-i su'al fire, blaze, 
flame; torch 

JaJL. mas'al, aLJL. mas r ala pi. Jtll* 
masd r il 2 torch | O V***^ J^^~* {samslya) 
solar flares {astron.); (JeS) ^ Ja-L. m. 
qass (qaf) cutting torch 

JUJL* mi$ r al torch 

Jpt-L. masWili pi. iLLLL. masaillya 
torch bearer; hangman, executioner 

jU-il isal lighting, kindling, ignition, 
sotting on fire, fanning 



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jUitl istial ignition, inflammation, 
combustion, burning | jUiiVI J^ \jXil\ 
inflammability, flammability 

Jci* muMa'il burning, ablaze, on fire 

'**£ sa'nina pi. ^ijUi saanin 2 palm branch j 
(joLiJI (jup) Jb-1 ahad ('id) as-s. Palm 
Sunday (Chr.) 



gam, <->j*- harb, <U> hamla, and the like) 
large-scale, devastating everything (over 
a wide area), ruthless 

i^vi m'wada to practice jugglery, leger- 
demain, sleight of hand, or magic arts 

oj*£ sa'wada pi. -a/ jugglery, leger- 
demain, sleight of hand; magic, magic 
arts; humbug, swindle, tricks 

SjjJL. musa'wid juggler, conjurer, ma- 
gician, practitioner of legerdemain; 
swindler, trickster (f. o^a-L.) 

t-^i sagaba, sagiba a [sagb t sagab) to disturb 
the peace, make trouble, stir up riots, 
cause an uproar, riot; to provoke dis- 
cord, dissension, or controversy (among 
y, J*, t>) HI to make trouble, disturb 
the peace; to rebel <Jp against), 
mutiny 

u**J sagab, &agb unrest, trouble, dis- 
turbance, discord, dissension; riot (jur.); 
commotion, uproar, strife, tumult; brawl, 
fight, broil, fracas; row, wrangle, con- 
tention, quarrel, controversy 

yUi saggdb troublemaker, agitator, 
suh verier 

yjii sagab causing much noise and 
unrest, riotous, turbulent, troublous 

<-±\La mamgib- troubles, disorders, 
disturbances 

ILpli* musagaba pi. -at disorder, 



disturbance, trouble, riot, uproar; re- 
bellion (Jp against); agitation {pol.); dis- 
cord, dissension, row, wrangle, quarrel, 
controversy 

«_^lJL» mumgib pi. -tin troublemaker, 
agitator, subverter, rioter, mischief- 
maker 

i mgara u [j_y^ sugar) to be devoid of 
fortifications, be unprotected (country); 
to be free, vacant, unoccupied, open 
(seat, position) 

jjkZ sugur vacancy (of a position) 

^pli sagir empty and unprotected 
(of a country) ; free, vacant, unoccupied, 



open (seat, 
vacancies 



position) ; y\j^ sawagir 



k£ sagafa a {sagf) (to hit, or affect, the 
pericardium, i.e.) to infatuate, enamor, 
fill with ardent passion (a s. o.); pass. 
(L*-) *j lJi*.S sugifa bihl (hubban) to love 
s.o. or s.th. passionately, be madly in 
love with s.o., be infatuated with or 
enamored of s.o., be extremely fond 
of s.th. VII 4i Jaiiil = sugifa bihl 

*Jti-£ sagaf pericardium; passionate 
love, passion, sensual desire; infatuation, 
enamoredness, amorousness; ardent zeal, 
craze, love, passion 

jiJ- sagafi (mor.) interesting 

^Jii-i sagif madly in love, infatuated 
(v-* with), enamored (o> of), fascinated 
(-by) 

(JsUui sagdj pericardium 

<_jiyJ* saguf obsessed with fervent 
affection (^ for); madly in love, infat- 
uated («_-» with), enamored (i_-» of) 

Js^iJL. masguf passionately fond (^ 
of), madly in love, infatuated (^ with), 
enamored (^ of), fascinated (l-> by) 



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Jii sa^afa a {fagl, mgl) to occupy, busy 
(^ * s.o. with); to preoccupy (o s.o.), 
keep (« s.o.) busy, give (» s.o.) trouble; 
to distract, divert, alienate (jt o s.o. 
from); to fill (a a vacancy); to occupy, 
hold, have (a office, seat, position); to 
take up (a an area, space, rooms, etc.); to 
engage, engross (a the attention); to en- 
gage, tie down (a forces of the opponent); 
— pass. Sugila to occupy o.s., busy o.s., be 
busy (lj with), be engaged in; to be taken 
up, occupied (<~> by, e.g., ground by build- 
ings) ; je *j Ji-t to be distracted by s.th. 
from j *_> *uj!j Ji-i to occupy o.s., 
busy o.s. with, work at, attend to; 
JUI Jii to disquiet, discomfit, make 
uneasy, trouble, disturb; J <lSJ\ Jii 
{waqt) to devote tini3 to II to busy, 
occupy (is.o.), engage, engross (a s.th.); 
to employ (» s.o.), provide employment 
(* for s.o.); to put (a s.o.) to work, make 
(a a machine) work, put in operation, 
make run, start (a a machine); to keep 
in operation, service (a a machine, tech- 
nological equipment); to run, operate, 
maintain (a s.th., e.g., a public utility); 
to invest (a money) III to hold in play. 
keep occupied, divert (« s.o.); to, distract 
(* s.o.) IV to occupy, busy, employ (• 
s.o.); to occupy, hold, fill, have (a an 
office, a position) ; to fill, take up (a s.th.). 
engage, engross (a the attention); to 
cover {t-> a a space with a building or 
buildings), occupy, take up, fill {cj a a 
space with); to take, take up, require 
(a time); to engage, tie down {a forces of 
the opponent); to distract, divert, alien- 
ate, entice away (^ » s.o. from) | Ji-t! 
JLJI to disquiet, discomfit, make uneasy, 
trouble, disturb, preoccupy VI to occupy 
o.s., busy o.s., be occupied or busy, be 
preoccupied (<_j with), be engaged («-j in), 
attend, devote o.s. («-> to s.th.) ; to pretend 
to be busy VII to occupy o.s., busy o.s., 
be occupied or busy, be preoccupied (^ 



with) ; to be concerned (<-> about) VIII to 
busy o.s., occupy o.s., be occupied or 
busy (v or j with), be engaged (<_> or j 
in), attend, devote o.s. (^ or j to s.th.); 
to work; to study ( Jp under or with); to 
work, run, operate, be in operation, be 
in motion (machine, and the like) | Jj^il 
<Ji (qalbuhv) to be uneasy, apprehensive, 
worried; j* <u Jiiil to be distracted by 
s.th. from 

JjU Sagl occupancy, filling, taking up | 
jji Jjci s. daur casting of a role (theat.); 
,_^»L* Jii, (JuUSj Jii filling of vacan- 
cies or posts 

JjJi Sugl occupancy, filling, taking 
up; detention, prevention, distraction 
(^ from); — (pi. jUil asgdl, Jyi 
sugul) occupation, activity; work, job; 
business, concern | JpU Jii that which 
is uppermost in one's mind, chief or 
foremost concern; s.th. which preoc- 
cupies s.o.'s mind or distracts s.o. (^ 
from); «li Jliil (sdqqa) hard labor; 
i.U JUil { f amma) or <^j^ J^' ['umu* 
mlya) public works; (£j-*j J*^ [yadawi) 
handwork; manual labor; -b Jii 5. yad 
(colloq., used appositionally) handmade; 
JliiVi lj\jj wizarat al-a. ministry of la- 
bor; Jii j preoccupied (j* with), con- 
cerned (<>» about); u-* J*i J busy, oc- 
cupied with; j& Jxi j OlT to be too 
busy or preoccupied (<_j with) to be able 
to attend to s.th.; diUi rjil ibw hujlaka 
mind your own business ! 

JUi saggal very busy; hard-working, 
industrious, diligent, laborious, active; 
being in operation, running (of a machine) ; 
(pi. -un) worker, workman, laborer 

^JUi saggdla pi. -af worker (fem.); {eg.) 
servant girl, maid 

i yj- saggll pi. I (syr.) worker, workman, 
laborer, (lowly) employee; working (in 



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compounds) | SJLiiJl iiiJI (tabaqa) the 
working class 

J^ili sa^itf mainsheet (of a sailing 
vessel) 

JAJL. masgal pi. JpL^. masdgiP work- 
shop; workhouse 

iki, Tnasgala pi. J^L^» masdgil* occu- 
pation; concern; s.th. preoccupying ^.o., 
preoccupation; absorption (of s.o., by 
concerns, affairs), diversion (by other 
duties or activities) ; pi. worries 

Jj^j toiptZ employment (of a worker); 
providing of employment, provision of 
work; hiring {of s.o., as a worker); 
opening, starting, putting into operation ; 
operation, servicing (of a machine, of 
technological equipment); maintenance 
(e.g., of public utilities); investment (of 
money) | J-JLtlJl £j\js\ adawdt at-t. opera- 
ting equipment, accessories 

J-A-iJ tasgili operation (in compounds) | 
aJUwj .JoJLS^ operation costs, operating 
costs 

JUiil insigal (state of) being bussy or 
occupied; occupation, activity; over- 
charge, overwork; apprehension, concern, 
anxiety 

JU^I istigdl (state of) being busy or 
occupied; work, occupation (^» or j 
with, at); syntactical regimen, govern- 
ment (of a word by another; gram,} 

Jfcli sagil pi. J^jp sawagil 2 that 
which preoccupies s.o., engrosses s.o.'s 
attention, takes up s.o.'s time; occu- 
pation, activity; object of concern or 
worry; pi. J^j>^ distractions, preoccupa- 
tions | j Ait ^Li JL^-j he found distrac- 
tion from it in . . .; jp J^U <JcJl j y> 
(alfi sagilin) he had a thousand other 
things to think of than..,; Jil-i jS\ 05 
4 (akbara sagilin) it was his greatest 
worry 



i}jkL» masgul busy, occupied (<^ 
with); distracted, diverted (jt from); 
occupied, taken (seat, space); busy, 
occupied {telephone line, and the like); 
worked on, processed | JL1I J^JL. anx- 
ious, apprehensive, concerned, worried; 
A^JJiilj 4^-iJl oY^Ui (dahabiya, jiddiya) 
gold and silver work; *jj-^ C^^ji^ (yoda* 
wlya) needlework, fancy work; OjkL* 
w^aJiJlj (qasab) embroidered or trimmed 
with brocade 

*Jj*l£* masguliya preoccupation (of 
s.o., by a task), engrossment; anxiety, 
apprehension, concern 

JiJL. musaggal employee, worker 



mustagil busy, occupied (»_-» or 
j with); in operation, running (of a 
machine) 

aJ> safa pi. eULi sifdh, Cj\jmJ> safawdt lip; 
rim, edge | UUJ1 iiiJl (ulyd) upper lip, 
JiJI iitJl (mfld) lower lip; ^Jj^l iii 
£, al-arnab harelip; <jL5 <rJu 6mt <s. word 

j>lii, UUi, [4^-ii and A^iLiL. see 4ii 

(^^i-i see _^Ai 

»JuLli safa' if, iJulLi sajdyif (eg.) lips 



i^ sajgfa i {J*>^ #»/■«/, eJ-J-i &/£/, 
*»/«/) to be thin, flimsy; to be transpar- 
ent, diaphanous, translucid, pellucid; 
to let (je s.th.) shimmer through, 
reveal, disclose, betray (j^ s.th.) VIII to 
drink up, drain, empty (a s.th.); to 
eat up, devour (a s.th.) X to look (a 
through s.th., e.g., through a piece of 
fabric in order to ascertain its quality); 
to have a glimpse (a of s.th.), hope (a 
for s.th.); to try to see (a through s.th.), 
seek to penetrate (a s.th.); to perceive, 
discern, make out (a s.th.); to shimmer 
(j* through s.th.), show (j* through 



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s.th.); to manifest itself, become tangible, 
perceptible, noticeable 

>JaJ> sajf, sijf pi. Js^ii sufuf diaphanous 
fabric, gauze 

ijuli safaf transparency, translucence, 
diaphaneity 

t-i-i-i saf if thin, flimsy, translucent, 
transparent, diaphanous 

*_iji- sm/w/ transparency, translucence, 
diaphaneity 

iiLii sufafa the rest in the glass 

oU-i saffdf thin, flimsy, translucent, 
transparent, diaphanous 

4JU3 Saffafiya transparency, trans- 
lucence, diaphaneity 

C-Jti &/* pi. o^jli sw/wi (egr., < C-i>-) see c-i*- 

jU-i saftara to pout, sulk 
Sj^iii saftura thick lip 



^jLt la/r pi. jUil a^f/ar palpebral margin from 
which the eyelashes grow, (outer) edge 
of the eyelid; edge, rim, border, fringe 

j}& sufr pi. jLLSi as far palpebral 
margin from which the eyelashes grow, 
(outer) edge of the eyelid; edge, rim, 
border, fringe; — labium {anaL) 

ljj& safra pi. safardt, jUi sifdr large 
knife; blade (of a sword, of a knife); 
razor blade; (pi. jbli) brink, edge, verge j 
4jjU»1 *ja£ J*, on the brink of the abyss 

jJLZ> safir palpebral margin from which 
the eyelashes grow; (outer) edge of the 
eyelids; edge, rim, border, fringe 



jaL* misfar pi. ytL. ma§dfir 2 flew, 
chap; trunk, snout, proboscis 

2 jjJ> (Ft. chiffre) cipher, code 

^yLi lifrl ciphered, coded, in code 

•^i-i (It. cifra) Hfra, (eg.) Safra cipher, 
code I Zji£}\j iJUj encoded message; J»- 
S^iiJl hall as-s. decipherment, decoding 

i_A±xi safsafa to dry, dry out, parch, drain 
(a s.th.) 

safsaq (eg.) carafe, jug 



Jaii safata u (sajt) to suck, suck up, absorb 
(a a liquid) ; to draw off or out, drain (a 
water with a pump, or the like); to slurp, 
sip (a a liquid) 

iUUi saffata pi. -at siphon | O it.Ui 
jljJI I. al-gubdr vacuum cleaner 

£*£ safa'a a (saf r ) to double (a s.th.); to 
attach, add, subjoin (u-» a to s.th. s.th.), 
enclose (^ a in s.th. s.th.); to give the 
(right of) pre-emption (u to s.o. on 
s.th.), grant (« s.o.) the first refusal (u> 
of s.th.); — (4frlt- Safa'a) to mediate, 
use one's good offices, put in a good 
word, intercede, intervene, plead (J or j 
for or on behalf of s.o., Jl with s.o. else) 
V to mediate, use one's good offices, 
put in a good word, intercede, inter- 
vene, plead ( Jl J or J for or on behalf 
of s.o. with s.o. else) 

£«-- saf pi. f-Uil asfd% f-LLS si/a"" 
either part of a pair; even number 

£*- 5<z/ f diplopia, double vision of a 
single object 

^X^ saf I even (of a number) 

i*jli sufa (right of) pre-emption 

^ji-i &t/r pi. *UuLi &ufa*a' z mediator, 
intercessor, advocate; patron saint (Chr.); 



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J*" 



holder of the right of pre-emption, pre- 
emptor 

4pUi safaa mediation, intercession, 
advocacy 

*iLi stifi* mediator, intercessor, ad- 
vocate; holder of the right of pre- 
emption, pre -emptor 

^Lill as-safii founder of one of 
the four orthodox Islamic schools of 
law; ^U Shaflitic; (pi, -un, *i\j£> saved- 
/r 2 ) adherent of the Shafiitic school, 
Shafiite 

ILoLiJI aS'Safiiya the Shafiitic school 
of law 

fj3&* masfu" accompanied (<_-> by), 
attended, combined (»_> with) 

Jil IV to pity, commiserate (Jp s.o.), feel 
pity {Jp for), sympathize (Jp with); 
to be concerned (jl that, Jp about) 
worry (ul that, Jp about), fear (d\ that, 
jp for, ^ s.o., s.th.), be apprehensive, 
feel anxiety {Jp about, ,y as a result 
of); to shun, shirk (^ s.th.), beware 
(,> of), be on one's guard (j- against) 

Ji- sa/a^ evening glow, twilight, 
dusk J iij^-J <3^' (janiibi) aurora 
australis; JL-i!l JjLSJI (samdli) aurora 
borealis; JaxJl jiiJ! (qutbi) polar 
light; 44J Yt Ji^ Twilight of the 
Gods 

*iii safaqa compassion, commisera- 
tion, pity, sympathy, kind(li)ness, tender- 
ness, affectionateness, solicitude, loving 
care | Uiill fJ* pitiless, merciless 

jjii sa/wg compassionate, sympathet- 
ic, affectionate, tender, solicitous, kind(ly) 

&J& saflq compassionate, sympathet- 
ic, affectionate, tender, solicitous, kind(ly) 

jUil isfdq compassion, pity, sym- 
pathy; tenderness, affectionateness; care, 



solicitude; concern, worry, anxiety, ap- 
prehension 

jjj Li Safin proud 

<ii III to speak (mouth to mouth) {» to 
s.o.) 

Sjli pi. ftLLi, o[ji-i see 2 ._Ai 

^ii Safahl lip-, labio- (in compounds), 
labial; oral; t5 f*iJl the orals (— oral 
examination); L$iJi safahiyan orally | 
S-fi-iJI t-jjji-l the labials 6, /, m, w> 
(phon.) 

ULii sifdhan orally 

^*liS sifahi oral; ^U-iJI the orals 
( = oral examination); L*Ui sijahlyan 
orally 

44JU* nmSdfaha speech (in contrast 
with written language); musdjahatan 
orally 

jii IV to be very close {Jp to s.th.), be 
on the verge, on the brink of s.th. ( Jp) | 
^Lll 5iU- Jp 4j Jil {kdffat al-ya's) he 
brought him to the brink of despair 

Ui ia/an pi. »Ui! ocs/a* edge, rim, 
border, brink, verge | <pl^ iJLi Jp (s. 
majd'a) on the verge of a famine 

(j^Li sajawi lip-, labio- (in compounds), 
labial; oral; U>ii safawiyan orally | 
SjjjLU! i-j^l the labials 6, /, m, w 
(pAon.); O J^l cO*-" 1 (asramt) labio- 
dental {phon.) 



ynusfin moribund, doomed to 



death 



J-i sajd i (*ULi ^i/o') to cure (j- o s.o. of 
a disease), heal (,y » s.o. of a disease, 
a a wound), make (• s.o.) well, restore 
{» s.o.) to health; — pass, sufiya to be 
healed, be cured, be restored to health, 
recover, convalesce, recuperate; to 



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560 



heal, heal up (wound) | (*Up) 4iU JA 
(gullatahu) to quench one's thirst, gratify 
one's desire, satisfy one's thirst for re- 
venge; ,y ak^p Jji (gaizahu) to vent 
one's anger on s.o., take it out on 
s.o. V and VIII to be cured, be healed, 
be restored to health (*^ by); to take 
revenge, avenge o.s,, satisfy one's 
thirst for revenge, vent one's anger, take 
it out (^ on) X to seek a cure 

* Ui Sifa cure, healing , restoration , 
recovery, recuperation, convalescence; 
satisfaction, gratification; (pi. <J£\ aSfiya, 
(J>U1 asdfin) remedy, medicament, medi- 
cation, medicine | »U-£J! JjUJ curable 

jlii Ufa 9 1 healing, curative, medi- 
cative 

J-t* mas fan pi. iJslJL* maSafin hospital 

.Jt£j taSaffin gratification of one's 
thirst for revenge, satisfaction 

fLLiJL-1 istiSfd' seeking of a cure; 
cure, (course of) treatment 

ijU Safin healing, curative, medi- 
cative, salutory; satisfactory, clear, un- 
equivocal (of an answer) 

jil~A mustaSfan pi. oUa.*.1.,.. mustaS* 
fayat hospital; field hospital; sanitorium | 
<-*jil^l JJUu«t insane asylum, mental 
hospital; J-tl— jlL* hospital train 



i iag-tja w (Saqq) to split, cleave, part, tear, 
rend, rip (a s.th,); to break (a s.th.); 
to plow, till, break up (a the ground); 
to furrow, traverse, cross (a s.th.); to 
pass, go, travel (a through a region); to 
cut through (a a town; of a street); to 
break (dawn); — (3y& jhtquq) to break 
forth, shoot up, sprout (plant), break 
through, erupt (tooth); — (Saqq, ili* 
maSaqqa) to be heavy, oppressive, burden- 
some, unbearable (J* for s.o.); to grieve, 
trouble (J* s.o,); to molest, harass, 



inconvenience (J* s.o.), be troublesome, 
cumbersome (Je for s.o.); to visit (Jp 
s.o.), call (Jp upon s.o.) | l^^- cJLi 
(jaibdha) to tear the front of the garment 
as a sign of mourning (woman) ; *>Ly- jp 
to cut, or open, a way for o.s. ; oj>Lj\ ^ 
to break the silence; (Uj^) Ujli jp to 
build a street (a road) ; <uj Jx> jJS to force 
one's way, plow ahead; 1jjA>- Uj^L jp 
to open up, or enter upon, a new path 
(fig.); U*ll j^ ('a?a) to part from the 
community, break with the community; 
apUJI U«p ji ( r asd t-td r a) to rebel, 
revolt, renounce allegiance; ajjA\ Lop jp 
('asd l-qaum) to sow discord among 
people; *jli jJi L. (gubdrahu) he never 
quite attained his (another's) eminence, 
he did not measure up to him; ajLi jpj V 
(yusaqqu gubdruhu) or j\J~ a} jjij V (y« s 
saqqu) he is unsurpassable, he is un- 
equaled; unsurpassable, unequaled, un- 
rivaled, peerless, incomparable; Jp jA 
4J l}dl to burden the budget II to split 
(a s.th.); to tear open, rip open, slit open 
(a s.th.) V to be split, be cleft; to split, 
crack, burst; to be cracked VII to be 
split, be cleft; to split, crack, burst; to 
open up, burst open (jp bringing s.th. 
forth or allowing s.th. to appear); to 
split off, separate, segregate, secede, 
break away, withdraw (jp from), break 
(jp with), renounce (jp s.th.); to become 
a schismatic (Chr.); to break (dawn) | 
^Uop cJLiJl ('asdhum) they fell out 
(with one another); ajj'j-* C^Jtil (mara* 
ratuhu) he exploded (with anger), he 
blew his top VIII to derive ( j* a a word 
from) 

Jp Saqq pi. 3j*J> Sttquq narrow opening, 
crack; fissure, split; slit; gap; tear, rip; 
— fission, splitting, cracking, cleavage | 
SjAJI ji 8. ad-darra atomic fission (phys.) 

Ji Siqq a half; one side or one part (of 
two); double, doppelgaenger, exact image 
(of s.o.); sex (= one of the two sexes) | 



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*J*JLl£ 



UyUil jp $. al-mu e drada the side of the 
opposition {pol.); ^^JtiVl J-ij V ... V 
(iWa bi-siqqi l-anfus), Lr J^i\ J-£j only with 
great effort, with great difficulty, barely 

4jL£ so^^a pi. Jii suqaq (eg.), -at (sijr.), 
Hqqa pi. &ga£ («r.) apartment, flat; com- 
partment | ili*=H ili owner- occupied 
apartment, condominium 

ill Hqqa pi. jii siqaq, JLiLi si^a^ 
a half, moiety; piece; piece of land, 
limited area, zone; splinter; trouble, toil, 
labor, difficulty, hardship; difficult jour- 
ney; destination of a journey; distance; 
rift, gap, split 

4ii Hqqa, Suqqa pi. Jii suqaq an oblong 
piece of cloth (women's wrap) 

Ui suqqa pi. jJLi £wg , ag' trouble, toil, 
labor, difficulty, hardship; difficult jour- 
ney; destination of a journey; distance | 
iiJjl 1* bu'd a$-§uqqa (and as-siqqa) 
large or wide distance; gap, difference; 
&±JI JL*u 6. as-htqqa (and as-siqqa) far 
away, distant, remote; different 

jJLi so^ig a half, moiety; (pi. &±l 
aHqqa, #Liil a&gg'a' 2 ) full brother, brother 
on the paternal and maternal side; 
(attrib.) brother-, sister-; — anemone 
{bot.; n. un. I, pi. jJUU saqaiq 2 )> see also 
iijii | J^iiJi ^f^' (<7^ r ) the brother 
country; l&JLtJI JjjJl (duwal) the sister 
states (esp. with reference to Arab coun- 
tries); OUJLi £)LJs (■sa'&an) two sister 
nations 



saqlqa pi. -at, jJUi saqaiq 2 
full sister, sister on the paternal and 
maternal side; hemicrania, migraine | 

ol(*JI jJlii s. a7i-7iti r 7nan red anemones 
(6o£.); aj^ jJULi (bahriya) sea anem- 
ones (200?.); J^aJI SJLIiJI the sister- 
country Iraq 

jAl aSaqq 2 more troublesome, more 
tiresome, more difficult, harder 



UJL. masaqqa pi. -d(, JUL* masdqq 2 
trouble, toil, labor, difficulty, hardship | 
j^j SJLi* j (tva~jahdin) only with the 
greatest effort and difficulty 

J Hi Hqaq disunity, dissension, dis- 
cord 
jiij taSaqquq pi. -at fissure; cleavage 

JjLULJl insiqdq separation, segregation ; 
splitting off (of political groups) ; splitting 
up, cleavage (e.g., of a party); dissocia- 
tion; schism (Chr.); dissension, discord, 
disunion 

jLHUl insiqaqi splitting (in compounds) ; 
schismatic (Chr.); (pi. ~un) s.o. who 
separates or isolates himself from a com- 
mon cause; adherent of a renegade 
political group 

JSUhii istiqdq derivation (of a word from 
an old Arabic root); neologism based on 
an old Arabic root or on the consonants 
of a western word; etymology (of a word) 

jUbil iStiqdqi formed or derived from 
an old Arabic root (new word) ; based on 
the principle of root derivation (language) 

JU $aqq troublesome, toilsome, weari- 
some, cumbersome, tiresome, tedious, 
fatiguing, arduous, onerous, difficult, 
hard | iili jUil hard labor, «li Jliil 
Hi}* (miiabbada) life imprisonment at 
hard labor 

JjUL. maSquq parted, separated; clo- 
ven; open in front (garment) 

JjiL* muSaqqaq cracked; chapped (lips) 

JLl* rnuSdqq schismatic (Chr.) 

Jii* mustaqq pi. -at derivative (gram., 
chem.) 

£»ii IV to send far away, remove to a 
distant place (• s.o.) 

J»-Lii Suqiuf pi. JiiUS Saq&gif* a kind of 
sedan 



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562 



Jj& saqira a (Saqar) and saqura u (S^ii 
Suqra) to be of fair complexion, be 
light-skinned; to be blond, fair-haired 

.jj& saqar fair-coniplexionedness; blond- 
ness 

iJkZ suqra fair- complexionedness ; blond- 
ness; redness 

j2J>\ a§qar 2 , f. »l^Si saqra' 2 , pi. ^^JLi $ugr 
fair-complexioned, light- skinned; blond, 
fair-haired; reddish 

3J& saqraqa to be gay, cheerful, be ex- 
hilarated, amuse o.s. 

jAii $aq$aqa to twitter, peep, chirp; to 
babble (<_> s.th.); to peep, break (dawn) | 
j* u-j«U4j 0Zj£ to chat, chatter about 
s.th. 



saq§aqa pi. -at twitter (ing), 
peep(ing), chirp(ing); (silly) prattle; pi. 
jilii saqasiq 2 rigmarole, rambling talk | 
jUUi 4.oJljL* (silly) prattle; jl$JI ZlllS 
& an-nahdr daybreak, peep of dawn 

jJiU-i saqdsiq 2 faucal 



<« *■*,.* MqMqa pi. 
bag of the camel 



*Jla^ saqaf (coll.; n. un. S) (pot)sherds 
«lii suqdja (pot) sherds 

l J»Li Saqil shekel 

2 JyU satfiiZ plumbline, plummet 

^_JJLi saqlaba to turn things upside down, 
upset things II tasaqlaba to be upset, be 
toppled; to turn a somersault 

lAlZ saqlaba pi. -at somersault 

( jJLi and J^) lii sa^a tt (>i-i saqw) to make 
(a s.o.) unhappy, miserable, wretched, 
distress (« s.o.); — Jjl£ saqiya a (»U,i 
saqa\ SjlJLi saqatva, ZyJ. saqwa) to be 



unhappy, miserable, wretched, distressed; 
to have trouble («_» with, in s.th.) IV to 
make (« s.o.) unhappy, miserable, wretch- 
ed, distress (• s.o.) 

•Hi saqa 1 and Lei saqan misfortune, 
distress, misery, wretchedness, pain, 
suffering; hardship, trouble, toil, drudgery 

Ji saqiy pi. »Liil asqiya 2 unhappy, 
unlucky, miserable, wretched, distressed; 
damned ; wretch, villain, culprit, criminal, 
scoundrel, rogue; nasty, naughty, mis- 
chievous 

S^il saqwa misfortune, distress, misery 

<J_jUL£ §aqdwa misfortune, distress, 
misery; mischief, nastiness, naughtiness 

J i£JU sakka u (sakk) to pierce, transfix (« 
s.o. <-» with); to impale, spit (^ a s.th. 
on); to prick, stab (* s.th.); to doubt 
(u or js.o., s.th.); to distrust, suspect, 
question (^ or j s.o., s.th.), entertain 
doubts, have misgivings (u or j about 
s.o., about s.th.); to be skeptical II to 
make (» s.o.) doubt (j s.th.), fill (, 
s.o.) with doubt, misgivings, skepticism, 
suspicion (J about); to awaken doubts, 
evoke skepticism V to doubt (<_j or j 
s.o., s.th.), have doubts (lj or j about); 
to be skeptical, have misgivings 

di$ sakk pi. 6jsJ> sukuk doubt, 
uncertainty, suspicion, misgiving | ^ 
db {bi-la), dii V (iaiifca), viU Vj iva-la 
sakka, tiii jp ^ min dwn* 6'. without 
doubt, doubtless, undoubtedly, indubi- 
tably, certainly, positively; Jl J^ V 
<ui iflUi (sa&i&z) doubtless, indubitable, 
beyond any doubt; *ilsJI <tJl J^Utj. ^ 
(yatatarraqu, sakku) do. 

iSCi £aH*a stab, thrust, jab (with the 
point of a weapon); prick | ^-^jj aO I 
dabbus pinprick 



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JO 



dL&£ ta£kik pi. at awakening of 
doubt; skeptical remarks 

dl&iJ tasakkuk doubt; skepticism 

iiU mkk doubting, in doubt, skep- 
tical; pi. iilSjJI aS-Sukkdk O the skeptics 
(philos.) | £>UI ilU or j-"^Jl j iJU 
armed to the teeth, bristling with arms 

<uj iij5JL. maskuk flhi doubtful, 
dubious, uncertain; ^*l j £}jSJL. (amr&i) 
suspect(ed) 

! dl£.i Sakkaha {eg.) to sell on credit; to buy 
on credit; to borrow 

<fj£Li §ukuk (eg.) on credit 

3 c£ii (Fr, cheque) pi. CjISv-S check 

1 7 £i sakara u (sukr, uj^Svi swJbvzn) to thank 
(J or » s.o., J* or J or a for s.th.), be 
thankful, grateful (J or » to s.o., J* or 
J or a for s.th.); to praise, laud, extol 
(J or « s.o.) | tJ&jZLti [yuskaru) worthy 
of thanks, deserving acknowledgment, 
meritorious, praiseworthy; *L?^ aJ j±J, 
(jamilahu) to thank s.o. for his favor V to 
thank (a J s.o. for s.th.), be thankful, 
grateful (a J to s.o. for s.th.) 

JsJ> sukr pi. jjSCi sukur thankfulness, 
gratefulness, gratitude; thanks, acknowl- 
edgment; praise, laudation | ^iD \j& 
sukran laka I thank you! thanks! 
% m J>- ^S^ <>j&> to express many thanks 
to s.o. 

iSjyJ- sukrl of thanks, thanking 

ul^O sukran thankfulness, grate- 
fulness, gratitude; thanks, acknowl- 
edgment; praise, laudation 

j^J> sakur very thankful 

Jit3 tasakkur pi. -at expression of grat- 
itude, thanks, acknowledgment 

^TUi sdkir thankful, grateful 



jj£.£j> ma$kur worthy of thanks, 
deserving acknowledgment, meritorious, 
praiseworthy; receiving thanks, certain 
of thanks 

%\5lz Ukara pi. -at, J\£J> SakaHr 2 (eg.) sack, 
gunny sack 

3 jt^5^i look up alphabetically 

*u| / SLi look up alphabetically 

ijSJ- §akusa u (i-lO sakdsa) and sakisa a 
(sakas) to be malicious, spiteful, queru- 
lous, quarrelsome, peevish, petulant, ill- 
tempered, morose, surly, sullen, sulky, 
grumpy, unfriendly III to pick a quarrel, 
to quarrel (* with s.o.); to conduct one- 
self badly, ill-naturedly, intractibly (a to- 
ward s.o.) VI to quarrel (with one an- 
other), be querulous, quarrelsome, petu- 
lant; to be incongruous 

^jSj- sakis pi. ^SJ- suks malicious, 
spiteful, querulous, quarrelsome, peevish, 
petulant, ill-tempered, morose, surly, 
sullen, sulky, grumpy, unfriendly 

i-lSw Sakdsa malice, spite, queru- 
lousness, peevishness, petulance, ill- 
temperedness, moroseness, surliness, 
sullenness, sulkiness, grumpiness, un- 
friendliness ; rudeness 

4 ... $~l m, . mumkasa pi. -at quarrel, 
controversy, dispute, wrangle; plot, 
conspiracy; moroseness, surliness, grum- 
piness; petulance, nagging, querulous - 



^^LiJ tajtakus incongruity, absurdity 
lJr SlL* musdkis quarrelsome 

J>j?\£ and J>J& see ^j^Li alphabetically 

JO sakala u (§akl) to hobble (jK-£jb a 
an animal with the Uhal, q.v.); to 



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vowel, point, provide with vowel points 
(a a text); to be dubious, ambiguous, 
equivocal, vague, obscure, intricate, 
difficult II = I; to shape, fashion, form, 
create, mold, organize, build up (a s.th.); 
to diversify, vary, variegate (a s.th.), 
bring variety (a into s.th.) Ill to be 
similar (a, « to s.o., to s.th.), re- 
semble (a, a s.o., s.th.), be like s.o. or 
s.th. (a, o) IV to be dubious, ambiguous, 
equivocal, vague, obscure, intricate, 
difficult (J* for s.o.) V to be formed, 
fashioned, shaped, molded, created, or- 
ganized, built up, take form, take 
shape; to be variegated, shaded, graded, 
form various gradations; to materialize, 
appear in visible form (J to s.o.) | 
<dOj JOJ (bi-mklihi) to take on the 
shape of s.o., assume the form of s.th. 
X to regard as dubious (a s.th.); £= IV 

JO §akl pi. JlOl askdl, l^O jiukfd 
similarity, resemblance, likeness; outward 
appearance, figure, form, shape, build; 
form of perception, perceptual form (as 
opposed to matter or content; pltilos.): 
type, cut, pattern; mode, manner; sort, 
kind, specimen; JO vowelization, vowel - 
ing, vowel marks; ^5ll formally, in 
form | O j»- j£i (hurr) free form, O JO 
•A-a* (muqayyad) bound form (linguistics) ; 
O JS'JO (kulli) gestalt (philos., psych.); 
<$ji JO J* (s. buq) funnel-shaped; 
-K>*J-* JOj noticeably, conspicuously, 
remarkably; ^lOlj ^ they and the 
likes of them 

SiO sahla pi. Sakalat vowel mark 

JO sakli formal; pi. oLLO formal- 
ities | O JO (^r see ^-1*- 

*JSsJ> Sakliya formalism 

JO Hkl coquetry, coquettishness 

iiO Sakila coquettish woman, co- 
quette, flirt 



JO sukli quarrelsome, peevish 

JtO sikal pi. -at, JO mhil fetter, 
hobble (for shackling the feet of a riding 
animal) 

JjOj taskU pi. -at forming, formation, 
shaping, molding, fashioning, creation, 
organization, building up; order of march 
{mil.); pi. c>:>LOj formations; organiza- 
tions | O 3j^> J^Oj (sauti) phonation 
(phon.); lj\jj J-Oj t. wizara formation 
of a cabinet (pol.) 

<LOj tasHla pi. -at assortment, selec- 
tion, variety; formation; composition, 
make-up (of a team; sport) | iSL&J 
**rJj?r (Pyoldjiya) geological formations; 
-uilT o^LOj (kaSflya) boy scout troops 

J^Oj taskili: 4~LOjJ! djJdl the visual 
or fine arts 

US LL. musdkala similarity, resem- 
blance, likeness 

JtO i iskal dubiosity, ambiguity, 
obscurity, vagueness 

JT LiJ tasakul similarity, resemblance 

aJTU £dkila way, manner, mode; 
(pi. jTlp Sawdkil 2 ) flank, side, groin | 
UTli Jc in the manner of, of the kind 
of, like, ,«xJf U Jp of their kind, like 
them; <olSU Jc o IT to be of the same 
kind, of the same strain as s.th. 

JO- musakkal different, diverse, mani- 
fold, miscellaneous, variegated; vowel- 
(iz)ed 

JO* muskil turbid, murky (liquid); 
dubious, ambiguous, equivocal, obscure, 
vague, hazy; difficult, intricate, in- 
volved, problematic; problem, unsolved 
question, issue; difficulty 

aJSCjl. mtiSkila pi. -at, JS*UL. wasakil 2 
problem, unsolved question, issue; dif- 
ficulty 



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S> 



&J Sakama u (Sahn) to bridle (a an animal); 
to bribe (» s.o.); to silence, gag, muzzle 
(. s.o.) 

i*-0 Saklma pi. f l£i Sakaim 2 , O 
foikwm, *&J> Sakim bit, curb, snaffle, 
bridoon; (pi. f t£i) O brake (of a wheel); 
unruliness, unyieldingness, obstinacy ; 
contempt, disdain, scorn | ^u-SC±Jl .b-ii 
stubborn, obstinate, unyielding; lj* 
<+£Lzft quwat as-S. energy; 5*-Ss-iJI (jji 
qamy as-s. energetic, vigorous, active 

<£i III to resemble (a s.th.), be like 
s.th. (a) 

[jfe) t£i sakd u (_jO Salctv, <£>^ Sahwd, 
*t£i Sakah, *»!&! Sihdya f l£j> SaJciya) 
to complain (^ or a, * of, about, J 
or Jl to s.o., ^ or a of or about s.th.), 
make a complaint; to raise or lodge a 
complaint (j* or a, * of, about or against 
s.o., J or Jl with s.o.); to suffer (a from 
s.th.) V = I; VI to complain to one 
another (a of, about s.th.) VIII = I 

»j& Sakwa complaint, grievance; 
(pi. wi^li Sakawdt, »15v£ sikd 3 ) small 
skin (for water or milk) 

tfj£j> Sakwd pi. tSjISv-i Sakuird com- 
plaint; letter of complaint; accusation; 
suffering, grievance 

3i£i mkah complaint; accusation; 
suffering, grievance 

y&£ sikdya ccmplaint; accusation; 
suffering, grievance 

*SJ> saklya complaint; accusation; 
suffering, grievance 

»*£i Sakka* given to complaining, 
querulous 

»lxi* miskdh pi. oljl&L. miSkaicat, 
i!Li* masdkin niche (for a lamp) ; lamp, 
pendent lamp 



iiU sdkin complainant, plaintiff | 

^^ !l 5"U = ^-^LJ! iiU sdkk as-s. 

(ax*) ^SCiw. maskuw complained of, 
accused, charged; an accused, defendant 

»* It..** muStakin complainant, plaintiff 

«uip jJxJL* mustakan r alaihi complained 
of, accused, charged; an accused, de- 
fendant 

U jjSli Sikuriyd chicory 

<u VjSJ. mkuldta [eg.), sikoldta {syr.) y chocolate 

^^TU and <J>js*2> see ^ijTU (alphabeti- 
cally) 



J-i salla a (Sail, JJLi Salal) to dry up, wither, 
become crippled, stunted; to be para- 
lyzed, be lame; — salla u to paralyze 
(a s.th.) | axS^p- Ji (harakatahu) to 
overwhelm s.o., bring s.o. down IV to 
cause (a the hand) to wither; to paralyze 
(a s.th.); to neutralize, bring to a stand- 
still (a s.th.) VII to be paralyzed, be 
lamed 

4U Salla and Sulla aim, purpose; des- 
tination (of a journey) 

iLt Salla pi. -at group, clique ; — Salla 
(eg.) and Silla pi. JU Silal (syr.) hank, 
skein (of yarn or thread) ; cop, spool 

JLi Salal paralysis, palsy, para- 
lyzation (also fig.) | JUL^M Jli 5. al- 
atfal, JilJI JliM {#/&) infantile paralysis, 
poliomyelitis; ^jlj^Vl JJ-^1 (ihtizdzi) 
paralysis agitans, Parkinson's disease 



J:>U saZkzZ pi. 
rapids 



-at cataract, waterfall, 



Jil aM 2 , f. »^U Ma 2 withered, 
stunted (hand); paralyzed, lame; a 
paralytic 

Jjli* rrmSlul paralyzed, lame (also fig.) 



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JJL. mu§all paralyzed, lame (also fig.) 

^Li salabl dandyish, foppish; dandy, fop; 
(pal.) nice, handsome, beautiful 

2 cJU IT to kick 

2 idU salta pi. -at, cJU silat mattress 

~U salaha a (salh) to take off (-uLJ tiyabahu 
one's clothes); to shed the cloth (a), 
renounce the ministry (monk, priest) II to 
undress, disrobe, strip (« s.o.); to rob, 
plunder (t> s.o.) 

^JLiL* maMah pi. 4-UL. masalih {syr., 
nejd.) long, flowing cloak of wool or 
camel's hair, also one with gold embroi- 
dery 

^JLU taslih robbing, plundering, 
robbery 

pJjL. musallah dressing room (in a 
public bath) 

J-lU mlsala to dribble, trickle 

4jiLi silfa (razor) blade 

1 f jLi Salaqa u (salq) to split lengthwise (a 
s.th.) 

jU bale (e.g., of hay) 

2 JJ^S saulaqi person with a sweet tooth 

^JLU look up alphabetically 

1 }j^ look up alphabetically 

2 lj£ look up alphabetically 

jb (Engl.) BUn pi. -aZ shilling 

j\J> silw pi. »">Lii a^a' corpse (esp. one in a 
state of decay) ; severed member (of the 



body) ; part torn off, fragment ; remnant; 
stump of a limb 

jJLJU (Turk. $ilek) silek (eg.) strawberries 



r 



samma (1st pers. perf. samimtu) a and 
(1st pers. perf. samamtu) u (samm, 
-jr* samlm) to smell, sniff (a s.th.); 
to snuff (a s.th.); to emanate, exude 
(jj. from) | #1^1 or ^Jil ^i (havxta) 
to get a breath of fresh air, take a walk; 
— Samma (1st pers. perf. samimtu) a 
(*-r" Samam) to behave proudly or 
haughtily, be proud, haughty, super- 
cilious II to give (a o s.o. s.th.) to smell, 
let (* s.o.) smell (a s.th.) IV — II 
V to savor the smell of s.th. (a), sniff 
(a s.th.) | jL*-Vl f*iJ> to nose about 
for news VIII to smell, sniff (a s.th.); 
to gather, understand (j* a s.th. from), 
read (^ a s.th. into) 

Ji samm smelling; sense of smell, 
olfaction [ ~Jdl -J Egyptian popular 
holiday on the Monday following the 
Greek Coptic Easter at the end of 
March, in April or in early May 

Zj? samma pinch (of snuff); smell, 
odor; slight trace of s.th., whiff 

^f sammi olfactory 

*J* samam pride, haughtiness, super- 
ciliousness 

fir 1 sammam pi. -un (tobacco) snuffer 

l»lc sammam (coll.; n. un. S) musk- 
melon, cantaloupe 

-il asamm 2 , f. *\P samma" 2 , pi. J, 
summ having a sensitive, or good, nose; 
supercilious, haughty; proud (in a 
complimentary sense); highborn; most 
honorable 

pU-V! al-ismam the pronunciation 
of u with a trace of *, as rudda for rudda, 
and vice versa, quia for qlla (gram.) 



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i.U samma sense of smell, olfac- 
tion 



f>*~* 



masmum smellable, odorous, 



smelling; (eg.) spoiled (food); musk; scent | 

(}\P) f[p\ ismaazza to contract, get con- | 
tracted, shrink; to shrink back, recoil 
(jj* from), shudder (&> at), abhor, detest j 
(j* s.th.), feel disgust (^ for), be nau- | 
seated (,y by) 

}\'}.P\ ismi'zaz shudder; disgust, aver- j 
sion, repugnance 

>**-!* musmaizz disgusted, nauseated, ; 
revolted ( j* by) ; 

iSj^c Simbanzi chimpanzee 

ULr* sambanya, sampan yd champagne 

cP samita a (Cj\P samdt, Zip samata) 
to rejoice at the misfortune of s.o. (t.->), 
gloat over s.o.'s (<->) mishaps, savor 
s.o.'s (<_->) bad luck II to disappoint (o 
s.o.) IV to cause s.o. («) to take malicious 
pleasure in the mishaps of another (<J) 

Cj\P samdt malicious joy, Schaden- 
freude 

Zip mmata malicious joy, Schaden- 
freude, malice 

j*-v.U sdmit pi. CjVP summdt, pi. f. 
£~*\j5 saivdmit 2 enjoying another's mis- 
fortune, malicious, gloating 



~c famaka a (sarnie, i-jr* sumuJc) to be 
high, tall, lofty, tower up, loom (moun- 
tain, building); to disdain (Jp s.th.), 
turn up one's nose ( J* at s.th.) | -uju ^ 
(<uil or) (bi-anfihi, arijahu) to be arrogant, 
haughty, proud, supercilious VI to be 
high, tall, lofty, tower up, loom; to be 
boastful, put on airs; to be proud, haugh- 
ty, supercilious 



#L£j tasdmuJc pride, haughtiness, 
arrogance 

'*L£ sdmik pi. ^P summak, jfrl^i 
sawdmik 2 high, tall, lofty, towering; 
proud, haughty, supercilious | <JuVl £LS 
J. aZ-em/ proud, haughty, supercilious, 
arrogant 



*U1« mutammik high, 
towering; proud, haughty, 
towering in lofty heights 



tall, lofty, 
supercilious ; 



j^L* musmakirr lofty, towering (of buildings) 

y- 1 II to gather up, lift, roll up, tuck up, 
turn up (a a garment); to prepare, get 
ready | j^U J? to embark upon s.th,, 
buckle down to s.th.; eJ^U j* jP to 
bare the upper arm (by rolling up the 
sleeve), get to work; A^i Apl— jp ^c 
(s. al-jidd) to buckle down to a job, 
rally all one's forces, put one's shoulder 
to the wheel V to set to work briskly 

jp samar fennel (hot.) 

Ijp sumra, samra fennel 

| jlP samar fennel 

j + .* , .■• mumnimir busily at work in (an 
activity) 

j-jjp sumrfik pi. fcjUP Samarfh* stalk 
witli date cluster; date-palm panicle, 
branch stripped of its leaves ; little stick ; 
detonator, primer cap 

I jlr'l sec flP 

^r 1 m mafia u (^jP minus, ^yi-P sitnds) 

j to bo headstrong, balky, restive (of a 

I horse); — samasa i u and sarnisa a 

(samas) to be sunny (day) II to expose 

j (* s.th.) to the sun, lay (* s.th.) out in 

the sun to dry; to perform the office of 

deacon (Chr.) IV to be sunny (day) 

V to bask, sun o.s., lie or sit in the sun 



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^P sams f., pi. ^jP mmus sun | 
^■•■lll of 5omi as-.?, ecliptic (astron.); 
^-wJSJ! Jj^ri sunrise; ..JSJ1 o^i darbat 
as-s. sunstroke, heat prostration; j>Lt 
,^^4-iJi "abbdd as-s. sunflower; <~^jj£ 
,^-iJi sunset 

lS J" Samsl sun- (in compounds), 
solar [«.,.,. ti\ Jsjjl-\ (gram.) the sun letters 
(which assimilate the I of the article); 
iS ~£ M *\jt- (hammam) sunbath; *«« r* Jjj^ 
(sttra) photograph, photo; ^^-mJJI j j~*z)\ 
photography 

S-— r* mmslya pi. -dtf [colloq. ^Ix* 
samasl) sunshade, parasol; umbrella; 
curtain, screen; stop (of a wind instru- 
ment) | fJLiJl 4-^.r 1 i. as-hibbak window 
curtain, drape; O jU^ V*j^ & <*.'- 
tayydr parachute 

tfj? satnua pi. ( _ r r' sumus head- 
strong, balky, restive (horse) 

^r-Lr' sammds pi. i~» .Lr 1 mmumisa 
deacon of the lower rank of the ministry, 
nowadays, with unconsecrated persons 
frequently performing this office, cor- 
responding to the sexton or sacristan 
(Chr.); acolyte and liturgical cantor of 
Oriental Christian rites (clerics and 
laymen) 

(j** Li mmis sunny (day) 

( j~+L* musmis sunny (day) 

-ir 1 mmsama to sniff (a s.th.) 

lajf samita a (samat) to become gray- 
haired, turn gray 

iar'l asmat 2 , f. •lUr* Samta' 2 , pi. Jar* 
sumt, olkc* hxmtdn gray-haired 

«r* II to rub, or smear, with wax, to wax 
(a s.th.) | ilriJI *£* (fatla) to slip away, 
abscond, make off, decamp 



^r" mm% wma e (coll.; n. un. I) p], 
f- ^r - sumu r wax; (wax) candles j *JJ| 
^Vl sealing wax; ZH\ ^ s. al-katm 
do.; ipijVI £-JbJ -r* (U-talmV al 
ardlya) floor wax 

5»f sam'a, xamcfa (n. un.) (wax) 
candle | Sjl^iJl 4*f 8. as-sarara and Itf 
Jij^-Vl spark plug 

^y^r* mm*%, sama'i waxy, waxen, 
ceraceous, cero- (in compounds), made 
of wax 

gLr 1 mmmd' chandler, maker or 
seller of candles 

^Ur Samma'a clothes rack, clothes 
peg, hat rack 

£*JL* musamma* waterproof, imper- 
meable (of a garment); — (pi. .&) 
waterproof material; impregnated linen; 
waterproof cover or coating; oilcloth, 
wax cloth; linoleum | »_aa*J t>-*jc^ f*^> 
(li-s-saqf) bituminous roof covering, 
roofing felt, tar paper; **JL» JtU* 
(mi r taf) raincoat 

jljur* sarrCaddn pi. -at, JLtLr 1 ' samd'id?, 
j-ApLt' candlestick, candelabrum 

<j~-Zj look up alphabetically 

1 Jr- $amila a (samal) and samala u (mml, 
uV" iumul) to contain, comprise, 
comprehend, enclose (a s.th.); to sur- 
round, engulf (a s.th.); to imply, im- 
plicate, include (a s.th.); to touch, af- 
fect, fill, overcome, pervade (a, » s.o., 
s.th., of feelings, emotions); to prevail, 
be general, universal | oLjo AP (6i- 
' indyatihi) to bestow one's care on 
s.o., take s.o. under one's wing V Jjlj 
iLiJL to wrap o.s. in the mwla (q.v.) 
VIII — V; to wrap o.s. (a, <~> in s.th.); 
to contain, comprise, comprehend, en- 
close, enfold, imply, implicate, include 



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(J* s.th.) [ jl^JI 4JLiii (aawatfo) it was 
completely black 

Jjt aamj uniting, gathering, concen- 
tration; unity, union | J^JLil ^ ;am r a£-s. 
reunion, reunification; J^iJI sJJ»-l reun- 
ion; unity, union; «dLc^ J^* mazzaqa samlet* 
hu to break up, dismember, dismantle, 
parcel s.th.; to partition s.th., divide 
s.th. up 

a!c &mto pi. sarnaldt cloak; turban | 
*V j»l ummu samlata the world, the 
temporal joys 

Jrlr 1 samd'il 2 (pi.) good qualities; 
character, nature 

Jjfl asmal 2 more comprehensive; 
more general, more universal 

J. Li £anw7 comprehensive, exhaustive; 
general, universal, complete, total 

Jj*JU maimul contained, comprised, 
included, implied; pi. oV>«-l* inherent 
functions, competence | «CjUj- J^A* (6i- 
ri'dyatihl) enjoying the protection or 
patronage of s.o.; iiJyi oVj~t* the in- 
herent functions of an office 

J*xJL. mustamil comprising, contain- 
ing, including (J*, s.th.) 

J*^L. mustumal cottage (for rent) 

CoLdL- mustamalat contents 

Mir* Carnal, simdl north; (f.) north wind; 
hmdla north of . . .; VLr' samdlan north- 
ward, to the north; — simdl V I, left 
side; (f.) left hand; ^\P simalan to the 
left; jLdl the left (pol.) \ Jj. Jl£ (sVtfl) 
northeast; <J^ JLr (cjarbi) northwest; 
JlfiJI i-Sjf kaukab as-s. polar star; J I 
jr* jLill (situated) north of . . .; J^l oJI 
{Mmal) the left hand 

S^santMi, simdll northern, northerly; 
Umdll situated on the left; O^l^l the 
leftist parties (pol.) | J 1^1 jlLi\ (sajaq) 



aurora borealis, northern lights; JIt 1 
Li^l §. afrlqiyd and SJUiJl Laj^jI North 
Africa 

•Jjir* sumlul pi. JJlA Samdlil 2 small 
amount, small quantity; — (e^.) $amlul 
brisk, vivid, agile, lively, nimble 

4 iLjL*, ^L^« look up alphabetically 

jJL^i samandar white beet, chard 

SjjAxr 1 samandura pi. -a£ (egr.) buoy 

t\jf (Ft.) Samwdh chamois (leather and color) 

1 j r i mnna u {sann): SjU ^Ji (gdratan) to 
make a raid, an invasion; to make an 
attack, launch an attack (J* against, 
on); U> ^ (hamlatan) to start or lead 
a campaign IV — I 

j^S &m» pi. j^xi Sunun (water)skin 

4ii-» misanna basket without handles 

2 jLil look up alphabetically 

Li sana* a a (i!)Li sarCdn^ §anaan) to hate 

uJLi ifana6 pi. i-iUil oitjiat mustache 

jCJ* sambar {eg.) frame of eye glasses 

j Lxt Hntiyan pi . ,> j lii sanatin 2 loose 
trousers resembling pantalets, worn by 
women 

g^i mnija a (mnaj) to contract, shrink; to 
suffer from convulsions V — I; to 
twitch 

•iiJU tasannuj contraction, shriveling, 
shrinking (of the skin); (pi. -at) convul- 
sive contraction (of a muscle), twitch, 
jerk, convulsion, spasm, fit, cramp | ^JtUI 
^J\ {ra r si) clonic spasm; (SJ\j&\ ^-ItUI 
(kuzdzl) tonic spasm 



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j^Jtj ta&annuji spastic, spasmodic, 
cramplike, paroxysmal, convulsive 

hj^cJ> sunkuba pi. c-^-U^ sandklb 2 large 
rock, boulder 

JJ> II to blame, censure, revile, slander, 
abuse (J* s.o.) 

jIlS &tnar disgrace, ignominy 
JjLi sandriq* — Jj^ sardniq 2 



XZ sansana rustling (of paper) ; cracking, 
crackling 

iJULt sinsina pi. j^b-i sanasin 2 nature, 
disposition; habit, custom, practice 

1 ^kJLi sunaita knot; noose, loop 

2 ik-i iiawia pi. Jali sunat suitcase; satchel; 
bag, traveling bag | oJ! «kwi if. al-yad 
handbag 

*l£ sanua u {sana\ 4&bJ> Sanaa) to be ugly, 
abominable, repugnant, repulsive, atro- 
cious, hideous, horrid, horrible, dis- 
graceful; — sana'a a {San*) to dishonor, 
disgrace (<_j or « s.o.) II to calumniate, 
slander, revile, defame (Jp s.o.); to 
pillory, expose, condemn, denounce (J* 
s.o., s.th.) 

{CJ> sani" ugly, abominable, repug- 
nant, repulsive, disgusting, atrocious, 
hideous, horrid, horrible, disgraceful, 
ignominious 

iU-i Sun' a ugliness, hideousness, hor- 
ridness, repulsiveness 

*JL£ sunt ugly, abominable, re- 
pugnant, repulsive, disgusting, atro- 
cious, hideous, horrid, horrible, dis- 
graceful, ignominious 



*p\li sana' a ugliness, 
horridness, repulsiveness 



hideousness 



e- 



f. *\scJ> san'a* ugly, 



abominable, repugnant, repulsive, dis- 
gusting, atrocious, hideous, horrid, hor- 
rible, disgraceful, ignominious 

hycJ> sunguba pi. e-^b-5 sanagib* spicate 
protuberance; thorn, spike 

■Jiii II olj^fl iJ^ (dddna) to please the 
ears, to delight (of a voice) 

^jJ; sanf pi. Js^-i &m«/ earring 

J^i sanaqa u (sanq) to hang (a s.th., * s.o. 
on the gallows) 

gj> sanq hanging 

£j> sanaq rope 

* 2l L* mimaqa pi. Jjtt* mamniq 2 
gallows, gibbet; scaffold, place of exe- 
cution (by hanging) ; masnaqa gallows, 
gibbet 

Jj^JL. masnuq hanged 

^JtJ> sunqub becassine, snipe (zool.) 

j[$<J- Sinkar marking gauge (of the carpenter) 

Jx;_£ sankala {eg.) to trip (« s.o.) up; to 
hook up 

JSCii Sankal pi. JS"LS sandkil 2 clothes 
peg; hook 

J^i sanhaqa to bray (donkey) 

<_^ sa/iak gray color, gray 

"L^Z suhba gray color, gray 

■_jL^J; siAafc pi. c^^-i suhub, uL^i 
Suhbdn flame, blaze, fire; shooting star, 
luminous meteor; star 

<_*fil ashab 2 , f. *Lf£ sahba 2 , pi. e^i 
sw/t& gray; »L$JJi epithet of Aleppo 

(Syria) 



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JL^i sakida a (^j^> Suhud) to witness (a 
s.th.), be witness (a of s.th.); to ex- 
perience personally (a s.th.), see with 
one's own eyes (e> s.o. in a situation); 
to be present (a at), attend (a a 
celebration); to be present at the public 
appearance of s.o. (*); to see v a s.th.); 
to go through s.th. (a), undergo (a, e.g., 
progress, a situation, a crisis); — 
(•ilfi sahada) to testify, bear witness; 
to attest, confirm, certify (^ s.th., 
b\ that), testify, give testimony, give 
evidence (J* against s.o., to or about 
s.th., J in s.o.'s favor); to sign as a 
witness, to witness (J* a document); 
to acknowledge, adjudge (u & to s.o., 
s.th.) | auIj x£ to swear by God; Lj>jU x^i> 
to notarize III to see (with one's own 
eyes), view, inspect, watch, observe, 
witness (a s.th.) IV to call (* upon s.o.) 
as a witness ( Jp for s.th.) ; pass, ushida to 
be martyred, die as a martyr V to utier 
the Moslem profession of faith X to call 
(a or ^ upon s.o.) or cite (toru s.o.) 
as witness (Jp against or for, J in); 
to cite, quote (l-> s.th.); to attest {e.g., 
£~aj i*J£" ^** Jc 'aid mafna Icalimaiin 
bi-baitin the meaning of a word by a 
verse); pass, ustushida to be martyred, 
die as a martyr; to die in battle, be killed 
in action 

JLfi sahd, Suhd pL il^i sihdd honey; 
honeycomb | IJL^i ^-ij J^J li-yafam 
rlquki §. (your saliva shall be honey) 
you shall be happy and glad ! 

oX^> iahda carbuncle 

•L{£ sahid pi. »Ijl^ suliada 2 witness; 
martyr, one killed in battle with the 
infidels; one killed in action 

lx^ sahlda (woman) martyr 

•ilfrS sahada pi. -at testimony, witness, 
evidence, deposition; statement; certif- 
icate, certification, testimonial, affidavit; 



attestation, attest; credentials, identi- 
fication; (Muslim) creed (= doctrinal 
formula); martyrdom | oLJVl S^l^S s. 
al-itbat evidence for the prosecution; 
i]jLJ\j j^J\ y^* oL^i (s. husn as- 
sair) certificate of good conduct; ol^ 
J**JI ^ tjs^l ji+ 8. kuluw at-taraf *an 
il~amal certificate of discharge (from 
a position); 4jjjI=JI i-jjJill »aL$£ (tana* 
wiya) secondary school diploma; jjj ol^i 
s. zur false testimony; Sil^i Jp SjL^ 
indirect testimony (Isl. Law); ol^i 
4JLLJI s. al- alimlya [Eg.) diploma of 
higher learning (highest diploma a- 
warded by Al Azhar University); Jol^-i 
4JU { r dliya) diploma; JJI S^L^i £. 
an-nafy evidence for the defense; 2jl^i 
SjVjJI birth certificate; <-j Ijlxj i oL^t cer- 
tificate of elementary school completion; 
jUiz-l ibl^i investment certificate; ol^i 
s^^ToJl s. ad-duktorah doctor's diploma; 
4~S> SjL^S (tibblya) medical certificate; 
«*kj Sjl^i and fy«Jj SjiLfi inoculation 
certificate; SlsUil iot^i s. al-mu'afah 
[Eg.) certificate of exemption from mili- 
tary duty; *fijH\ ol^i S, al-qufa draft 
or recruitment certification (mil.); otp 
SsliSCJl s. al-kafaa certificate of compe- 
tence (for the practice of a trade, Alg.; 
formerly for school teachers, Eg.) 

J^JL^ mashad pi. OaIJL. nmsdhid 2 
place of assembly, assembly, meeting; 
place where a martyr or hero died; 
religious shrine venerated by the people, 
esp. the tomb of a saint; funeral cortege; 
procession; view, aspect, spectacle, sight, 
scenery; place or object of interest; 
scene (e.g., of a crime, of nature) ; act, 
number (as part of a program, e.g., in 
vaudeville), scene (in theater, as part 
of a play) ; aspect; pi. .aaUL. sites of religi- 
ous veneration; historical sites (general); 
-L^Ail Meshed (city in NE Iran) | JLc x^L* 
(ginat) song scene, vocal recital; .ull* 
3 Li- 1 m, al-haydh aspects of life 



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SOftLlL. musahada seeing, viewing, wit- 
nessing, inspection; (pi. -at) view, sight, 
spectacle; apparition, vision; observation, 
perception; pi. CjI-AaIJL. observed facts, 
observations | }\A\ SaaLJL* m. al-ma'alim 
sightseeing 

il^-ti Uhad pi. -at written certification 



-I istishad citation, quotation; 
death of a martyr; death of a hero, 
heroic death; martyrdom 

-uli $dhid pi. i^-i Suhudy x^> 
suhhad present; — (pi. j^-i suhud, iL^il 
aShdd) witness ( Jp for) ; notary public; — 
(pi. OA^i $awahid 2 ) (piece of) evidence 
(Jc for); attestation; quotation serving 
as textual evidence; testimony; an ob- 
long, upright tombstone | oU'VI JaU S. al- 
tibai witness for the prosecution ; «*-Ji OaLS 
§. as-sam' earwitness; t>*Jl aaU §. al- 
f ain, jLc- AftU S. Hyan jLc JU»U ('iyanl) 
eyewitness; JJI JlAli £. an-nafy witness 
for the defense; jL^iNl ^yjjj J* in public, 
for everyone to see; aj }J\ ij+Z £ ar-ruya 
eye witnesses sent by the office of the 
Mufti at the beginning of Ramadan to 
sight the lunar crescent (IsL Law) 

a.uL£ sahida pi. JAJ^Ji sawahid 2 an 
oblong, upright tombstone; index finger; 
true copy, copy of a letter, duplicate; 
3Ji*UJl the Earth 

^JL* ma&kud taking place in the 
presence of spectators or witnesses; 
happening before a large audience, well- 
attended; memorable (day, event) | 
*j$t\\ pi;U (jurm) in the act, redhanded, 
flagrante delicto; ^^JLLf #jJl (yaum) the 
Day of Resurrection; red-letter day, fes- 
tive public holiday 

-LaUL. musahid pi. -un spectator, 
onlooker, observer 

0*LLi musdhad visible, perceptible; 



pi. ol-ulJL* things seen, sights; visible 
things 

j^ Sahara a (mhr) to make well-known, 
famous, renowned, notorious (a, « s.o,, 
s.th.); to spread, make known, divulge, 
proclaim, announce (a s.th.); to draw, 
unsheathe (a a weapon); pass, kihira 
to be or become well-known, famed, 
famous, renowned, notorious (lj by or 
for s.th. respectively, by or under a 
name) | <dU ^J~\ ^ (karb) to declare 
war on s.o.; «u»-^' j4" (bundnqiya) to 
level a gun (J* at s.o.) II to make well- 
known, famous, renowned, notorious (a, t 
s.o., s.th.); to spread, make known, di- 
vulge, proclaim, announce (a s.th.); to 
revile pubticly, expose, pillory («_j s.o., 
s.th.), denounce {» or u_j s.o.) Ill to 
engage or hire (» s.o.) on a monthly 
basis, rent (a s.th.) by the month 
IV to make known, proclaim, announce, 
spread, divulge (a s.th.); to unsheathe, 
draw (* a weapon); to sell at auction, 
also s\jl\ j^\ (mazdda) \ »^ **j ±\j,j^\ 
(mazdda baVi s.) to auction s.th. off, 
put s.th. up at auction VIII to be or 
become well-known, famed, famous, 
renowned, notorious (^ by or for s.th. 
respectively, by or under a name); to 
be known (jp of s.o., a trait, and the 
like); to be widespread, common 

j+Z sahr announcement, declaration I 

M^i^\ j^ s. al-iflds (Eg.) declaration of 
bankruptcy; ^jli<Ji j+Zll ( r aqdri) record- 
ing and validation of the legal status of 
real estate and landed property; land 
registry, cadaster (Eg.) ; ^jUUI j+Z}\ 4>JLa* 
(maslahat as-s.) land-registry office (Eg.) 

j^i> sahr pi. ^^1 ashur, jj+% suhur 
new moon; month | JwJl ^ S. aVasal 
honeymoon 

iSj+Z sahri monthly, mensal; 1^+5 
kihrlyan monthly, per month, by the 



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M* 



month | iSst^ iJljvM monthly sub- 
scription; monthly fee or contribution; 
tSj+Z <Jo~oj ni$fu Sahriyin fortnightly, 
semimonthly, appearing biweekly 

*ij^ Sahriya monthly salary 

Ij+Z whra repute, reputation, re- 
nown, fame, famousness, celebrity; noto- 
riety; surname {Syr., Leb.) | aJLU *^i 
('atamiya) world-wide renown, world-wide 
fame 

j*4-2 sahlr widely known, well-known, 
famous, renowned, celebrated {<-> by a 
name); notorious, ill-reputed 

_^il aShar 2 better known, more widely 
known 

jy£ taSkir public exposure, pillorying 

{pit* musahara pi. -at monthly 
salary; pi. monthly payments, monthly 
allowances; muSakaratan monthly, per 
month, by the month 

jt^Sl iskdr announcement, procla- 
mation, declaration; public sales, auction; 
publicity, advertising | ^-^UV' jLfil i. al~ 
iflds notice of bankruptcy, declaration of 
insolvency 

jL^il ititihar repute, reputation, renown, 
fame, famousness, celebrity; notoriety 

j>fi* maShur pi. _*aLL. masahir 2 well- 
known, widely known, renowned, famous, 
celebrated; notorious, ill-reputed; wide- 
spread, common; a famous, celebrated 
personality, a celebrity; accepted, estab- 
lished, canonical (textual variant, version 
of the Koran) | jj+Zl\ j* according to 
the general belief, as it is (was) generally 
understood 

j4±a mvsahhar well-known, widely 
known, renowned, famous, celebrated; 
notorious, ill-reputed 

Jfi hhaqa a i {J^ sahiq) to bray (donkey) ; 



— sahaqa a % and iahiqa a (J~<-1 SaMq, 
3l^> suhaq, JlfiJ taSJuiq) to inhale; 
to sigh deeply; to gasp; to swallow (while 
weeping, hiccuping) IV »15sJU jj^JS-I (bi- 
l-buka) to burst into tears, break out 
into loud weeping 

ii^i $ahqa (n. vie.) a gasping inhaling; 
an (audible) swallowing; soft cry (of sur- 
prise, shock, etc.) 

J-^-S sahiq braying, brays (of a donkey) ; 
sobbing, sobs; sighing, sighs; inhalation, 
breathing in 

<5*U Sahiq pi. J*lp Satvahiq 2 high, 
lofty, towering (building, mountain) | 
jfcLi jlz ('uluiv) tremendous height 

jai^ Sawdhiq 2 heights 

J-4-i II to accelerate, speed up, expedite 
(a s.th.); to remove quickly, hurry off 
(* s.o.) 

J^i mhil nimble, swift, quick 

il^ &uhla bluish-black color of the eyes 

Jfil aShat 1 , f. *^i sahla* 2 having 
bluish-black eyes; deep-blue (eyes) 

pfi Sahm pi. -1^1 sihdm perspicacious, 
sagacious, astute, clever; bold, audacious; 
energetic; noble, gallant, decent; gentle- 
man 

**l$£ Sakdina perspicacity, sagacity, 
astuteness, cleverness; audacity, bold- 
ness, gallantry, noble-mindedness ; energy, 
vigor, verve; decency, respectability 

jbli look up alphabetically 

^*aU pi. ^aI^ look up alphabetically 

(_^i and ^b") L^i sahd u and ^i sahiya a 
(S^i 5ahwa) to desire, wish, covet, 
crave (a s.th.), long (a for s.th.) II to 
make covetous, fill with desire, allure, 



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574 



entice (* s.o.); to arouse greed, desire, 
appetite (a in s.o., * for s.th.); to whet 
the appetite, be appetizing (food) V and 
Vill to be covetous, greedy, to long (a 
for s.th.), crave, desire, wish {* s.th.), 
feel appetite (a for s.th.) | ^tf-Zj V *^ 
(yuStaha) an undesirable thing 

lj+z sahwa pi. sahaieat greed, craving, 
desire, ardent wish, longing, yearning, 
eagerness, passion, carnal appetite, lust; 
appetite 

>cj^ SaJmi sensual, sensuous, lustful, 
instinctual, uninhibited 

^W* sahimn 2 , f. iSy^ sahwa, pi. 
t£jl$-i sahdwd covetous, greedy; lewd, 
lecherous, lascivious, libidinous, dissolute, 
debauched 

jl^Ji sahwanl covetous, greedy; lewd, 
lecherous, lascivious, libidinous, dissolute, 
debauched; sensual, sensuous, lustful, 
instinctual, uninhibited 

^i sahly pleasant, agreeable, de- 
sirable; appetizing, inviting, tasty 

'L^Z mhiya appetite | *u$-!tJi f\s or 
\f-*N r^ij L. (yaftahu) stimulating the 
appetite, appetizing; pUUI 1^1 <!i 
qillat as- s. li-t-ta'dm want of appetite 

a±3 tasahhin greed, avidity, cupidity, 
craving, desire 

*VfJ-\ istika greed, craving, desire, ar- 
dent wish, longing, yearning, eagerness, 
passion, carnal appetite, lust; appetite 

4JL. musahhin stimulating the appe- 
tite, appetizing; ol^l* appetizers, rel- 
ishes, hors d'oeuvres 

*lL* mustahin covetous, greedy, avid, 
craving, desirous, lustful 

f-' mustahan desirable; desired, 
welcome, agreeable, pleasant; (pi. oLfli 



mustahayat) that which is coveted, 
object of desire 

• Li set (coll.; n. un, »U sah) pi. alp Mwdh, 
a Li siydh sheep; ewe 

Lt\jt> suwal, siwal pi. -at (large) sack; sack- 
dross (fashion) 

(»-jjk) v^ sdba u ($ au b> vW^ siydb) to 
mix, blend {<_-> a s.th. with); to adulterate, 
vitiate, contaminate, spoil, corrupt, pol- 
lute, tarnish, sully, stain, spot (a s.th,); 
to mix, blend, intermix (a with) | <ujJtj *i 
SJU blameless, flawless, unblemished, 
immaculate 

t_jjJi saub mixture; tarnishing, sul- 
lying, roiling, rendering turbid; im- 
pairment, blemish, flaw; hot wind 

*JU mHba pi. i~-jl>i mwaib* dirt, 
stain, spot, flaw, blemish, defect, fault; 
suspicion, reason for suspicion, suspi- 
cious fact 

<~->jJua masub mixed; adulterated, vi- 
tiated | (j*+J L> ^j2** troubled with worries 

&JZ saubaq pi. ^[^ $awabiq~ rolling pin 

dbjj> saubalc pi. dXi)j£ sawabik 2 rolling pin 

x rj£ II (eg.) to grill, broil, roast (* s.th.) 

2 rjZ> suh (coll.; n. un. 1) fir, sapin 

3 4*~j^ suha kite (zooL) 

4 ^Ll* see $%£> 



jj£ II to make a sign, beckon, signal, wink, 
blink (Jl to s.o.); to point out (J[ s.th.), 
point (Jl at) III to ask s.o.'s (a) advice, 
seek s.o.'s (a) advice, consult (a s.o.); 
to consult, take counsel (a with s.o.), 
<^J6 jj\^ (nafsahu) to take counsel with 



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J^- 



o.s., reflect, bethink o.s. IV to make a 
sign, beckon, signal, wink, blink (J or Jl 
to s.o.), motion (J or Jl s.o., <_j to do 
s.th.); to ask, invite, urge (Jf s.o.); to 
point, allude (Jf to), hint (Jl at), indi- 
cate, point out ( Jp or Jl s.th.), call s.o.'s 
(J) attention to (J*); to advise (^ J*. 
s.o. of s.th,, jl J* s.o. to do s.th.), sug- 
gest (l-> Jp to s.o. s.th., jl Jp to s.o. to 
do s.th.), command, order jl oru J* s.o. 
to do s.th.) ; to state, indicate (w s.th.) | L. 
iUU *JI jUj (yusdru, banan) that which 
is pointed at with the finger tips, i.e., 
s.th. very remarkable, s.th. outstand- 
ing; «-JfJaJ j Li I L (bi-tarfin) he did not 
bat an eye V (leb.; derived from miswar) 
to walk VI to take counsel, deliberate, 
consult (J ** with s.o. about) X to ask 
for advice (» s.o.), take counsel (o with 
s.o.), consult (* s.o.) 

ajli sara pi. -at sign, token, distin- 
guishing mark; ensign, emblem; cockade 
{mil.); badge; sleeve badge (mil.); guise, 
outward appearance | SJj-dl »jli s. ad-daula 
national emblem; .^JUJI »jli sign of the 
cross; SjliJ! j- bahiy as-s. magnificent to 
look at 

tSj^ surd consultation, deliberation, 
taking counsel; counsel; advice | Lr l>- 
iSj_y^i\ majlis as-s. advisory council, privy 
council; iJj-Ul ^jj-i ^Jk m. s. d-daulci 
state council ; juljiJl ^jj^ (j-^ legislative 
council 

iSjjZ sun consultative, advisory 

j\jXa, miswar pi. j jUL. masawlr 2 
errand; Q stroke (of an internal- com- 
bustion engine; techn.) | jljiJLl JUJ fj^-i 
muharrik iuncCl l-m. two-cycle engine; 
jij^il ^Ijj li^si (rubal l-m.) four-cycle 
engine 

~*jjL* maswara, masura pi. -a£ con- 
sultation, deliberation, conference; coun- 
sel, advice, suggestion 



Sjjliw. musaioara pi. -a£ consultation, 
deliberation, conference 

SjLM isdra pi. -d£ sign, motion, 'nod, 
wink, wave; gesture; signal; indication; 
allusion, hint, intimation; symbolic ex- 
pression; (silent) reminder; advice, 
counsel, suggestion; instruction, order, 
command | XSj *JJ*\ (barqlya) telegram, 
wire, dispatch, cable(gram); v!>^ *J^' 
telegram, wire; JJ^\ SjU! *. al-katar 
air-raid warning, alert; \y„^j <yUI (rddi- 
yawiya) radio signal; «_-JLaJl *jU! sign of 
the cross (Chr.); cJ>j}\ Ssl^ SjUl i. dabt 
al-waqt (radio) time signal; m\+izj*\ »jUI 
question mark; L&L-V SjLil {la-silklya) 
radio signal; jj Jll SjUl traffic sign; 
<uJu ejU! i. tanblh alarm signal; ~4s£- 
o[;Li^l mahattat al4. signal post; *-*l 
SjUVI wi aZ-i. demonstrative pronoun; 
SjUVl olJb-j wahaddt al-i. signal-corps 
units (mil.); <u;UI j*j (rahna) at s.o.'s 
beck and call, at s.o.'s disposal 

(_gjUl ilan signaling; symbolic, ex- 
pressed by symbols; allegorical (e.g., 
interpretation) ; (pi. -un) signalman, mem- 
ber of the signal corps 

j^-jUI iSargi pi. -l\ja (eg.) signalman, 
member of the signal corps 

jjltS tasaivur joint consultation, de- 
liberation (« with) 

SjlJtl-l isiisdra pi. -af a seeking of 
advice, consultation; guidance, advice 
(one receives) 

^jliju-l istisdri consultative, advisory 

jjVt* musdwar adviser, counselor, con- 
sultant 

jJL* musir indicative (Jl of); — (pi. 
-un) adviser, counselor, consultant; field 
marshal, general of the army (Eg., Jord., 
formerly Ir., Syr., etc.; mil.) 



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<Jl j LUl al-muSdr ilaihi the afore- 
mentioned, the aforesaid, the said 

jliL«* musta&dr adviser, counselor, 
consultant, councilor; chancellor ; approx. : 
justice (title; Eg.) | SjUJI jl£JL*« counselor 
of embassy; <L*yiii jLiJu*» m. al-mufaw* 
waftiya counselor of legation 

h j UUL I j I j dar al~ mustaSdriya office 
of the chancellor, chancellery 

1 ^ r >j^i $aurab flycatcher (zool.) 

*Zijj£ Sorbet, Soraha (syr.) pi. -at soup 

Oj^i (Engl.) Sort short, short feature (mo- 
tion pictures) 

<*j^-S Savmrma see iyjU (alphabetically) 

ifjih a&oas 2 , f. •Up Sausa* 2 , pi. ^^-t to, 
^jLil aSawia 2 proud; bold, audacious, 
daring, venturesome | «-^l ^-^ £. 
aJ-£arfi war heroes 

l ^j^ II to muddle, confuse, confound, 
jumble (* s.th.), disturb (Jp or > s.th.), 
complicate (* s.th.) V to be confused, 
confounded, muddled, jumbled, deranged, 
disturbed; to feel indisposed, be ill 

^U &ds muslin; white cloth 

<il£ SdSa pi. -at screen; motion-picture 
screen, also *UlJI iilSJI (baida); picture 
screen (of a TV set, — u^j^iJbJl iiLi £. o£- 
televizyon) ; radar screen 

<-il£ S&Mya, SdMya pi. <^[w Sawdsl 
a kind of headgear, cap, skullcap 

^i^S £u£ Maria Theresa dollar (Nejd) 

iZjt. susa tuft of hair, lock; crest (of 
birds) 

^Sjj-i SaimS confusion, muddle, (state 
of) disorder, disturbance, derangement 
(e.g., of the mind) 



(^ij^ SawwdSl pi. i~ijp 
a maker of SdSiycfa (see above) 

^ y£ tasmS confusion, confounding, 
muddling; disturbance, derangement; 
ailment 

J>ji~» muSaivwaS muddled, jumbled, 
befuddled, confused; disturbed, de- 
ranged (e.g., of a sensorial function); 
ailing, ill \JLH\ J:^ m. al-fikr bewildered, 
confused, baffled 

2 ^ijLi pi. J:\jJ, look up alphabetically 

3 Jb jU look up alphabetically 

ijjw^t SuSbarak (eg.) small pastry stuffed with 
meat and served with milk rice 

V*J-* SauSara (eg.) noise (made by people), 
loud quarrel 

iy-t saut pi. J»]^il asxvdt race to a goal; 
state, phase; round, game, half, course 
(in sports and games); goal, aim | A> 
( jjl) pAUl j (Ll«j) IjjjT LL^i (taqaddum, 
ruqiy) and IW^il Jjl jlj.. j Jj 
(maiddni r -ruqiy) to make good progress 
or headway, advance in great strides, 
**^Li U»j^£l JoJ do.; ItJ^il <ujij (ya* 
fuquhu) he surpasses him by far; J*j ^ 
{zamanl) stretch or span of time; Jj^ i^i 
long period of time; (jliJl) Jj^l J*jjjl the 
first (second) half (soccer) 

iW^i £dto (eg.) plague, pestilence 

-Uiji s«M2 flame; radiating heat; fire, fervor, 
ardor, passion 

IwU Sd'iz red hot, ablaze 



II to polish (a s.th.); to adorn, deck 
out (U a woman) V to look out expect- 
antly, longingly (Jl for), look forward 
(Jl to), expect, anticipate (J I s.th.) 



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i sauf harrow 



(j^JI aS-Suf name of an adminis- 
trative district of Lebanon 

«j£ Saufa {colloq.) sight, spectacle, view 
uli^l &i/an oats 

(i5^i) JU so^a « (foittf) to please, delight 
(» s.o.), give joy (• to s.o.); to fill (« 
s.o.) with longing, craving, desire, 
arouse longing, craving, desire (» in 
s.o.) II to fill (• s.o.) with longing, 
craving, desire, arouse longing, craving, 
desire (t in s.o.); to awaken a desire (Jl • 
in s.o. for) V and VIII to long, yearn ( Jl or 
o, * for), crave, covet, desire ardently 
(J! or a s.th.) 

3j£ Sauq pi. t3|^l aSwoq longing, yearn- 
ing, craving, desire, wish 

J-i Sayyiq longing, yearning, craving, 
desirous, covetous; brilliant, gorgeous, 
splendid; thrilling 



Jj^ij taswiq arousing of desire, of 
longing; fascination, thrilling, awaken- 
ing of excitement, of eagerness ; suspense 
{of a reader or listener) 

3j^3 tasawwuq longing, yearning, 
desire, inclination, craving, eagerness 

jUil iStiydq longing, yearning, desire, 
inclination, craving, eagerness 

<j>JU Sd'iq arousing longing, stimu- 
lating desire; brilliant, gorgeous, splendid, 
beautiful; interesting {e.g., subject, book), 
exciting 

JljJL. mu&a/wwiq arousing desire or 
longing; thrilling, exciting, fascinating, 
absorbing, stimulating, stirring, attrac- 
tive, interesting; — musawwaq filled 
with longing (Jf for), desirous, covetous 
( Jl of) 



obi* muStaq longing, yearning, crav- 
ing, desirous, covetous 

(4>i) iJU Sdka u {Sauk) to sting, prick, hurt, 
injure, pierce (*_j * s.o. with a thorn, a 
needle, and the like) II to be thorny; to 
stud (a s.th.) with thorns or spikes; to 
sting, prick, hurt, injure, pierce (*-» » 
s.o. with a thorn, with a needle) IV to 
sting, prick, hurt, injure 

ilj* Sauk (coll.; n. un. I) pi. ilj^il 
aSwdk thorns, spikes, pricks, prickles, 
spines; fishbone; forks | ilj£)\ Jp on 
tenterhooks, on pins and needles 

i£i Sauka (n. un.) thorn, spike, prick, 
prickle, spine, sting, point; tine, prong; 
spur (of a rooster); fork; fishbone; furor 
of fighting, bravura, bravery, valor, 
verve, dash, elan; might, power 

SjZ §aukl thorny, spiky, prickly, 
spiny; spinal | Sj^ <>^' ( iin ) $ m & of 
the Indian fig (Opuntia ficus-indica 
Haw.; hot.); Sj^ J-^' (habl) spinal 
cord; <J*L\ <u!fj^Jl ,e*J-l (humma, mukhlya) 
cerebrospinal meningitis (med.); j^jJI 
i$*>-iJI ( v amud) vertebral column, back- 
bone; spine; Sj^\ f}*^ (nukd e ) spinal 
cord 

4>S sawik thorny, spiky, prickly, 
spiny 

<iL*U sd'ik thorny, spiky, prickly, 
spiny; delicate, ticklish, critical, diffi- 
cult | ^L'Ul diL (silk) pL i&U ihU 
barbed wire 

b\J>j2> Saukardn poison hemlock (Conium 
maculatum; bot.) 

&*ij?j* Sukuldta chocolate 

J (Jj-i) J Li Ma u {Saul) to rise, be raised, 
elevated; to raise, lift (* or <~> s.th.); to 
carry (* or ^ s.th.) | «c*Lj cJU (na f dma* 



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578 



tuku) he went away, departed; he died, 
he is dead II to become sparse, scarce, 
short in supply III to attack, assail 
(s.s.o.) IV to raise, lift (a s.th.); to carry 
(a s.th.) 

Jj£ sawil nimble, adroit, swift, quick, 
expeditious {at work) 

"4ji> Saula comma | Z>jjc* 3J^S semi- 
colon 

i}\j£ Sawwal pi. -at Jjj[^ sawawxl 2 , 
also Jl^iJl Shawwal, name of the tenth 
month of the Muslim year 

Jli. masal carrying, carriage, con- 
veyance, transportation (of loads); por- 
terage, carrying charges 

2 JU pi. 0"jLi look up alphabetically 

Mlp look up alphabetically 

Jj^i saulaql person with a sweet tooth 

fji saulam darnel (Lolium temulentum; 
hot.); a variety of vetch 

VUJI, (j\J- pi. Aj$ t >*_^L* see aU 

2 i._^t suma stick, cudgel 

bj£ II to garner, store (* s. th., esp. grain) 

ijyi suna pi. -at, bj$ suwan {eg.) 
storehouse, granary, shed, barn 

jtijZ Sawandar white beet, chard 

l 6j^ Saiviha a ($awah) and »li sdha u (* 
sank) to be or become ugly, misshapen, 
deformed, defaced, disfigured, distorted, 
malformed II to disfigure, deform 
deface, distort, mar, mutilate (* s.o. : 
a s.th., esp. the face); to revile, slander, 
defame (a s.o.); to jam (S^ISl a broad 
cast) | 4JL2JU *>-j oj^ {wajka l>k.) to distort 



the truth; cJLly- 4>-j <>j5 to disgrace 
one's profession V — I 

t> ^ sawah ugliness, misshapennesg, 
malformation, deformity, disfigurement, 
distortion, perversion 

*_j-M aswah 2 , f. A*j£ sauha* 2 , pi. «_j-i 
suh misshapen, malformed, ugly, dis- 
figured, deformed, disfeatured, defaced: 
distorted, perverted 

•o^-Lj taswik deformation, disfig- 
urement, defacement, mutilation; def- 
amation; crippledness 

ajJZ.1 tasaioumh ugliness, misshapen ness, 
malformation, deformity, disfigurement, 
distortion, perversion 

<JLS saih misshapen, malformed, ugly, 
disfigured, deformed, disfeatured, de- 
faced; distorted, perverted 

a^JL* musaivwah disfigured, defaced, 
deformed; mutilated, maimed; misshap- 
en, malformed, ugly; distorted, pervert- 
ed j u-j/II a^JL. m. al-karb disabled (in 
active service); disabled veteran 

2 »U look up alphabetically 

3 ;U (n. un.) see *j$ 

4 *iP pi- of ^ sce *j^ 

tjjZ sawd i (^ sayy) to broil, grill, roast 
(on a grill or spit, a s.th.) 

J. aatjtj broiling, grilling | ^1 ^Uo 
dajaj cus-s. broiler chickens 

fl^i $iwa, suwa broiled, or grilled, 
meat, and the like | JP>JI *\^> s. as- 
sujuq grilled sausages 

^jZ sawly broiled, grilled, roasted 

*\j£ sawah pi. ^jZ sawan scalp 



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tyjJ' $awwaya pi. -at gridiron, grill j 
electric grill 

l\jZ+ mi&wah pi. jll* masawin gridiron, 
grill 

(3j£a ma&wly. i£jZ* ^-Uo (dajdj) broil- 
ed chickens; pi. -at, D ^jLl* masawi 
grilled (or roasted) meats; grilled foods 



V see gf 
'iji, tl>Li see ^j 

(Li) »li sa'a a {^L» masia) to want; to 
wish (a s.th., ul that) | <uil »U ul (in) 
God willing; it is to be hoped; I (we) 
hope so; Zi\ ►U U whatever (howsoever, 
how long soever) God intend (used to 
express an indefinite quantity, amount, 
number, or period of time); various, 
sundry, all kinds of, God knows what; 
also, exclamation of surprise: amazing! 
that's right! good! bravo! <uil *l-i L. J I 
forever and ever, for all time and time 
to come; J^ilxJI <d »U U JiJ (laffaqa, 
ialfiqu) he cheated like hell, he made up 
the most outrageous lies; »U U I^J^aJL* 
JjiJi *^J (fal-yaqiilu, al-qaulu) let them 
say whatever they please 

^ scri' pi. »Lii asya* thing; some- 
thing; (with neg.) nothing | . . . j* ^ 
some, a little, a certain (amount of), a 



considerable . 



J*liJj! 



{namt) 



some activity; jUJl ^ *^ {qalaq} some 
uneasiness, some anxiety; ^ *^ ujJb 
A^LJ (/aAd) without any effort at all; 
j>-\ ^ iSlij ^^ lift (dfcar) this and 
that are two entirely different things 
(or matters); »^2 j*^\ J there is s.th. 
wrong, there is a fly in the ointment; 
i^ill ^^u &a r efo s-s. to a certain extent, 
a little, somewhat; *^j, ^ j in nega- 
tive sentences: not in any way; in no 
way, by no means, not at all, not in the 
least; ^ jc5~ »^i J* very, extremely, 



e.g., iLLJi ^ jtS' o^ Jp (basapa) 
very simple; .^i&i »^Jjl the most; a-^1 
<~> *^ (asbahu sai'in) very much like . . . ; 
►^ -Uo Ujui or UxJii bui (fa-sai'an) 
bit by bit, one after the other, by and 
by, gradually; f^ V la-sat a nothing, 
nil, nonentity; nothing {in sport scoring); 
*fj>^\ the nothing; <^ V la-saVa 
nothing (as object); j^— jJI •^l j\* , . . V 
(gaira s-Sai'i l-yaslr) only very little; 
^^ ^-jJ it is nothing, it is of no conse- 
quence; dili ,y» »^i j IJU ^pj this has 
absolutely nothing to do with that; »^i 
. , . j , . . ju an intermediate between . . . 
and . . ., a bit of both . . . and . . . 

Jji sail objective, factual 

^a^V la-§a%iya nonexistence, noth- 
ingness, nihility, nullity 

t^Z suyai' a little thing, trifle 

\j$ suwayya (colloq.) a little, a bit, 
somewhat 

IhJL* masia volition, will; wish, 
desire | <u)i l^ix God willing 



(o-a^) <-j^ saba i (saib, ILui saiba, 

masib) to become white-haired, gray- 
haired; to turn white or gray (hair); 
to grow old, to age; to make white- 
haired; to bleach (a s.th.) II to make 
(» s.o.) white-haired, cause s.o.'s (*) 
hair to turn white (grief) IV = II 

^J; saib graynes3 of the hair, gray 
or white hair; old age 

^-Ji saiba a variety of artemisia 
(Artemisia arborescens L.; hot.) 

t_**-il asyab 2 , f. *LJi saiba 2 , pi. *_~j^ 
sib white, gray (hair); white-haired, 
gray-haired (person) ; old, aged ; old man 

<_-i^» masib grayness of the hair, 
gray or white hair; old age 

tJU Saib white, gray (hair); white- 



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haired, gray-haired (person); old, aged; 
old man 



jji Sit pi. oIj^J 
calico (eg,) 



Suyutat chintz, printed 



2 oLi Saijyat {tun.) shoeshiner, bootblack 

i^-S II (tun.) to dry, blot (* s.th.) IV to 
turn away, avert (cj the eyes, one's 
face, ^e. from) 

£-Li Sayyak blotting paper 

2 »t~i sih an oriental variety of wormwood 
(hot.) 

(fe£) £li $aka i (^ §ayak, **-js" suyuka, 
is^iwS saikuka) to age, grow old; to 
attain a venerable age 

j*J> §aik pi. rj~* $uyuk, ^-Uil aSyak, 
£lA. ma$ayik 2 , illi* ma$aik 2 an elderly, 
venerable gentleman; old man; elder; 
chief, chieftain, sheik, head (of a tribe) ; 
mayor (Tun.); chief of an administrative 
district (formerly, Tun.); title of the 
ruler of any one of the sheikdoms along 
the Persian Gulf; title of native scholars 
trained in the traditional sciences such as 
clerical dignitaries, members of a religious 
order, professors of spiritual institutions 
of higher learning, etc.; master; master 
of an order (Sufism); senator (pari.) | 
jt*\ jjl «--iJl (aruzz asmar), ^-vJ jj\ £~£JI 
(abyad) (eg.) popular names for certain 
rice dishes; j*J\ j^> s. al-bahr sea calf 
(zool.) ; oJLJl pJ^ $. al-balad chief of a village, 
village mayor; ol>«Jl i^J> £. as-sajjada 
title of the leaders of certain dervish 
orders in their capacity of inheritors of 
the founder's prayer rug; ^^UVI £~- *. 
al-isldm sheikh ul-Islam, formerly, esp. 
in medieval Egypt, title of the Grand 
Mufti, the spiritual head of Islam, later 
being bestowed more and more ex- 
clusively upon the Mufti of Constan- 



tinople in the Ottoman Empire; 
title of the chief mufti in Tunisia; 
j*/sM ^J. $. al-azhar the Rector of the 
Azhar; rj^\ (pi. of majesty) title of a 
ruler among the inhabitants of Nejd; 
„ rj^\ ^-i^ majlis a£-#. council of elders; 
senate (also U.S.A.) 

ii»~i Saika pi. -at an old, or elderly, 
woman, a matron 

iU-Li Siyaka position, or dignity, of 
a sheik 

'*~J> saikuka old age, senility 



^ji-mJ^ saikuki senile, characteristic 
of old age 

ii^JU maSyaka title or rank of a sheik; 
sheikdom (on the Persian Gulf); district 
administered by a sheik (formerly, Tun,); 
(pi. £jli* maSdyik 2 ) college of sheiks, 
professorial staff of an Islamic mosque 
college (such as the Azhar in Cairo or the 
Great Mosque in Tunis) 

(xJ) alt Sada i (JLi said) to erect, set up, 
construct, build (a an edifice, and the 
like) II = I; IV = I; <u or *J"h jlil 
(bi-dikrihi) to celebrate, praise, commend 
s.o. or s.th., speak in glowing terms of 
s.o. or s.th. 

JL-i sld plaster (of a wall); plaster of 
Paris; mortar 

JLxij ta&yid erection, setting up, 
construction, building (of an edifice); 
building trade; development (e.g., of a 
country, of agriculture), reconstruction 
work 

SiUI isada praise, commendation, ex- 
tolment (w of) 

JUL. muSayyad high, lofty, imposing 
(of a structure) 

j\jji siraz 2 Shiraz (city in SW Iran) 



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£^i Siraj sesame oil 
} 
%*£ $%ra a refreshment (made of fruit juice) 

Ul^ij^Ji Sizofraniya schizophrenia 

\ 1 JIl* M foil, rapier; jalousie, Venetian 
j blind | t ^ti\ U* mv'aUim a§-8. fencing 
instructor; ^IaJJI <*»} la'bat a§-§* fencing, 
'\ swcH^lplay 

2 iiii Stsa bottle of the narghile; narghile, 
hookah 

(Jjui) J»U Sdta i (itji Sail) to burn (esp. 
food) II to burn slightly, singe, scorch, 
sear (a s.th.) IV = II; V = I; X J*l*lJ 
U*i (gadaban) to be or become 
fuming with rage, flare up, fly off the 
handle 

^W-i II ta$aitana to behave like a devil 

ullsui saifdn pi. Cr^^r' saya$tn 2 Shaitan, 
Satan, devil, fiend 

jlk-i mitdnl Satanic, devilish, fiendish ; 
demonic, demoniac, hellish, infernal 



saitana devilry, villainy, dirty 



trick 



(*~!) fit m r a i (*~i sai% 9^J> suyu") to 
spread, be divulged, become known, 
become public (news); to spread (out), 
diffuse (J over) ; to fill, pervade, dominate 
(J s.o., s.th.; of a feeling); J pU to be 
generally attributable, be generally ap- 
plicable to s.th.; 4j gli to spread, 
divulge, publicize, circulate s.th.; make 
s.th. known, bring s.th. to public 
notice II to see (» s.o.) off, escort, 
accompany (* s.o.); to bid farewell 
(» to s.o,); to pay (* the deceased) the 
last honors; to send (a, * s.o., s.th.); 
to adhere (* to a faction) | «jL>-l ii~*~l 
htyyi*at il-janazatu the deceased was 



escorted to his final resting place, the 
funeral took place III to follow (J* * 
s.o. in), adapt o.s. (J* « to s.o. in); to 
conform, fall in (J» • with s.o. in); to 
side (Jp a, » with s.o., with s.th. in), 
take sides (Jp a, » for s.o., for s.th. in) 
IV to spread, divulge, publish, publicize, 
make known, bring to public notice, 
circulate (i^ or a s.th.) V to side ( j J 
with s.o., with s.th. in), take sides 
(J J for s.o., for s.th. in), join (J s.o., 
s.th., a faction), make common cause, 
hold (J with s.o.); to become a Smite; 
to pretend to be a Shiite VI to come to 
an agreement ( J* in, about) 

**Jt £Ta pi. £-i Uya' followers, 
adherents, disciples, faction, party, 
sect; <^jj| the faction of Ali, the Shiah, 
the Shiites (that branch of the Muslims 
who recognize Ali, the Prophet's son-in- 
law, as his rightful successor); pi. f\J>\ 
asya' adherents, followers, partisans 

( j^J> B r i Shiitic; (pi. -un) Shiite 

^Li Uya r community (of property) 
{jur.) 

^jJ> $uyu' publicity, spread, circula- 
tion (of news) | f^iJl ,J*> in common, 
jointly, in joint possession 

iJ-Jr* 5uyv> r * communistic, communist; 
(pi. -un) a communist 

*~cj~Z suyu'iya communism 

pjjj tasyl'i SjbU *^£j t. al-jandza fu- 
neral, burial 

4*j UU musdya'a partisanship, partiality 

5pUI isaa spreading, publication, 
circulation (of news); (pi. -at) rumor; 
news, information 

O V^l isd'iya collectivism {pel.) 

gja tasayyu* partisanship, partiality, 



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bias (J for) ; Shiism, adherence to Shiite 
doctrines 

*JU sa?i widespread ; (well-) known, 
public; general, universal; common, 
joint | jl jJLiJl it is rumored that . 
fjij& «*jU widely known, widespread 
common; Jlj-w-Vl fJLi in general use, 
commonly used, generally accepted; till. 
«jLi (milk) joint property 

a*jI£ seffa pi. -at, /o|>-i sawai 2 



*jLL. musayi* partial: adherent, par- 
tisan 

9 Li* musct widespread; (well-) known, 
public; general, universal; common, 
joint; joint (or collective) ownership, 
joint tenancy (I si. Law) ; public property, 
public domain 

JlL* mutasayyi' partial; partisan 



9-UJL. mustd" partner, co-partner, oo- 
owner 

.J^i II to cut up, chop or slice (a fruit) 
(JsUil asydf (pi.) cuts, slices 

bjLJ- $ifun chiffon (fabric) 

jji see 3jZ> 

x jJLi (Fr.) slk chic 

dLii a$yak 2 very chic 

2 dLi (Fr. cheque) iek, slk pi. -a/ check | dLi 
4^-UJi traveler's check 

Lij^SLi (It. cicoria) sikoriyd chicory 

*j*^5Li sikoldta chocolate 

1 (J^) ^ ^° * ^° cari T> convey, transport 
{* s.th.); to raise, elevate, lift (a s.th.) 



2LJ, saila pi. -at load, burden 

4JLi siyala carrying, carriage, con- 
veyance, transportation (of loads); por- 
terage, carrying charges 

jLi sayyal pi. -ww, <JL^ soyj/dk 
porter, carrier 

ilLi sayyala suspender j 

J Li* masal carrying, carriage, con- 
veyance, transportation (of loads); por- 
terage, carrying charges 

2 JU pi. u*>Li look up alphabetically 

^iUi kilo cello 

Li sailam darnel (Lolium temulentum; 
hot .) ; a variety of vetch 

jLLi sllman (coll. ; n. un. I) steel girders {ir.) 

J^i sill Chile; Chilean 

(*-^) >Li sdma i to look out (a for), be on 
the lookout, watch; to expect (a s.th.), 
hope (a for) 

\+J> si ma pi. -at, *>£• $iyam character 
trait, personal characteristic; natural dis- 
position; innate quality 

i»Li sdma pi. -at, pU iam mole, nevus, 
birthmark 

L*^ svmiya pi. jrLi saydmi (eg.) vor- 
tex, whirlpool, eddy 

4*^ maslma pi. rLi* masdyim* pla- 
centa (6ioZ.); chorion, membrane envel- 
oping the fetus (bioL) 

1 (i>-^) ^ sana * d>i iatn) to disfigure, 
disfeature, mar, dishonor, disgrace (a, a 
s.o., s.th.) | <or* uU (sum'atahu) to de- 
tract from s.o.'s good reputation II = I 



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{/,£ sain disfigurement, marring, dis- 
' honoring, disgracing; disgrace, shame 

Jli scfin dishonorable, scandalous, 
disgraceful 

(jvJL. musayyin dishonorable, scandal- 
ous, disgraceful 



8 j*£ sin name of the letter ( J- 
^U look up alphabetically 

»Li pi. of »li, wee jj-i 



L^> 



j* abbreviation of 4>*jU* safka page (of a 
book or newspaper) 



V^ 



abbreviation of JUjJl dj-^-*' sunduq 
al-barld post-office box, p. o. b. 

ul^ sw'a& (coll.; n. un. I) pi. uLw» si'ban y 
oLi^e sibdn nit 

Ij^jLs^ see 2 yw» 

o^jLo see ^.^ 

rU 5a? thin sheet iron; sheet metal; gal- 
vanized iron; bread tin, baking tin | 
*JLi* r-Lo (mudalla) corrugated iron 

rU b t^a saAt — ^^ Lj ya sahibi 

si* sad name of the letter ^ 

\l* sag in order, right, proper, sound, 
regular, standard; (formerly, Eg., Sudan) 
major (in army and police) j M«o *L^ 
( r mla) standard currency; fL* ^c 
(jW) standard piaster; Jjl f-L* (awwal) 
major, ulj f-U* (tanin) colonel (.4/gf. ; mi7.) ; 
^UI Jji fL* (Turk, sa$ kolagast) adju- 
tant major (formerly, Eg.; mil.) 

<1L# (It. mfo) saZa pi. -at hall, large room 

jj)L> (Fr.) sdlun, salon pi. -d£ salon; parlor; 



saloon: barber shop; beauty parlor | *j^ 
j^JU» 'arabat s. parlor car, club car; 

(jord.) ^j^**- i>jll*> private car, j^IL* 
^j-^ taxi 

Hjj>[^> see *}j£* samula 

t_sL> sa'a a i ( J^ sa%) to twitter, chirp (of a 
bird) 

«_«* sabba u (sabb) to pour, pour forth, cast, 
empty, fill (J a s.th. into); to impose (»^ 
balaan a trial, Jp upon s.o.) | SjU <^a to 
make a raid (J* on); — w i (sa66) to be 
poured out; to pour forth, shed, flow (J 
into); to run, discharge (j into the sea; 
river); to befall (Jp s.o.), come upon s.o. 
(Jp); — (list pers. perf. mbibtu) a (<jIw» 
sababa) to love ardently (Jf s.o.) V to 
pour forth, shed, flow; to drip, over- 
flow (a with), be bathed (a in); to 
dissolve, melt, deliquesce j U^ ^ .. *a* 
('araqan) to be wet with perspiration, be 
dripping with sweat; <clu>- ^ 3>y^ i ~rr a ^ 
{"araqu) sweat was dripping from his 
brow VII to be poured out, pour forth, 
flow, shed, effuse, gush out; to be intent, 
be bent (J* or Jl on), be out for (J* or Jl), 
to apply o.s. (J* or Jf to s.th.), study, 
endeavor (J* or Jl to be or do s.th.); to 
be aimed, directed, oriented (Jp at), bear 
upon (J*) 

u~* sabb pouring; casting, founding 



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(of metal); cast; flow, gush; outpour, 
effusion; ardently in love, enamored 



$abab pi. wL^I asbab declivity; 
slope, incline, hillside 



§<Mb poured out, shed, spilled; 
blood; sweat, perspiration 

ijL-* pabdba ardent love, for vent long- 
ing 

<jLu» subaba rest, remainder, remnant 

<^i4a mambb pi. -at, u^Ua* tna0bb 2 
outlet, escape, drain; mouth (of a 
river, and the like); drainpipe; end, open- 
ing (of a tube) ; funnel opening 

V_jr*" masbub lead (metal) ; pi. w^Lj*^ 
cast -metal goods, foundry products 

1 U* §aba y a a (*j?** $ubu) to grow (tooth, 
nail), sprout (plant); — saba'a a to turn 
(Jl to, toward) 

2 *jL# $abi' Sabian; Mandaean, see the 
following 

&UJ1 as-sdbVa the Sabians, desig- 
nation of two different sects: 1) the 
Mandaeans, a Judaeo-Christian gnostic, 
baptist sect in Mesopotamia (Christians 
of St. John), used in this sense in the 
Koran. 2) The Sabians of Harrfin, a 
pagan sect extant as late as the 11th 
century A. D, 

^-v» sabaha a {mbh) to offer a morning 
draught (» to s.o.); — sabuha u (JU-L*» 
sabaha) to be beautiful, graceful, hand- 
some, comely, pretty; to beam, be 
radiant (face) II to offer a morning 
draught (» to s.o.); to come in the 
morning (» to s.o.); to wish a good 
morning (Jt or « to s.o.) Ill <u-U j «^Uaj 
he attends to it mornings and evenings, 
he is constantly, incessantly occupied 
with it IV to begin a new day; to wake 



up in the morning; to be or be found in 
the morning ( j at a place); to becortft 
clear, come to light, appear; (with ace) 
to become, come to be (a.th.); to get (j 
into a situation), reach a state; (with foil, 
imperf.) he has now come to a point 
where . . ., it has gone so far that now , . ,| 
^LmJI £r^' {§abahu) it became morning; 
jyi- Jp «*** I to have a good morning, be- 
gin the day happily; j*>- Jc ^S (t^Uh) 
parting word at night : may you be well 
tomorrow morning! I jl <i»Juj ^a\ IS! <U 
i y\ (amsd) he does it mornings and eve- 
nings, he does it all the time, incessantly; 
jA-i £*m»I (haqqu) truth has come to light; 
4i o^wij ^Ljl r^»l (yadhakuna) it 
has gone so far that people laugh at him; 
J*«i«j £~*l (ijustefmalu) it has become 
current, it has now come into general 
use; .iilj j Jii*1 c*>~*\ (atahaffazu) 
I have now become cautious in this 
matter; J*ij *-*« i he no longer did (so); 
*J*-J d £r*i I it no longer existed; 
*~*tj* J*--> SjL y S rr**^ (balda, rajul) a 
foreigner turned up in the town; j wl 
OlSCVi (imkdn) it became possible; *^*l 
»^iJl 4j the matter fell to his lot, came into 
his possession, became his property; «^l 
U^i a*. J J* see X; VIII to have a 
morning draught; to light (a s.th., e.g., 
a lamp); to use for lighting (^ s.th.) 
X to begin the day; to use for lighting 
(t^ s.th.) | o*$i A^-ji ^a^A {bi-wajhi /.) 
to begin the day by seeing s.o.'s face 
(the looks of which, in popular super- 
stition, are considered as a good or bad 
omen for the whole day) = IV Jt ^1 

£y~* §ubh pi. ^U*»l a?bah dawn; 
daybreak; morning; (ellipt, for £_*]| 1%, 
salat as-3.) morning prayer (at dawn) 



?ubha early morning; breakfast, 
morning meal 

r^r* sabah morning; U-L^ sabdhan 



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585 



-** 



in the morning j »L~» r\~+ §abaha masa'a 
in the morning and in the evening, 
mornings and evenings; ^jJI £^~* §oba* 
ha l-yaum this morning; „*J-'Tj ^sJUL**, 
jJ-'L ^L** (6i-(-Jfcair) good morning! f 
UUtf ( f tm) do, 

^-L^ $abahi morning (adj.) 

^L^ $ubah and oU^~* ?abhdn 2 , f. 
^^ pa&Aa pretty, comely, handsome, . 
beautiful, graceful 

££-* §abih pi. ^U* ?»6oA pretty, 
comely, handsome, beautiful, graceful 

«*-L*» $abdka beauty, gracefulness, 
grace 

^ £<2&*/wj morning 

r^ pafcwfc morning draught; beauti- 
ful as the early day; radiant, bright (face) 

rU** mifbah pi. ^jL** ma$abih 2 
lamp; light, luminary (also fig.); head- 
light (of an automobile) | «»1>V1 ^U-** 
incandescent light, light bulb ; OLiT^L^u 
[JcaSSdf) searchlight; JLj^^T ^V*** (& ffl ^* 
raM'i) electric light, light bulb; ^U-*-» 
jjJj jlj j ^T(yarfawJ) electric flashlight 

*-Lm#I tpfeaA morning 

^Uai-1 istipbdh illumination, light- 
ing | ^-L^u-Vl jU illuminating gas 

£«a» muqbih staying, or found, in the 
morning ( j at a place) 

£-a. mu$bah morning 

V~* $abara i ($abr) to bind, tie, fetter, 
shackle (• s.o.); to be patient, be for- 
bearing, have patience, take patience, 
persevere ; to bear calmly , patiently , 
stoutly, endure (J* s.th.); to refrain, 
abstain, desist (^ from), renounce (jp 
s.th.); to hold one's own (J against 
s.o.), withstand (J s.o.) II to ask (* 
s.o.) to be patient; to admonish (» s.o.) 



to be patient; to console, comfort, 
solace (a the heart); to make (a s.th.) 
durable; to conserve (a s.th.); to pre- 
serve, can (> s.th.) | -d»j j^ (bapnahu; 
eg.) to have a snack III to vie in pa- 
tience (» with s.o.); to bear stoutly 
V to bo patient, be forbearing, have or 
take patience, persevere YIII = V 

j~* $abr fettering, shackling; pa- 
tience, forbearance; composure, equa- 
nimity, steadfastness, firmness; self- 
control, self-command, self-possession ; 
perseverance, endurance, hardiness | 
!jw» 4.l:j qatalahu mbran to kill s.o. 
in captivity; J ^ V (^abra) I cannot 
bear it! this is unbearable! ^rwJl <i* qillat 
a?-?, impatience; ^wJ! JJUi impatient; 
e>** Jj qalla pabruhu to be impatient; 
to lose patience; pjU ^-^ ^y J Jri (* 
lam yabqa fl qausi sabrl minza' (there is 
no arrow left for the bow of my patience, 
i.e.) my patience is at an end 

j^j* §abir, §abr aloe (bot.) 

lj%^> $abm severe cold 

»jy^ svbra heap, pile; subratan sum- 
marily, on the whole, in the lump 

j ! w» sabbar (very) patient, enduring, 
perse verant, steadfast 

jL^» subar, mibbar Indian fig (Opuntia 
ficus-indica; bot.) 

j-.^> subbair Indian fig (Opuntia ficus- 
indica; bot.) 

jj~* sab Fir pi. jyu> subur (very) patient, 
enduring, perseverant, steadfast 

2jLm» sabara and mbdrra severe cold 

j-*\ asbar 2 more persistent (J* at 
s.th.); steadfaster 

S v ^^ r ^J tasblra (eg.) light meal in the 
forenoon, a snack 

lj\-** mvsdbam long-suffering, lon- 



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ganimity, endurance, perseverance, pa- 
tience, forbearance 

jLkvtfl istibar patience, forbearance, 
endurance, perseverance 

j\j» sdbir patient, long -suffering, en- 
during, perseverant, steadfast 

kl>ij-.^t* mumbburdt conserves, canned 
goods 

2 j^> sabbara to ballast {* a sliip) 

ljjA^> sabura ballast of a ship 

*~^ sabaa a (sab*) to point with the finger 
(J* or <y at); to insert one's finger (U 
into the hen, so as to ascertain whether 
she is going to lay an egg) 

* rv a\ isba pi. iuU^I asdbi 1 finger; toe 
(also f-u!l »~*f\ i, al-qadaw); a linear 
measure (Eg.; — 3.125 cm); key {oT a 
piano); popsicle; lollipop \ Lf S\kJ\ j^ £J.L*I 
French fried potatoes; y-V wl lip- 
stick; J^-Jl ajLsI a. as-sujuq frank- 
furters: ^jIs^VI <*-aJ basmat al-a. finger- 
print; /uL»V *jUs> do.; ^M lia j ^.^»! <J 
he has a hand in this matter 



f-Lv? -n<ba r (eg.) finger; toe (also 

^JJiJI pL^> s. al-qadam) 

? j~^>\ usbu pi. a^Us'I a$ubl*~ finger; 



a-..^. musabba gridiron, grill 

i~^ sabaga u i a (saby, sibag) to dye, stain 
(a s.th.,' e.g., a fabric), color, tint, 
tinge, paint, daub {* s.th.); to give s.th. 
(») the air, touch, or appearance (i_-> of 
s.th.); to dip, immerse (a s.th., j in 
water); to baptize (* s.o.) | 4iw» 4k*^> 
(5j±\ (sibgatan ukrd) to transform, 
change s.o. VII to be dyod, be or become 
colored or tinted VIII to be dyed, be or 
become colored or tinted ; to be baptized, 
receive baptism 



**-*» sibg pi. H^"' asbdg color, dye, 
dyestuff; pigment; (coat of) paint, 
varnish; make-up, grease paint, face 
paint 

Sjl^ sibga color, dye, dyestuff; pig. 
ment; tincture (med.); coloring, tinge, 
tint, shade, hue, nuance, touch, air; 
nature, character; (coat of) paint, var- 
nish; baptism; religion | u^J VI '**«,* 8, 
al-afyun tincture of opium, laudanum; 
j^Ji Aiw* s. al-yud tincture of iodine; 
lAsi- Ik**? (mahalllya) local touch, local 
color; 4-xi-^ y ^j^-^ (akrajaku) to 
change, disfigure s.o. or s.th. 

^yw* sibgi pi. -at chromosome (bid.) 

f-L^ sibag pi. iw>l asbiga color, dye, 
dyestuff; spice, condiment, seasoning, 
sauce 

9-L-^> sabbdg dyer 

A£-L^s> sibdga dyer's trade, art of 
dyeing or staining 

masbaga dyehouse, dye works 



*jL^ sabig dyer; baptist j ijUaJl l^j 
(yuhannd) John the Baptist 

?j~*a masbug dyed, stained, colored, 
tinted; having a touch or air (<_-> of); 
influenced («-j by); imbued (^ with) 

4>w> II to soap, rub with soap (a s.th.) 

OjjL*> sdbun soap j j^jL^JI J~ hajar 
as-s. soapstone, steatite 

£!jjL? sabuna (n. un.) a cake of soap 

J_yjL* sabuni soapy, soap-like, sap- 
onaceous, made of soap 

OL*^ sdbban soap boiler 

iu^t* masbana soap works 

(^j^) L^> sa&a « (sabw, subuw, L^» «t&an, 
^L^ sa&a') to be a child, be childish; — 



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587 



(mbuw, ~*j?* sabwa) to bend, incline 
(Jl to), feel sensual desire (Jl for); to 
strive (J! for), aspire (Jl to); — ^^ 
sabiya a (»Lm* saba, L^» siban) to behave 
like a child, act in a childish manner 
II to rejuvenate, render youthful again 

V to behave like a child, act in a childish 
manner; to incline to youthful pleasures; 
to rejuvenesce, undergo rejuvenation, 
regain youth, become young again; to 
woo, court (U a woman) ; to tempt, entice, 
captivate, charm (* s.o., * the heart) 

VI to behave like a child X = VI 



Utf saban f., pi. 
asba' east wind 



sabawat, »L*s>t 



Lstf, fS ^t siban childhood, boyhood, 
maidenhood, youth; youthfulness; incli- 
nation, propensity, bent, longing, desire 

A~* saba" childhood, boyhood, youth; 
youthfulness 

"op-* sabwa youthful passion; amorous 
disposition; sensual desire; childish man- 



j~* subuw youthful passion; amorous 
disposition; sensual desire; childish man- 
ners 

*jy* subuwa childhood, boyhood, 
youth; youthfulness 



g* sably pi. 
sibyan, subydn, '• 
lad 



■ sibya, sabya, oL^* 
I asbiya boy, youth, 



cw» sabiya pi. bU-^s- sabayd girl; 
young girl 

jLw> sibydnl boyish, childlike; child- 
ish, puerile; children's 

IJL-* sib ydnl y a childlike, infantile 
nature (of a person) 

yU» sdbin youthful, juvenile, thought- 
less, rash 



^^9 see j~j* 

P^> sahha i (X*? sihha, -Aj? sahah) to be 
healthy; to be all right, be in order; to 
recover, recuperate (j* from); to heal 
(of a wound); to be sound, strong, 
vigorous, firm, right, correct, faultless, 
unimpaired, unblemished; to be firm, 
unshakable (resolution) ; to be admissible, 
permissible; to be true, authentic, 
certain, sure; to prove true, turn out 
to be true; to hold good, go (J* for), 
apply (J*- to), be true (J* of); to result 
or follow definitely (jp from); to be a 
fact, turn out (J for); to become a fact; 
to be successful, work out well (J for 
s.o.); to fall to s.o. or to s.o.'s share (J) | 
Jp ocjp c*s& or -ujp £w> ( e azmuhu) he 
was firmly resolved to . . ., his mind was 
made up to . . .; <ul* i£*VI £~aj it may 
serve as a basis; <us JUL o\ tw*j it is 
rightly said of him . . .; oUS^I J ?*~# to 
appear right, adequate, reasonable II to 
restore to health, cure, heal (* s.o.); to 
correct, emend, rectify (a s.th.); to pre- 
pare a critical edition (a of a text); to 
legalize, authenticate (a a document), 
certify, confirm, attest (a the authenticity 
of a document), sign (a a document); to 
impose one's signature, undersign (magr.) 
V to undergo correction, emendation, 
rectification, be corrected, emended, rec- 
tified X to regain health; to recover, 
recuperate (j* from) 

<^ sihha health; hygiene; faultless- 
ness T rightness, soundness, correctness; 
truth, genuineness, verity, veracity, 
credibility, authenticity; validity; legal 
validity, legality j iL*^**Jl <>wJl Sjljj 
("umumiya) Ministry of Public Health 
(Eg.); <L ili l*^* (najslya) mental hy- 
giene; oyi 4p*^» Jp ^jjX to drink to s.o.'s 
health 

^e sihhl wholesome, salubrious, 
healthy, healthful (diet, and the like); 



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I 



sanitary; hygienio | t f»*l\ jt^\ (mahjar) 
quarantine 

£>*» pahih pi. ^t** pihak* *\"\ 
afihha' 2 , *&\ apihha healthy, well, 
sound, healthful; complete, integral, 
perfect; whole, entire, undivided; right, 
correct, proper; true, veritable, aotual, 
real; authentic, genuine, truthful, re- 
liable, credible, believable; valid, le- 
gally valid, legal, lawful, rightful; strong 
{gram,; of a consonant, a verb) | *r; 
£**? (jam") sound plural (ending in £>j 
-un or £j\ -at; gram); ^J* ^4* (*adad) 
whole number, integer (math.) ; . . . £^ 
*bl (annahu) true, he was (he is) . . ., 
he was (he is), it is true, » , . 

£*»! asahh* sounder, healthier; more 
correct, more proper | £->VI J* jl or 
more properly speaking 

A*?\ ashdh, isteh chapter of the 
Holy Scriptures (Chr>) 

^oa ma$aKh pi. -at sanatorium; 
health retreat, sanitarium 



majohha that which promotes 
or is conducive to health; sanatorium 

«~>wsJ tashlh correction, rectification; 
emendation, critical revision 

^a* musahhih Q vernier (of a range 
finder) | 4JLL.I «*^ll (asfalaKu) the 
undersigned 

**» sahiba a (i*& $uhba, *A*? §ak8ba f 
§ihaba) to be or become a companion, 
an associate, a comrade, a friend (» of 
s.o.), make or become friends, be 
friends (» with s.o.); to associate, have 
social intercourse (» with s.o.); to 
accompany, escort (• s.o.); to be closely 
associated (» with s.o.) Ill — I; to ac- 
company (» s.o., also mus.); to keep 
(* s.o.) company IV to send along, 
delegate as companion or escort (* 



or * for s.o. s.o. else or s.th,) VI to 
have social intercourse, associate U 
with); to become friends, be friends (« 
with) VIII to accompany, escort (• s.o.); 
to take (* s,o.) as companion or escort, 
have o.s. escorted or aooompanied (» 
by s.o.) ; to take along (* s.th., * & 
companion) X to take as companion or 
esoort, take along 

<»** tuhba friendship, companionship, 
comradeship; accompanying, company, 
esoort; association, intercourse; friends, 
companions, associates, oomrades; (eg,) 
nosegay, bunch of flowers; §uhbata ao- 
oompanied by; with | IJU v* (##<*&) 
herein enclosed 

1>U«**)I a$~?ah&ba the Companions of 
the Prophet Mohammed 

tjLtM* paMbl a Companion of the 
Prophet Mohammed 

V-^** «*«^#a6a accompanying, com- 
pany, esoort; accompaniment (mw.) 

uUk«l ipfifydb aooompanying, com- 
pany, escort; association 

c-*-L» $&h%b pi. wU*l a§hab t ^ 
$ahb t *A& $a$8ba, 0U** $uhban, \# 
$uhba associate, companion, comrade, 
friend; adherent, follower; the other 
(of two); (with foil, genit.) man, owner, 
possessor, holder, master, lord, com- 
mander, representative, author or origi- 
nator of . . .; entrusted with; addicted 
or given to; rL* L yd $dki — ^»-U# L 
yd pdhibi I j*y\ t^^-U* p. al-avnr ruler, 
master, overlord, sovereign ;^yi u^L* 
shipowner; SJ'sU-l o*-U# ?. al-jaUUa His 
Majesty; JU- t-^-L* the noun to which a 
circumstantial phrase (fml) refers; ^U 
IUjjJI §. ad'davla (formerly) title of the 
Prime Minister (Eg.); j^jJI ^*-L* $. ad- 
dain creditor; **ij\ ._-»-L* §. ar-rifa 
(formerly) title of the Prime Minister 
(Eg.); oU^JI <^*-L* *. aa-mjjada title of 



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580 



the leaders of certain dervish orders in 
their capacity of owners of the founder's 
prayer rug; oL-Jl »-**-U* £. at-wf&da 
title of a pasha; JU-L-Jl <--»-L* £. cw- 
Htm&ka title of a mufti, approx. "His 
Eminence"; $3l\ >~J ^^L* £ as- 
mmuw al-nialaki His Royal Highness; 
oliji t-.L^'l o. a$-$a*n those concerned; 
the important, influential people; «-»^' 
ol^Jjl «. a£-htbuhdt dubious persons, 
people of ill repute; ^IWI <^*-L» (for- 
merly) Keeper of the Seal (of the Bey of 
Tunisia); »J*II <_*»-U» s. al-'izza title of 
a bey; <Ji*JI ^*-U* £. al-'azama His 
Majesty; JU11 <_**~L* aZ-ma'aft title 
of a cabinet minister; J**JI «_-*-U-» ?. 
aj-'amal employer; ^Jl <-*-L* «. aZ- 
ffttya title of the Coptic Patriarch; 
il.Uftll ^U> title of Islamic theologians 
and sheiks, such as Rector and Profes- 
sors of Al Azhar University; ^SCiJI t-^-L-* 
£. oZ-Jifcro father to the thought, the 
originator of an idea; gij\ fUil u^L* 
{$. al-maqdm) formerly, title bestowed on 
hearers of the order Sj'^iJl established 
hy FuadI in 1936; Jl^I ^jjj *~>\**\ 
the capitalists; >otfVl v^ authors; 
journalists; jJ»i ,_-*-U» j* he has a legal 
claim ( J to), is a legal claimant; ._-»-L*^* 
j J*ii]| (§. al-fadl) it is he whom we have 
to thank for, he deserves credit in 

o-U» §ah%ba pi. -at, <^>-\y+ £awa/u& 2 , 
£jL>-\j*0 smmhibdt fern, of «-**-Us> woman 
companion, etc. ] «J:>U-I <-**U» s. al-jalala 
Her Majesty; JUI j*-JI 4-»-U# *. as- 
mmuw al-malaH Her Royal Highness; 
w*J1 i^U» 5. aZ-*i?ma title of a lady of 
high social standing 

§mmihib friend (diminutive of 



c^L*) 

<^>j+0 mwaihiba pi. -at girl friend 
(diminutive of *-*-L*) 

mashub accompanied (<-> by); 



attended (<-* with); associated (v with); 
provided (^ with) 

^i o^Aar*, f. »l^ $afcrfl** desertlike; of the 
color of desert sand; desolate, bleak 

*\j* $ahr&* pi. jU* $aA$r»n, tfjU* 
saAara, oljl^» $aArau>5i desert, steppe; 
•ljL-ll and tfjia J^**)! (Jbtftm) the 
Sahara | v^ 1 •Ij-wJi {(w&amya) (for- 
merly) the Spanish Sahara 

<jj\j& sahrawi desert, desolate, waste | 
SjjI^*» ^ijl (arddin) desert areas 

2jL^ $ahhara pi. ,/^L** §ahdh%r* case, 
chest, crate, box 



II to misplace the diacritical marks; 
to misread, mispronounce, misspell (* a 
word) ; to misrepresent, distort, twist (a 
a report, etc.) V to be misread or mis- 
spelled (word) 

<a*? pakfa pi. J»l^ $ihaf bowl, dish, 
platter 

ii^ suhaifa saucer 

<Lje sahifa pi. <Jl*** siihuf, ^JwU** 
$ahaif* leaf (in a book or notebook), page; 
newspaper, paper, daily, journal; epi- 
dermis; surface; exterior | »L*^JI <L*~d\ 
(batda*) honorable name, honor 

i y& $uhuft, §ahaf% newspaper-, news-, 
press- (in compounds), journalistic; (pi. 
-fin) newspaperman, journalist | j& jX> 
(mu'tamar) press conference 

ijUf* sihafa journalism, news business; 
the press 

jU? sihafi journalistic; journalist, 
newspaperman, newsman 

<i\*? sihafiya woman journalist 

J>U? sahhdf newspaper seller 



mushaf pi. 



moQdhif* 



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volume; book; copy of the Koran ; ., 
the Koran (= (Ju^JJI ^Jt****!.!) 



oj tashlf pi. -at misplacement of 
the diacritical marks; misspelling, slip of 
the pen; (grammatical) mistake; mis- 
representation, distortion 

J^ 9 sahal raucous voice 

1 i y^ > sahn pi. by* suhun bowl, dish; plate; 
dish, meal, food; yard, courtyard ; surface, 
plane; disk; dish antenna (of an observa- 
tory; astron.); Q concave mirror (of a 
telescope; opt.); (pi. k^e\ ashina) phono- 
graph record, disc (tun.) |jIjJI ^ court- 
yard, patio; j\^J\ j**> ashtray; ^ Jp 
■U-'l (s. al-kadd) on the (surface of the) 
cheek 

Oj»~ajk mashun ground, brayed, pound- 
ed, crushed, grated 

2 * ] cj& sahndh sardine 

(j*? and j&) L*a* sahd u {mhw) and ,j& 
sahiya a (L** 9 sahan) to be or become 
clear, bright, cloudless, serene (day, 
sky); — (j£? mhw, sukilw) to regain 
consciousness, come to; to recover (j* 
from intoxication), sober up; to wake 
up, awake (j* from sleep); to become 
alert (Jf to s.th.), become aware (Jl of 
s.th.) II to wake up, awaken, rouse (* s.o.) 
IV to be or become clear, bright, cloudless, 
serene (day, sky); to wake up, awaken, 
rouse (» s.o.) 

jf? sahiv cloudlessness, brightness, 
serenity (of the weather); clarity, alert- 
ness of the mind, consciousness; bright, 
serene, cloudless, sunny (weather) 

»y& sahwa awakening, recovery of 
consciousness ; state of consciousness 

^■U» sdhin bright, serene, cloudless, 
clear (weather); — (pi, -un, SU* 3 suhah) 



awake, wakeful, watchful, alert, vigilant; 
conscious; sober 

J*? sakiba a (sakab) to shout, cry, yell, 
clamor, roar, bellow; to scold (J* s.o., 
s.th.); to rage, roar, be loud VIII to raise 
a din, roar simultaneously, be tumultuous, 
resound in utter confusion, rage 

k^ sakab shouting, roar(ing), bel- 
lowing; noise, tumult; din, hubbub; 
raging 

^'j& sakib crying, yelling, noisy, 
clamoring, vociferous, roaring, raging 

<_jli*» sakkdb clamorous, boisterous 
roaring, bellowing, raging 

>_. 'UJa^l istikab noise, din, clamor, 
hubbub, uproar, tumult, turmoil, roar, 
raging 

»_^-U» sakib loud, noisy, clamorous, 
boisterous, vociferous, tumultuous, roar- 
ing, raging | S^-U» l£ (quwa) power of 
the voice 

(--iJa-A, mustahab noise, din, hubbub, 
tumult, raging, roar ( in g) 



j'js? sakr (coll.; n. un. *) pi. jj&> sujcur, I 
hj& sukura, Cj\J&* sakardt rocks, ; 
solid rock, boulders, rock formations; 
pi. jj'js? rock (geol.) 

lj*& sakra boulder, rock ] S^JI o 
qubbat as-s. the Dome of the Rock, the 
Mosque of Omar (in Jerusalem) ' 

i$J*& sakrl rocky, stony 

j*? sakir rocky, stony 

-Uo sadda u (sadd) to turn away, alienate, ' 
discourage, divert, deter, restrain, reject, 
send away (^ « s.o. from); to dis- 
suade (j& « s.o, from his desire); to 
repel, parry, ward off (a s.th., e.g., an 
attack); to hinder, prevent (j*. » s.o, ( 



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j^ 



from); to impede, hamper, stop, bring 
to a standstill (* s.o.); to resist, oppose 
(o s.o.) | ^jJI -UaJ V (nazara) it does not 
offend the eye, it is nice to look at; — in 
(sadd, ijJO sudud) to turn away (^ 
from), turn one's back (^ on s.o., on 
s.th.); to stay away, remain aloof (ja- 
from s.th.) II to suppurate, maturate, 
fester IV do. V to face, confront (J s.o.) 

JU> sadd averting, turning away; check- 
ing, stopping; repulsion, rejection; hinder- 
ing, impeding, obstruction, prevention; 
resistance, aversion, reluctance 

aJU* sadad nearness, proximity; in- 
tention, purpose, design, aim; respect, 
regard, relation, concern, subject, matter; 
topic (of a discussion); sadada (prep.) 
opposite, in front of | jJU* Ja and jj-Usj 
opposite, ill front of; jJL* j concerning, 
regarding, re, with respect to; 2JLJI i la j 
in this respect, with regard to this, 
with relation to this, on this occasion, 
in this connection; ^1 ^ju<*j j* he is 
currently busy with s.th., he is at 
present occupied with a matter; g-J 
o-U*j jsi U J I (narjiu) we return to 
what is our present concern or to what 
we are just discussing 

■kJ~* sadid pus, matter 

^JbJL^ sadldl suppurative, purulent, 
festering 

JUa* masadd pi. -at (eg.) low, planted 
earthen wall (holding sand back from 
arable land) 

-Ua* misadd pi. -at bumper (railroad, 
auto) 

&X** sadia a (1ju» sada") and jJu* sadu'a u 
(»Jjl^ sadd' a) to become or be rusty, 
rust, oxidize II — I; to make (a s.th.) 
rusty, cause (a s.th.) to rust, corrode 
(a s.th.) 



Ijl^ sada rust; oxidation; smut, rust 
(plant disease) 

U\x*> sada* a rustiness 

^-Urf sadi rusty, rust-covered; dirty, 
mean, shabby 

I-Ui. musda rusty, rust-covered 

r -U* sadaha a (sadh, ^l-Lv* sudah) to chant, 
sing; to play («^> a song, a tune) 

^-JL^ sadak banner 

C^U-JU^ sadahdt (musical) strains 

O ^.sU* sddih note raised a semitone, 
a sharp (mus.) 

)X^> sadara u i (jj^* sudur) to go out, step 
out (y- or ^ of, from within); to proceed, 
emanate, arise, originate, stem (^ or 
j* from), have its origin (^ or ^ in) ; to 
come out, be issued, be promulgated (order, 
ordinance, law); to appear, be published 
(book); to leave, go out (mail); to go 
(Jl to); to happen, occur, come to pass; 
pass, sudira to have a chest complaint j 
jlA-I jp jJUs (jidd) to set about seriously, 
get to work earnestly; tfaljl jf jX^ 
to act on one's own volition; u->L^* <d jJU> 
a book by him has been published II to 
send, send oft, dispatch, forward (a s.th.) ; 
to export (a s.th.); to publish, bring out 
(a a book); to preface (a a book); to 
introduce, commence (<-j a a book with) 
III to seize, impound, confiscate (a 
s.th,); to urge, press hard (» s.o.) IV to 
send, send out, dispatch (a s.th.); to 
export (a s.th.); to issue (a s.th., e.g., 
banknotes, bonds), make out {a s.th., e.g., 
a passport); to publish, bring out (a s.th., 
e.g., a book); to give, issue (a an order); 
to pronounce, pass {a a legal sentence); to 
utter, express (a an opinion, a view) | 
JUxcU \y»\ jJU#l (am/ran bi-'tigdliM) he 
issued an order for his arrest V to be sent, 
be dispatched ; to occupy the leading 



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position, be in the lead (a of s.th.); to 
preside (a over), head (a a group) ; to take 
the front seat (a at a social gathering); 
to sit in the place of honor; to occupy 
the rear, facing the door (a of a hall or 
courtyard); to resist, oppose (J s.o.), 
stand in s.o.'s (J) way X to bring about, 
obtain (a s.th., esp. tC- hukman a legal 
judgment or sentence); to cause to be 
pronounced or issued (a e.g., en order 
or judgment); to issue (U>^. an ordi- 
nance) 

jX^ §adr pi. j >U» $udur chest, breast, 
bust; bosom, heart; front part, front; 
first hemistich; front side (of s.th.) 
facing the spectator; rear of a hall or 
room opposite the door; place of honor; 
leader, commander; beginning, start, out- 
set, commencement, inception; early peri- 
od, beginnings, dawn (fig.) |jIjl)IjJUo one 
who occupies the highest position in 
the house, who plays first fiddle in the 
house; ^^o-j j-u> (rahb) generosity, 
magnanimity; open-mindedness, broad- 
mindedness, liberality, frankness, candor; 
f^UVI j-U> early period of Islam, early 
Islam; ^Vl jJuJI title of the Grand 
Vizier in the Ottoman Empire; jl^Jl jJL^» 
?. an-ndhar daybreak, beginning of the 
day; >jJl j-U*» s. al-yaum morning, fore- 
noon; j-U* ji\ robin (zool.); jJuJl oLj 
bandt as-s. worries, anxieties, appre- 
hensions; j-uJl <_jU front door; j-uJl oli 
chest complaint; bottom of the heart, 
secret thoughts; jJuJI ^^-j rahb a§-s> 
generous, magnanimous; open-minded, 
broad-minded, liberal; free of mis- 
givings, unhesitating; j-uJI i^-^j do.; 
j-UeJl j^ dayyiq a§-§. annoyed, angry 
(i_j at); disgruntled, depressed; { y»^'-* 
jJU*Jl munqabid a$-s. dejected, low- 
spirited, crestfallen; jJU^Ji olSC makdn 
as-§. and j-u*Jl *jl£L* first place, preced- 
ence, priority, preeminence; jJU*Ji *-!j 
= j-uJI ^-j; oUjJI Ja IjJU* (zamdn) 



quite a stretch of time, for some time; 
j-U«J1 j in the foreground; »jJUj Jtf 
(sahkatna) to irritate s.o., make s.o. angry; 
*j-U* jyiil inSuraha §adruhu to be glad- 
dened, be pleased, be cheered, be happy, 
rejoice 

tSjX* sadrx pectoral, chest (used attrib- 
utively) | <ijJ^m *Jy (nasda) bronchitis 

♦jJL* sudra vest, waistcoat; camisole, 
(under)waist, bodice 

&jj-+ $udairi and hs^ pi* -& 
vest, waistcoat; bodice 

j1ju» piddr vest, waistcoat; (under-) 
waist, bodice; O sleeveless jersey 

SjlJU* ?adara t gidara precedence; pres- 
idency, chairmanship; first place, pre- 
eminence; grand vizierate, office, chan- 
cellery, or position, of the Grand Vizier 
(Mor.) | «jlju*Jl ol£* makdn a§~§. first 
place, preeminence 

jjJU» svdur coming out, appearance, 
publication (e.g., of a book), issuance 
(e.g., of an ordinance) 

jX^. masdar pi. jiL** masddir* start- 
ing point, point of origin; origin, source 
(fig.); (gram.) infinitive, verbal noun; 
absolute or internal object | JjUJI j-Uall 
ibid., loc.cit, (with citations in books); 
i»U»li jjUa* energy resources 

j***$ tasdlr sending (off), dispatch, 
forwarding; exportation, export; preface, 
foreword (of a book); issuance; pi. 
oljr-Uu exports, export goods 

SjiUa* musddara seizure, confiscation 

j1jU»1 isddr exportation, export; issue, 
issuance, bringing out, edition, publi- 
cation; making out, issuance | jy* 
jIju^VI masrif al-i> bank of issue; jl.JU*l 
>»LSC*-V! giving or voicing of (personal) 
judgments; pronouncement of (legal) 



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J»JU> 



judgments; Silfi j1ju*I issuance of a 
certificate 

jlJUaiJ isti?dar issue, making out; 
issuance 

jiU» §adir going out, emanating, 
originating; issued, come out, published, 
etc.; exportation, export; yield; jaUJI 
outgoing mail (as opposed to jjljJI in- 
coming mail); olpLJl export goods, 
exports 

jjJUa* mapdur affected with a pectoral 
ailment, phthisical, consumptive, tuber- 
cular 



• mu§addir pi. -un export merchant, 
exporter 

jiU*« musadar: SpLa* Jl>»l confiscated 
property 

£JL# qada'a a {§ad r ) to crack (* an object), 
cause {A an object) to crack; to break 
(# through obstacles), conquer, over- 
come, surmount (a obstacles, difficul- 
ties) | jJ-b £X* {fymq) to come out 
openly with the truth; ^*L £JU* (amr) 
to execute an order, comply with an 
order; pass. §vdi*a to have or get a 
headache II to cause a headache (t> to 
s.o., also <*lo dimagahu); to bother, 
harass, trouble («^>U- katirahu s.o.) ; pass. 
gwldi'a to have or get a headache V to get 
ft crack, become cracked; to develop 
breaks or flaws; to become fragile, full 
of cracks {relationship, friendship); to 
separate (jp from), part (^ with) VII to 
crack; to be rudely interrupted; to break 
(dawn) 

f-JUtf $ad* pi. fj-*~* sudu' crevice, 
fissure, crack, break, rift, cleft 

fjJU* sudd? headache 

f JU«3 ta$add%C breach, rift 



pj jUa. masdu* having a crack, cracked, 
broken 

9-JUax* m%ta§addi* cracked; full of 
cracks; brittle, fragile 



gJU* ?udg pi. jJ-JL*! asddg temple {anat.); 
earlock, lovelock (also ^-U*J1 *~*> qu§§at 

^JU* pvdgi temporal (anat.) 



*J»JU» sadafa i u (sadf, *J»jJU* suduf) to turn 
away (^ from), avoid, shun (^ s.o., 
s.th.); — i (sadf) to turn (» s.o.) away 
(^ from), discourage, restrain, deter 
(^ * s.o. from); to happen by chance 
HI to find (a, » s.o., s.th.), meet (• s.o., 
a with s.th.); to meet unexpectedly, by 
chance (» s.o.), light (a, * on), come across 
s.o. or s.th. (a, »), run into s.o. or s.th. 
(a, »), encounter (a, » s.o., s.th.); to coin- 
cide, be coincident, concur (a with s.th.); 
to fall (a on a given date); to happen 
by chance, come to pass (b\ that) | 
oL***i*-VI (J».sL<» to meet with approval; 
<d£ JoL* (mahaUahu) to come in handily, 
be convenient, be opportune V to turn 
away ( jp from), avoid, shun (^ s.o., s.th.) 
VI to happen by chance, come to pass 

cJJLo $adaf (coll.; n. un. S) pi. JjI-u*I 
asddf pearl oyster, sea shell, conch | 
OV^I 4*JL^ s. al-udun external ear, 
auricle, pinna 

J»JU» sadaf, 4-iJU*]! ^^ marad a?- 
sadafiya a noncontagious skin disease, 
psoriasis (med.) 

JJU* sadaft sea-shell, shell (adj.); na- 
creous, mother-of-pearl (adj.) 

4»-U<» sudfa pi. <J)JUo sudaf chance, 
haphazard, coincidence, unexpected con- 
currence; «J-^» pudfakm by chance, by 
coincidence, accidentally | Si-UoJU or 
4»JU*aJI tjijai by chance, by coincidence, 



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accidentally; as chance will have it, 
haphazardly 

4*.sLa. musadafa pi. -at encounter, 
meeting; chance, haphazard, coincidence, 
unexpected concurrence; musddaj atari 
by chance, by coincidence, accidental] y 

J»j>Um musddif corresponding (J to), 
concurrent (J with a date of another 
chronological system), coincident (J with), 
falling (J on a given date) 

t)J-stf sadaqa u (sadq, sidq) to speak the 
truth, be sincere; to tell {* s.o.) the 
truth (jc about); to prove to be true, 
turn out to be correct, come true; to 
be right; to fit exactly (Jp s.o. or s.th.), 

a ppiy (J* *°)» hold true (J* °f) I 
a-Uj or »Apj j jju* (fi wa'dihi or wa f * 
dahu) to keep, or fulfill, one's promise; 
^U.—rfaJI •wJU*? (naslhata) to advise s.o. 
sincerely; <_Xi <w-U^ (hubba) to love s.o. 
sincerely, truly; Jp axx Jp i^Jjl^ he was 
firmly determined to . . .; Jp oJ cJx^ 
{niyyatuhu) he had the firm intention 
of . . . II to deem (a, & s.o., s.th..) cred- 
ible, accept (a s.th.) f s true, give credence 
(a, « to s.o., to s.th.), believe, trust (a, « 
s.o., s.th.); to consider or pronounce (a 
s.th.) to be true, right, correct or credible ; 
to believe (^> in); to give one's consent, 
to consent, assent, agree {J* to s.th.), 
approve (Jp of s.th.), grant, license, sanc- 
tion, certify, confirm, substantiate, attest, 
ratify; (officially) to certify (Jp the cor- 
rectness of a translation, signature, or 
copy) | (5-JUflj V {yusaddaqu) incredible, 
unbelievable; unreliable, untrustworthy; 
<_jii j\ Js-L^ saddiq au kaddib (as an af- 
firmative parenthesis) believe it or not 
HI to treat (* s.o.) as a friend; to main- 
tain one's friendship (<> with s.o.); to be or 
become friends (» with s.o.), befriend 
(b s.o.); to give one's consent, to con- 
sent, assent, agree (Jp to s.th.), approve 
(Jp of), grant, license, sanction, certify, 



confirm, substantiate ( Jp s.th.) ; (officially) 
to certify (Jp see II) IV to fix a (bridal) 
dower {U for a woman) V to give alms 
{^ to s.o.); to give as alms, donate (J* 
to s.o., v s.th.) 

J-U» sidq truth, trueness, truthfulness; 
sincerity, candor; veracity, correctness 
(of an allegation); efficiency; Uj^ 
sidqan truly, really, in truth 

a*-U» sadaqa pi. -at alms, charitable 
gift; almsgiving, charity, voluntary con- 
tribution of alms, freewill offering; 
legally prescribed alms tax {I si. Law) \ 
J*J6\ asx^, s. al-fitr almsgiving at the 
end of Ramadan (I si. Law) 

Jl-U> saddq, siddq pi. j-L* suduq, 
4j.u>l asdiqa (bridal) dower; — (pi. 
<*JU>1) marriage contract {tun.) 

iii-U^ sadaqa pi. -at friendship 

JjX^ sadiq pi. »U-U<»I asdiqa' 2 , »ii-U* 
sudaqd' 2 , jU.i^ sudqdn friend; friendly, 
connected by bonds of friendship 

Jj-U* saduq veracious, truthful, hon- 
est, sincere 

Jj-L*» siddiq strictly veracious, hon- 
est, righteous, upright; JJj-UaJi epithet of 
the first Caliph, Abu Bakr ; 

Jx^l asdaq 2 truer, sincerer; more I 
reliable; more truthful | uU/ jJUl 
Jp (a. burhdnin) the most reliable, or 
best, proof for . . .; Jj-U» J-U^l the most \ 
loyal, or best, friend 

JI-Ua. misddq confirmation, corrobo- 
ration, substantiation; touchstone, cri- 
terion 

Ji-uJ tasdiq belief, faith (<_j in); 
consent, assent, agreement (Jp to), 
approval, sanctioning, licensing, certifi- 
cation, confirmation, attestation, rat- 
ification; (official) certification (Jp of a 
translation, signature or copy) | 4*^ i 



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jj-U^Ji sur'at at-t. credulity; Jj>*-^ ^j" 
credulous 

iuoL*. mu$ddaqa consent, assent, agree- 
ment (Jp to), concurrence (J* in); 
approval, sanctioning, certification, con- 
firmation, attestation, ratification (J* 
of s.th.); (official) certification (Jp see 

cbLaj tasdduq legalization, authen- 
tication ( Jp of a document) 

JaL* sadiq true, truthful, veracious, 
sincere, candid; reliable; accurate, true, 
genuine, faithful, authentic 

«jUa* mvjaddiqa certificate, certifi- 
cation, attestation 

i3-La« musaddaq credible, believable, 
reliable, trustworthy | J-U*. j*- in- 
credible; Lr*j aJU JjLui* (rasmiyan) 
legalized, officially certified 

JjUtf look up alphabetically 

f JU $adama i {sadm) to bump, strike, knock, 
dash, bounce, bang, run (*, » against), 
hit (* upon); to run (« into s.o., e.g., 
an automobile); to shock (« s.o.); to col- 
lide, clash (^ with, e.g., train with car) 
III to bump, strike, knock, dash, bounce, 
bang, run (a, « against s.o. or s.th.); to 
resist, oppose (a, *> s.o., s.th.), battle (*, » 
against); to encounter (hostilely), clash; 
pass. {Sj~* sudima to be severely af- 
flicted ( v by) VI to collide (e.g., trains), 
encounter (armies); to clash, conflict 
{e,g., different opinions) VIII to collide, 
clash (<-> or *• with); to bump, strike, 
run (t^> against), hit (c-> s.th., e.g., a 
mine); to take offense (<-> at, e.g., at 
mistakes), take exception (o* to); to 
fail ( v due to), be thwarted (v by); 
= VI 

luJUtf sadma pi. sadamat push, thrust, 
jolt, shock, blow, stroke; upset, com- 



motion, (psychic) shock; obstacle, dif- 
ficulty | ijl> j ^5*i.JU» (kahrabaiya) electric 
shock 

Ax^> sidam collision, clash; break- 
down, collapse | jl-^-j pl-U* (wijdani) 
mental breakdown 

IoLa. musddama pi. -at collision, 
clash, impact 

fiUaj tasadum collision, clash; bounce, 
impact (v on ); upset, commotion, (psy- 
chic) shock | AiLasJl 4-U* buffer (railroad) 

Jok^l istidam pi. -at collision, clash; 
bounce, impact (»-> on); upset; commo- 
tion, (psychic) shock 

t^JU* §a4%ya a {sadan) to be very thirsty 
IV to echo, resound, reverberate V to 
occupy o.s. (J or Jl with); to turn, 
apply o.s. (J or Jf to s.th.); to under- 
take (J or Jl s.th.), embark (J or Jl 
upon); to oppose, resist, counteract, 
antagonize (J s.o.), throw obstacles in 
s.o.'s (J) way, be in s.o.'s (J) way; to 
accost {J s.o.) 

(^JU>, l-U* sadan pi. »Iju»I asda" echo, 
reverberation 

4jJUJ tasdiya hand clapping 

SbLa- miisaddk echolalia (psych.- 
path.) 

^ sarra i (sarr, j j^> sarlr) to chirp, strid- 
ulate (cricket); to creak (door); to 
squeak, screech; to grate, scratch; to 
gnash, chatter (teeth); to lace, cord, 
tie up, truss up, bind (a s.th.); to shove, 
put (j a money into a purse) ; to prick 
up (a or <_> one's ears) IV to persist 
(Jp in), insist (Jp on); to make up one's 
mind, resolve, determine, decide (Jp to 
do s.th.); to prick up (a or <~> one's ears) 

1 j* surra pi. jj^> surar (money) 
bag, purse; bundle, packet, parcel | 



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S^Jl or 0^*y-t *j«0 p. al-fyaramain the 
purra for Meooa and Medina, the tra- 
ditional funds sent by the different 
Islamic oountries (nowadays, e.g., by 
Egypt and Tunisia) with the hadj 
caravan to be distributed among the 
poor of Mecca and Medina; S^i <>.*! 
the Trustee of the surra (who is respon- 
sible for its delivery); ^jJUl 3^ cash 
remittance 

j s+ sarir chirping, stridulation (of 
crickets); squeaking, screeching 

j\j** sarrdr or JJi jl^ s t al-iail 
cricket (tool.) 

ij^s* §ar%ra coins wrapped in a purse 

j\j**\ isrdr persistence, perseverance 
(Jp in), insistence (Jp on) | jj^Vl J-- 
sabq al-i. premediation, willfulness (jur.) 

ja* musirr persistent, insistent; de- 
termined, resolute 

t-^Ji aS'Sirb Serbia; the Serbs 
ijj** sirbi Serbian 

rr* saruha u (k-i^ saraha, <*-jj~* suruha) 
to be or become pure, unadulterated, 
uncontaminated, clear; — saraha a 
{sarh) to make clear, clarify (* s.th.) II to 
make clear (* s.th.); to declare, state, 
announce (v s.th., ^1 or uL that), make a 
statement (<_* about); to speak out 
frankly, openly, be clear, be explicit (c->, 
tf. about), let (^, ^ s.th.) be known; to 
allow, permit, grant (»,-» J to s.o. s.th.); 
to license (o> s.th.), give a permit, grant 
a license (^ for) III to speak frankly, 
openly; to speak out frankly or openly, 
be clear, be explicit (t-» about), avow 
(i~» s.th.), let (v s.th.) be known; to tell 
s.o. (») frankly (^ s.th., ^1 that), declare 
openly, confess (<-> e.g., one's love, I* to 
a girl) IV to make clear, clarify, explicate, 
explain (a s.th.) VI to become clear, 



evident, manifest, come to light; to talk 
openly, frankly with one another VII to 
become evident, manifest, clear 

■£j+ sarh pi. rjs* suruh castle, 
palace, lofty edifice, imposing structure; 
(fig.) edifice, struoture 

r}s* surdh pure, unadulterated, un- 
contaminated, clear; distinct, plain, 
obvious, evident, patent, manifest, un- 
ambiguous, unequivocal 

Aj~* $a,rih pi. fU-^ jMtroAo* 8 , J\^ 
sard*ih % pure, unadulterated, uncon- 
taminated; clear; distinct, plain, obvious, 
evident, patent, manifest, unambiguous, 
unequivocal; open, frank, sincere, candid; 
free, openhearted 

4*J^ saraha clearness, clarity, dis- 
tinctness, plainness; unambiguousness; 
openness, frankness, candor, sincerity, 
openheartedness; sardhatan clearly, plain- 
ly, distinctly, patently, unequivocally, 
unambiguously; openly, frankly, bluntly, 
straightforward, honestly, openheartedly 

■rjxA asrah* purer, clearer; sincerer 

fj**> tasrih pi. -of, £;LaJ tasdnh 2 
(public) statement, declaration; openness, 
frankness; permission, (official) permit, 
license; (official) registration (of motor 

vehicles) 

4>-jL*. musdraha openness, frankness, 
sincerity 

£j*oa musarrah licensed; (officially) 
registered 



1 ^s* saraha u (£[/-» surah, £j«* sank) 
to cry, yell, scream, shriek, shout; to 
cry for help; to call (»_> s.o.); to call out, 
shout (Jp to s.o.); to yell, bellow, roar 
(j or <^-j <j at s.o.) | *+j~e j^» (sar* 
hatan) to cry out, let out a cry X to 
cry for help; to call (o to s.o.) for help 



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parka pi. -at cry, outcry, yell, 
scream; call for help 

±\j*0 purdk crying, yelling; clamor, 
screaming, screams 

jt-\j** purdkl yelling, screaming, noisy 

f±j+ partk crying, yelling; clamor, 
screaming, screams 

r\j*0 parrdk crier, screamer, bawler; 
peacock 

£jjL» pdrUk pi. ^jl>v sawdrik* 
rocket; missile; siren (magr.) \ j\* £jjL# 
i»ljUJI intercontinental ballistic missile, 
ICBM; J.U- fjjU* carrier rocket; £ij|>^ 
obUoJl oUm {mv4adda li-d-dabbabat) anti- 
tank rookets, oij^lUI Si Li. j^jij-^ anti- 
aircraft missiles (wnZ.); oUli ^ijL*** p. 
oTd& fireworks rockets, skyrockets 

Sjrf-jjUff iLtf qunbula pdruklya rocket 
bomb, guided missile 

j-l^u-l istiprdj? P 1 ' " 5 * or y f° r hel P 



£jL* 0£rt& gaudy, Hashy (color); 
glaring (color, light); crude, gross, 
coarse; noisy, loud; orier, caller 

i^ pard severe cold (spell) 

s\j** purrdd drifting clouds, cirrus 
-b^ purraid drifting clouds, cirrus 

j+j+ parpara to chirp, stridulate (cricket); 
to squeak (door, etc.), creak; to emit shrill 
sounds; to scream 

j* j* f m j rlh parpar violent, cold wind, 
icy gale 

j+j+ pur pur pi. j<+\j+ pardpir 2 a 
variety of cockroach (Blatta aegyptiaca; 
zool.); cricket (zool.) 

jj*#s* pursur pi. jw»^ sardsir 2 
cricket (zool.); cockroach (syr.) 

j\~*j~*> parpar cricket (zool.) 



parpa'a («£*) chirp; squeak; shrill 
sound; scream 

je\j*j* pirdt way, path, road 

9j*# para'a a (par\ pir*, £y-** masra") to 
throw down, fell, bring to the ground 
(* s.o.) ; — pass. puri'a to be epileptic, 
have an epileptic fit; to be or go mad 
III to wrestle (also as a sport), fight 
(• with s.o.) YI to wrestle with one 
another VII to be or «o mad VIII = VI 

9-0 par* epilepsy 

9 j* pur* rein 

«j B-r M» pari* pi. ^j* par'd thrown to 
the ground, felled; epileptic; demented, 
insane, mad, crazy; (with foil, genit.) 
succumbing to s.th., fallen victim to 
s.th., | Ujy-» J*a- to be killed (in battle); 
^(^iJl gj* $. a$4arab addicted to the 
bottle; f jfo\ *ij~* p. al-kard overcome by 
sleep; >\jJ\ ^j-j* £. l-wood* victims of 
the epidemic 

f^ mapra' pi. £jU»* mapdri ri killing, 
violent death; fatal accident; knocking 
down; downfall, destruction; site of the 
struggle; death site; vital spot (of s.o.'s 
body) 

f\j~±» miprd* pi. £jUl* imparl'* leaf 
of a door; hemistich | f\j*A\ ^U*» 
door panel; <f\j~** J& rj**" vV (WW* 
rcfaihi) the door is wide open 

9-1^ pird* wrestling, wrestling match; 
fight, struggle | Jiall fj^\ (tabaqi) class 
struggle (pol); i~ili\ fjj* p. al-mund* 
fma competitive struggle 

XpjU*. mupdra'a wrestling (sport), 
wrestling match; fight, struggle | **jL** 
lj*> (hurra) freestyle wrestling 

p\J»^\ ippira* fight, struggle, conflict, 
controversy 



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fjj*** masru r thrown to the ground, 
felled; epileptic; demented, insane, mad, 
crazy 

fjU. musdri' wrestler; fighter 

k!>j«* sarafa i (sari) to turn; to turn &wa,y, 
avert (jp a, « s.o., s.th, from); to 
dissuade, alienate, keep away (j& » 
s.o. from); to divert, distract (jt a s.o. 
from); to turn, direct (JI a s.th., e.g., 
one's eyes, one's attention, to s.th.); to 
grant leave, dismiss, send away (« s.o.); 
to give s.o. (ft) the brush-off; to spend, 
expend (J* a money for); to defray the 
cost (J* of s.th.), pay (J* for s.th.); 
to pay out, disburse (J * money to); to 
pass out, distribute (a s.th., to a group or 
population); to deliver, distribute (a 
goods; producer, merchant); to issue, 
give out (a s.th., e.g., tickets), make 
out (a s.th., e.g., a permit); to spend, 
devote (J or JI or j a time, effort on) ; to 
pass, spend (J a time at s.th., doing s.th.) ; 
to change money (a) ; to inflect (a a word) | 
jp J&}\ J*j^ (nazar) to avert one's glance 
from, disregard s.th., pay no attention to 
s.th., leave s.th. out of consideration; 
— i («Ju^ sarif) to creak, grate II to 
cause to flow off, draw off (a water); 
to drain (a land); to dispatch, expedite, 
wind up, liquidate (a business); to change 
money (a); to market, retail, distribute, 
sell (a merchandise), dispose (a of 
merchandise); to circulate (a S.th.); 
to give a free hand (j » to s.o. in s.th.), 
let (* s.o.) dispose freely (j over, in), 
grant the right of disposal (j « to s.o. 
over or in s.th.); to inflect (a a word), 
conjugate (a a verb), decline {a a noun) 
V to act independently; to dispose 
freely, have the right of disposal ( j 
over); to move freely, act without 
restriction (j in), administer (freely) 
(j s.th.); to behave, act, conduct o.s., 
comport o.s.; to exercise sacerdotal 



functions (Copt.-Chr.); to be inflected 
(gram.); to be derived j li^^J Ji-aj 
j LaS (tasarrufan kaifiyan) to proceed 
arbitrarily in or at VII to turn away; 
to go away, depart (^ from), leave 
(je s.th.); to give up, abandon, relin- 
quish, quit (^ s.o., s.th.); to flow off, 
drain; to pass on, change over, turn 
one's attention (JI to s.th.); to proceed 
(JI to some activity or to do s.th.); to 
apply o.s., devote o.s. (JI to s.th.); to 
be spent, be expended (money); to be 
issued, be made out (e.g., ticket); to 
be fully, i.e., triptotically, inflected | 
<*— xJ J I Js^-aJl to withdraw by o.s., 
isolate o.s.; J*ij (Js^-ail to set about 
to do s.th., proceed to do s.th. 

Js^ sarf averting, turning away; ex- 
penditure, expense; spending, use, appli- 
cation (e.g., of time, of effort, etc.); is- 
suance, issue, making out; disbursement; 
payment (of money, wages, profits); 
delivery, distribution (of goods, etc.); 
money changing ; barter (Isl. Law) ; drain- 
age; inflection {gram.); (pi. Jjj^ suruf) 
adversities, misfortunes (also ^ajJI Jijj^ 
s. ad-dahr) | Js^l 4k£ mahattat as-s. (el.) 
power station; drainage station, pumping 
station; Jj^sJ!^- si'r as-s. exchange rate; 
C*j~* xl~* mustanad s. delivery note; 
Js^aJi iJLi subbdk as-s. pay window, cash 
window; Js^-all ie r ilm as-s. morphol- 
ogy (gram.); J^-aJi ^ fjx indeclin- 
able (gram.); ^JUiJl J*^ delivery of 
goods; Ll>UlkJl ^j^a s. al-bitaqat distribu- 
tion of ration cards; jk* j\j»~ t_Vr-» s. 
jawaz sajar issuance of a passport; Js^aJl 
i j>*~d\ (sihhl) drainage, canalization, sewer- 
age; toW^' C*j*>o ~<&J> sabakat s. al-ma* 
jarl sewage system ; jp j&$\ Csj^sj (s. an- 
nazar) regardless of, irrespective of, not- 
withstanding, to say nothing of 

Cj>j*? sirf pure, unadulterated, un- 
mixed; mere, sheer, absolute 



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^S* 



dl3j^> sarfiyat payments, disburse- 
ments 

Jus** sarif squeak(ing), creak(ing), 
squeal(ing) 

Jsl^ sarrdf money changer; cashier, 
teller, treasurer; bursar; paymaster; 
banker 

« L** sarrdf a (woman) cashier | 
jTlJbJI 4*\j*0 (woman) ticket agent 

xlij-^9 sairaf pi. u^jlw? saydrif 2 money 
changer; cashier, teller, treasurer 

jjw» sairaf I pi. ^jL-^ saydrifa 
money changer; cashier, teller, treas- 
urer 

vijj-^ sarif a pi. iju\j^ sard' if 2 reed- 
mat hut 

j^ masrif pi. ojUz* masdrif 2 
drainage canal, drainage ditch, drain; 
bank (fin.); pay office, cashier's office | 
jo ^j~a* m. dam blood bank; tj^t* 
jtJUoVI t». al-isdar bank of issue 

j^p** masrif I bank (in compounds) | 
J^na. ^^5 (2 ar 4) bank loan; JJ^-au <iJ~* 
(sa&fc) bank check 

cJu^J torn/ drawing off (of water), 
drainage; sale, retail, disposal, distri- 
bution; change, alteration; inflection, 
declension, conjugation (gram.) j ^jUJ 
y>-dl t. ad-dahr the vicissitudes of fate; 
Ujtlll ^Jaj^r^J settlement, windup, or 
management, of affairs 

jjys^j tasrifi pertaining to inflection, 
inflectional; O morphological (linguistics) 

Js^^J tasarruf pi. -af free disposal ( j 
over), right of disposal; usufruct; ad- 
ministration; action, way of acting, 
demeanor, behavior, conduct; outflow, 
efflux, effluence, output (in terms of 
the capacity of a pump), discharge, 
throughput, quantity of water flowing 



through; — pi. oU^ measures, dis- 
positions, regulations; modes of behavior, 
conduct, demeanor | J^i. Jj^^j {mum 
jaz) regulation effective immediately 
(Isl. Law); C>j^\ j--*~ hum at-t. dis- 
cretion; uiy^Jl jtiv mutiaq at-t. having 
unrestricted right of disposal, invested 
with full power; Js^a^ freely; ti^ c^- 
at s.o.'s disposal; 4tj*al C-& lixi *J>j to 
put s.th. at s.o.'s disposition; ^jJI olyj 
(. az-zaman the vicissitudes of time; *_>- 
tJ^aJI bad conduct, misconduct 

Jjl^aii insirdf going away, leave, 
departure; avertedness, aversion (^ to); 
abstention (^ from), renunciation (^ 
of); dismissed! (command; mil.) 

Csjj~a* masruf devoted, dedicated (Jl 
to s.th.); money spent, expenditure; pi. 
-a£, iJujLa* masdrif 2 expenses, expendi- 
tures, costs | Aj^JI Cjjj^oa and -b^l <Ju j La- 
postage; t-*^M J*jj**+ m. al-jaib pocket 
money; iJujLail ^aIU- postage free, 
franked; <JujLsi1 jj (wafd) to cover the 
costs, defray the expense; ^ ^jj*** 
S*Ai-*l (kidma) dismissed, discharged 

(j^-as* mutasarrif approx. : provincial 
governor (Ir.; administering any one of 
the 14 liwd\ q.v.); former title of a 
Turkish administrative officer in Arab 
countries 

La^^u mutasarrif lya jurisdiction of 
a mutasarrif (q.v.), approx.: province; 
dignity, government, authority, etc., 
of a mutasarrif 

cj^al* munsarif fully inflected, i.e., 
triptotical (gram.); (Js^^zJkl the money 
spent, expenditures 

<J» / s<aX* munsaraf departure, leave, 
going away | <Cp Js^-oX. V (munsarafa) 
indispensable, inevitable; ^ij^aL» mun* 
sarafahum at their departure, when 
they left ; jlpl uiyucu j (m. em.-?taAar) at 
the parting of day, at day's end 



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1 ^ r -* saruma u (*a^ ^ardma) to be sharp; 
to be stern, hard, harsh, severe ; — 
$arama % (sarm, surm) to cut, cut off, 
sever (a s.th,); to leave, forsake (♦ 
s.o.), separate (o from s.o.), part (• with 
s.o.) II to cut, cut off, cut through, sever, 
separate (a s.th.) V to decrease, wane, 
dwindle; to elapse, go by, pass; to be 
past, be bygone, be over (time) VII to 
elapse, go by, pass ; to be past, be bygone, 
be over (time) 

*j*t* sarm severance, separation 

i.j^» sirma pi. *j«* siram herd of 
camels 

<*\j^ $ardma sharpness, keenness; 
harshness, sternness, severity, rigor, 
unfriendliness 

ie j^ $arima horse bridle 

IajLoa musdrama estrangement, break, 
antagonism, hostility 

l«jl-» sarim sharp, harsh, hard, severe, 
stern; rigorous | fjU» J*lJ>l firm cohesion 

r/*«i* munsarim elapsed, past, bygone 
(period of time) 



S r^ 



: (V- 



3 4> r -» sarma pi, ^ $uram (eg.) (a pair of) old 
shoes | UprtJI ,^1 ibn as-s. (eg.) old scoun- 
drel, dirty dog (term of abuse) 

JL.^ suramatl pi, -iya (eg.) shoe re- 
pairman, cobbler 

ajU^ surmaya pi, -at, ^j* sarami 
(syr.) (a pair of) shoes made of red or 
yellow leather 

^jl^L. see j^za 

jL* sarin and 4jjU» sdriya pl.jW sawdrin 
mast, pole | 1*J1 (£jL-» s. l- r alam flagpole; 



(JjjJaU! t^jU* £. t-televizyon TV tower or 
mast 



mastaba t mistaba pi. t^U^. map&tib 2 
outdoor stone bench (built into the side 
of a house); stone platform (for sitting); 
mastaba (arched.), type of ancient Egypt- 
ian tomb 

J^k^t* mas$ul fool 

i_^*» ^a'vba u (*j^*w» pufiiha) to be hard, 
difficult (J* for); to be embarrassing, 
shocking, unpleasant (J* for, to) II to 
make hard, make difficult (a J for s.o. 
s.th.); to present as difficult (a J to 
s.o. s.th.) V to become difficult; to 
make (a s.th.) hard or difficult VI to be 
difficult (of a person); to be hard to 
please X to find or consider difficult 
(a s.th.) 

<^w scfb pi. ulw si'db hard, diffioult; 
pi. difficulties | Jl^-VI <_-*** hard to 
bear, oppressive; >U*jV *_-^*» s. al-irdd' 
hard to please, fastidious; ^^i <^*^> 
obstinate, stubborn, self-opinionated, re- 
calcitrant, headstrong; ^w» U^ ( e umla) 
hard currency 

\y^> su'vba pi. -at difficulty | \y^ 
yj^^S obstinacy, stubbornness, recalci- 
trance, refractoriness 

<_-cUa* masd'ib 2 difficulties 

j\^a sa r tar wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum; 

boU) 

-0w> m r ida a (^w» su^ud) to rise, go up; to 
lift, climb, ascend, slope upward; to 
mount, scale, ascend, climb (a s.th.), 
climb up (a on s.th.); to take off 
(airplane); to go uphill (person); to get 
aboard (Jl e.g., a streetcar); to be ad- 
vanced (to a higher class, esp. sport) | 
Jl 4j Aiw» to make s.o. ascend, lead s.o. 



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<J***> 



up to . . .; J*»Aj A*w» (habato) to move 
up and down, rise and fall II to ascend, 
mount; to go upstream; to travel to 
Upper Egypt; to send up (» s.o.); to 
cause (a s.th.) to rise or ascend; to heave 
(from one's breast), utter (a sigh, wails, 
and the like); to cause to increase, inten- 
sify, make grow, expand (a s.th.) ; to cause 
(a s.th.) to evaporate, vaporize, volatilize 
(a s.th.); to sublimate (a s.th.; chem,) \ 
Cj\J>j\ x*^* (zafardt) to heave deep sighs; 
(*J*i) Ja^\ *dl Jtw» (nazara, nazralan) he 
fixed his glance on him IV to make (• 
s.o.) ascend or advance; to raise, increase 
(a s.th.) ; to ascend ( <J( to elevated terrain) ; 
to go upstream ; to travel up, travel V to 
evaporate, vaporize VI to rise, lift, as- 
cend; to go up gradually, climb (path, 
road); to increase, grow, mount 

-U*# §u r d height, altitude 

Sju*# $a'da pi. §a*adat rise, incline; 
slope, declivity 

*j*~0 su'vd rising, lifting, ascending; 
take-off (of an airplane); ascent; boom; 
advance (Jl toward) | <->J\ ly^ s. ar- 
rabb and j^woJI jl* 'Id as-§. Ascension 
Day {Ghr.) ; ^1^.1^1 Jl ^wJi {tramway) 
the boarding of a streetcar 

j^m» sa'vd steep hill 

-L*,** sa'id pi. A*^ §u r ud highland, 
upland, plateau; (fig.) level, plane; JL»*JI 
and ^a. JUw* #. mi$r Upper Egypt ] 
A»-lj X^a j and X*-\j JLw Jf on a 
common level, on equal footing ; -L*«aJ! ^ 
^LJl (siyasi) on a political plane 

j>W sa'tdt pi. S-oU*» §a f ayida Upper 
Egyptian 

»!.u*# §u'ada'* (deep) sigh | *Iaa*JI ^^JcS 
tanaffasa s-su'ada'a to sigh (deeply), 
heave a (deep) sigh; to breathe (more) 
freely 



mas' ad pi. a*L** mascFid 2 point 
of ascent; O anode (el.) 

-U^a.» mi/ ad pi. A* La* masd'id? elevator, 
lift 



mis'ada elevator, lift 

-l**aj tas'ld stepping up, intensification, 
increase, augmentation; evaporation, va- 
porization 

jU^I if ad raise, increase 

^>Uaj fos<Ttt<£ growth, increase; escala- 
tion 

^-U-Uaj tascfvdi growing; progressive 
(e.g., duty, tax); escalating 

4*L* sa'id pi. <x*\y*> saiva'id* rising, 
ascending (also, e.g., of vapors) | l-lcL«i 
fa-sd'idan and beyond that, and more; 
I A* Lai — £* from — on, from — upward; 
IjuUai iSi\ ^ (min al-dna) from now on, 
henceforth (also IapL^ j^l j*); JJ-I 
AfrUJl (jil) the rising generation 

j^Uacu mutasa'id rising, ascending (also, 
e.g., of vapors) 

j**> sa'ira a (sa'ar) to be awry (face; with 
pride) II *-L>- j*^* (kaddahu) to put on a 
contemptuous mien 

J*^ sa'aqa a (<apL* sa'iqa) to strike s.o. 
(») down with lightning, destroy, hit, 
slay (* s.o.; of lightning); to stun, 
stupefy, make unconscious (» s.o.); — 
sa'iqa a and pass. #u*iqa (sa*aq t ii*^ 
sa'qa) to be thunderstruck; to lose 
consciousness | *&* J J«w» (makdnihi) 
to stop dead in one's tracks, stand as if 
thunderstruck IV to strike down, slay, 
destroy (s s.o.; of lightning); to stun, 
stupefy, make unconscious (• s.o.) VII to 
be struck by lightning 

Ja^ sa'aq thunder, peal of thunder 

,jj^a sa*iq thunderstruck, dumfounded 



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<ki\^f $a r iqa pi. &\j~* sawa'iq* light- 
ning, stroke of lightning; thunderbolt | 
<a^Ls*aJ! <^*>\j* quwwdt as-s. blitz troops, 
elite strike forces 

Jja-a» mas'uq struck by lightning; 
thunderstruck, stupefied, dumfounded ; 
crushed, destroyed 



4&lw? sa'laka loitering, loafing 

fjjl*^> su'luk pi. tiJLJU-^ sa'dlik 2 utterly 
destitute ; have-not, pauper, poor wretch ; 
beggar; tramp, vagabond, loafer 



ji^>» sagura u (sigar, *jU^» sagara) and 
sagira a (sagar) to be or become small, lit- 
tle, scanty; to diminish, decrease, wane, 
dwindle; to be young; to be lowly, 
submissive, servile, humble; — sagara 
u (sagr) to be younger (»_> » than 
s.o. by) | Z~> *i/l Jj^> U (bi-sanatin) 
he was only one year younger than I; 
<u»iJ C^w' (sagurat) he felt inferior and 
humble, became discouraged and meek 
II to make small(er) or little(r), lessen, 
minimize, reduce, diminish, decrease 
{a s.th.); to belittle, deride, ridiculr, 
debase, bemean <a, » s.o., s.th-.); to 
form a diminutive (* of a noun; gram.) 
IV to make contemptible; to consider as 
base or contemptible, attach little value 
to (* s.o., * s.th.) VI to prove o.s. con- 
temptible, be servile, fawn, cringe, grove] ; 
to become or feel small and humble X to 
deem (a, * s.o., s.th.) small, little or paltry ; 
to make light (a, « of s.o., of s.th.), under- 
value (a, * s.o., s.th.); to think little (a, * 
of s.o., of s.th.) j «u*ij j*-*az**\ (nafsahu) 
to feel inferior 

ji^> sigar smallness, littleness, scanti- 
ness, paltriness, paucity, insignificance; 
youthfulness, juvenility (also ^Ji jk~* 
s. as-sinn) 

lj^^> sigra: 4j^>1 iji^? j* ($. abaioaihi) 



he is the youngest of his parents' 
children 

jX** sagir pi. jU^» sigar, *\j**» 
sugara 2 small, little; paltry, scanty, 
insignificant; trifling; tiny, minute; low, 
mean; early, youthful (age); young, ju- 
venile; minor; a minor, one under age | 
jj\ j^t> s. as-sinn young; (J Jc}\ j^> 
s. an-nafs mean-spirited, base, servile, 
toadying, cringing, groveling Cr&jU jU^» 
s, al-muwazzafin small officials, sub- 
altern officials; j\k^\ jlJ! {'id) Little 
Bairam, i.e., the feast of fast breaking 
on the 1st of Shawwal; aj^S •>*■*» J* 
hullu s. wa-kabira every detail 

~sj*~0 sagira pi. J\X^> sagair 2 venial 
sin (I si. Law); minor mistake; pi. 
trivialities, trifles 

lj\k^9 sagara littleness, paltriness, 
scantiness, paucity; lowliness, servility, 
humility, humbleness 

jk^>\ asgar 2 , f. <£j^> Qugra, pi. m. 
^pl^i asagir 2 , pi. f. oL^ sugraydt 
smaller, littler; younger; lesser; minor | 
Zfj&\ s*~<>\ o,. aS-Sarrain the lesser of 
two evils; ^ji^\ L-T Asia Minor; 
(jjJ^si\ Jj-UI (duwal) the small countries; 
i jjk+*}\ Lij^- (suriyd) Palestine; 4jI$jJI 
t 5_ j ^wJI the minimum; y^L^I, f. ot^^ail 
youth age class (sport; Tun.) 

jkA^J tasgir diminution, lessening, de- 
crease, reduction | jJ*^S\ ~*\ ism at-t. 
diminutive (gram.) 

jU^I isgar disdain, contempt, dis- 
regard 

yX^o tasdgur servility, toadying, cring- 
ing, groveling 

jA^f sdgir low, lowly, despised, con- 
temptible; humiliated, meek, dejected; 
submissive, servile; subject (j to s.o.) 

jk^. musaggar reduced, decreased, 



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diminished | Ijk^* hj** J {sura) on a 
reduced or small scale, in miniature; ii 
^i-A. (,/Mm) microfilm 

mU» and <yu^) U^» saga u {j^> sagw, 
suguw) to incline, bend, lean (J( to, 
toward); — { J^> sagiya a (sagan> sugly) 
to incline, bend, lean (Jl to, toward); 
to listen (J to) IV to listen, pay attention, 
lend one's ear {J or Jf to s.th., to s.o.), 
heed (J or Jl s.th.) 

jk^> sagw and Uu> sagan inclination, 
disposition, tendency; affection, attach- 
ment, good will 

»Um*1 isga attention, attentiveness 

jL* sagin inclined, disposed; attentive; 
listener, hearer 



C~ 



musgin attentive; listener, hearer 



a*> saffa u {saff) to set up in a row or line, 
line up, align, array, arrange, order 
(a s.th.); to set, compose (a type, typ.); 
to range, class, classify (^* « s.o. among); 
to cut (a s.th.) in strips II to set up in 
a row or line, line up, align, array, 
arrange, order (a s.th.); to comb (a 
the hair) straight; to do, fix or dress 
(a s.o.'s hair) VI to line up, take po- 
sition in a row or line, stand in a row 
or line, be lined up, be aligned, be strung 
in a line VIII = VI; to fall in, stand in 
formation (of a military detachment) | 
jjJJl uJU J! *jdw>l to line the road, 
form a lane (e.g., troops, police, etc.) 

iJu* saff aligning or arranging 
in a line or row; — (pi. Jsja** sufuj) 
row, line, file, rank, queue; row, or tier, 
of seats; grade, form (in school); class, 
course; section, division, group; — non- 
commissioned officers or ranks {mil.) \ 
>jJI <Ju* s. ad-dam blood group; ^Jw «JT 



Jfijji-\ typesetting machine; (Ji-^Jl JUjL* 
(also StAj' Ca~* pi- J*U-^ <Jw) non- 
commissioned officer; U^jL* Ukil in* 
tazama sufufan to line up in rows or 
files; oliill j* Ca^> {milaffdt) pile, stack 
of file folders 

Ia*> suffa pi. Juiv* sufaf (stone) 
molding; ledge 

JsLu* saffa f and J*jJ~\ o>U-^ type- 
setter, compositor 



, musaff pi. JsLx. mastiff 2 position 
(of an army); battle line; row, line, 
file; composing stick {typ.) | <J>La* J' 4*ij 
(with foil, genit.) to class s.o. with, 
put s.o. on the same level with . . ., raise 
s.o. to the rank of . . . 



isfif: j*£}\ JaJl^j t. aS4a'r 
hairstyling; yJj\ (Ja-ivaxJ OjJU» hair- 
dresser's shop 

<_j^La* masfuf combed smooth, flat 
(hair) 

masfufa pi. -at matrix (math.) 



*Ju* safaha a (safh) to broaden, widen, 
flatten, beat into a leaf, foliate, plate 
(a s.th.); to pardon, forgive (jp s.o., 
s.th.) II to broaden, widen, flatten, 
beat into a leaf, foliate (a s.th.); to roll 
out (a s.th.); to plate, overlay, or cover, 
with metal plates (a s.th.); to armor 
(a s.th.); to equip, furnish, cover (uj a 
s.th. with) III to shake hands (« with 
s.o.); to greet (* s.o.); to touch (a s.th.) 
lightly or gently, graze (a s.th.), brush, 
glide (a over s.th.), pass, blow (a over 
s.th., of the wind, breath, etc.) | ^sL* 
4_*_f {sam r ahu) to reach s.o.'s ear 
V to leaf, thumb (a a book, etc.); to 
examine, scrutinize, regard, study (a 
s.th.) VI to shake hands X to ask s.o.'s 
(e) forgiveness (a for), apologize (a t> to 
s.o. for) 



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£A*» fafk pardon, forgiveness; (pi. 
£-U*> sifdh) side, surface | <* (v*./^') v./** 
U*is* to turn away from s.o. or s.th.; 
pass over s.o. or s.th,, ignore, snub, 
slight, disregard s.o. or s.th., desist 
from s.th. 



safha pi. ^afdkdt outside, ex- 
terior; plane, surface; page; leaf, sheet; 
phase | JJI 4»JL* the expanse of the 
Nile 

^-jL*» saflh broad side or surface; sheet 
iron; tin, tinplate; tin plates, tin sheets 

^j-jjL** safika pi. f^*** saf&'ih 2 plate, 
sheet (of metal), leaf (of wood), slab, 
flag (of stone), ledger stone (on a 
tomb); tin plate, tin sheet; can, jerry 
can; garbage can; metal pitcher (for 
water) | JlU-'l h^L^* throttle valve 
(techn.); {\j**i\ ^U*» s. al-misra' door 
panel; O J>*JLI £IjL» s. al-miqwal 
phonograph records, gramophone discs 

£ji~e safuh forgiving, ready to forgive 

£-U-^ §uffah pi. -at, £iU*> $afdfih 2 
plate, sheet, leaf; flagstone, stone slab 

£~<u<2J ta§fih plating 

£jLoj ta$affuh examination, scrutini- 
zation, scrutiny, study 

{Jl** musaffah shaped into plates 
or thin layers, plated, foliated; armored, 
armor-clad, ironclad, metal-covered | 

^i-A. <_*i»- (ka$ab) plywood; l*X*+ SjL^ 
(sayydra) armored cat 



musajfaka pi. -at armored car, 
armored reconnaissance car (mil.) 

** ?afada i (safd) to bind, fetter, shackle 
(* s.o.) II and IV = I 

Xa^> safad pi. .ili^l as fad bond, tie, 
fetter 

jU^» $ifdd bond, tie, fetter | ^jlJI jLL^ 
8. al-yadain manacle, handcuff 



1 J X^ safara i (jJu* saflr) to whistle (bird, 
person); to hiss (snake); to chirp, 
stridulate (cricket); to scream (siren) 
II to whistle (person, a a melody; referee 
in sports, audience or crowd with dis- 
pleasure; bird; locomotive, siren) 

*jjL* safra (n, vie.) pi. §afarat whistling 
sound, whistle 

jm~* safir whistling, whistle, etc. (see 
above); high, thin tone (e.g., of a flute) | 
j*a**JI Cijj*- and j*i*JI Cj\j^o\ sibilants 
{phon.); — see also below and alphabetic- 
ally 

SjU^ §affdra, (eg.) suffara pi. -at, j\»U* 
safdfir 2 whistle (e.g., of a referee in sports, 
of a locomotive) ; siren | J U V I h LL* ?. al- 
amdn all-clear siren; jl-UVI »jU^> s. al- 
inddr warning siren 

V^-oj tasflra (n. vie.) pi. -at whistling 
sound, whistle 

•Jul* sdfira whistle (e.g., of a locomo- 
tive) 

l yue II to dye yellow, make yellow, to 
yellow (a s.th.) IX to turn yellow, to 
yellow; to pale, become pale | <$>j jX^\ 
(wajkuM) he grew pale, he turned 
white 

ja**> sufr brass; money 

jk* safar iaundice 

IjL* sufra yellow color, yellowness, 
yellow; pallor, paleness (of the face) 

jU^» ?afar yellow color, s.th. yellow; 
pallor, paleness | i^Ji jli^ s. aUbaida 
egg yolk 

jlL* $affdr pi. I brass founder 

jA*\ asfar 2 , f. *\Jl* safra' 2 , pi. yu* 
sufr yellow; blond (hair); pale, pallid, 
wan | *\j)l^ *SJ*> (dahlca) forced, or em- 
barrassed, laugh; jjue \ ^U" (nuhds) brass 



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*\jJl^ safrd' 2 bile, gall 

jX* (eg.) golden oriole (zool.) 

ojU-^ sufdrlya golden oriole {zool.) 

iSj^jJu* safrdwi bilious; choleric | 
1>_j\ja~*1\ iJ J~\ (hummd) yellow fever; 
*djU*** t^** (dahka) bitter, or sar- 
donic, laugh (= Fr. rire jaunt); ^UULt 
\j\jA**A\ the biliary ducts (anat.) 

jlu. misfdr (deep) yellow (adj.) 

j\jk«#\ isfirdr yellowing, yellow; pallor, 
paleness (of the face) 

jJl<aa musfarr yellow -colored; pale, 
pallid, wan 

*Ju* safira a {safar, jj^» sufur) to be empty, 
be devoid, vacant (j- of) | ^.i^ 
»^lJl ,y sOj (sajirat yaduhu) to have lost 
s.th. II to empty, void, vacate, evacuate, 
free (* s.th.) IV = II 

jk^ safr t sifr, sufr, safir, sufur pi. 
jU^I as far empty, void, devoid, {,y 
of), free (<> from) | ^.xJlyL^ sifr al-ya* 
dain empty-handed 

jL* sifr nothing; (pi. -at) zero, naught 

jLm\ asfar 2 empty, void 

jL** musfir empty-handed | xJI 
m. al-yad with an empty hand; 
*<&* $ O - "W without any possessions at 
all, completely destitute 

X jJu* safar pi. jlL^I as far Safar, name of the 
second month of the Mohammedan 
year 

x tJ»LajLo safsdf (coll.; n. un. ») a variety of 
willow (Sajix Safsaf F.; hot.) 



- to devastate 



safsaf even, level; waste, desolate, 
barren, empty | (Ju^i-^ fU wasteland, 
desolate area ; ULajL* U l* 
s.th., lay s.th. waste 



*a-* safa'a a (?«/') to cuff, buffet, slap 
lightly (« s.o.); to slap s.o.'s (») face, box 
s.o.'s (*) ears; to violate (* a rule) VI to 
slap one another 

4ajLm» safa (n. vie.) pi. -at slap, cuff, 
smack; blow 

9 li**- saffd* pi. -un a kind of buffoon 

jJl* safaqa i (safq) to slap, smack (a, » s.o., 
s.th.); to set into motion (a s.th.); to 
flap, clap; to shut, slam, bang (* a 
door); — ■ safuqa u (oLL* safaqa) to be 
thick, heavy, close in texture (cloth) II to 
flap, clap, smack; to clap one's hands 
(also ajA-j), applaud (J s.o.); to flap (^ 
the wings) 



safqa pi. safaqdt handclasp (in 
concluding a deal); conclusion of a 
contract (Isl. Law); deal, bargain, 
poor deal, bad 



transaction | l^A 
bargain; ~*£-\j ~*jul* favorable deal, good 
bargain; »jl»-1j Zaa* safqatan wdhidatan 
all at once, wholly, entirely, altogether; 
3JLL<* uJ L*l {a* fa), "*juu# jUp to conclude 
a bargain, effect a transaction; ^U 
OjJX\ SJLL*j («j.j or) to lose the game, 
return empty-handed; Sli^aJl <d cJlT 
S^U-'I do. 

JlL^ sifdq pi. Ja** sufuq dermis, 
underskin; peritoneum 

3z*~* ?&fiq pl- J^ $tfa<l thick, heavy, 
close in texture (cloth); (also 4*-J\ $X* 
s t aUvxijh) impudent, insolent, brazen 

4*lL^ safaqa impudence, insolence, 
brazenness 

j. : a„rt" tasftq pl. -at hand clapping; ap- 
plause, acclaim | oU*«£*-V! &*«*> applause 



jjJLL* safdqis 2 Sfax (seaport in Tunesia) 
1 ^i~* safana % to stand with one foot (<^) 



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slightly raised; to pore, brood, ponder, 
reflect, muse 

jjL* safan pi. uU^»i as fan scrotum 



2 ,jJu* safin savin (J&niperus sabina; hot.) 

(jJL*?) U^ safa u (safw, sufuw, AL«* safa') to 
be or become clear, unpolluted, limpid, 
cloudless, untroubled, serene, undis- 
turbed, pure; J LU» to apply o.s. to 
s.th. with clear intent, devote o.s. 
wholeheartedly to, be completely given 
to, be solely preoccupied with, be 
exclusively ready for (heart, mind) II to 
make clear, limpid, pure, clarify, clear, 
purify (a s.th.); to settle, straighten 
out (UU-* mas'alatan a question, a 
problem); to remove the water, pour 
off the water (a from s.th., e.g., in 
cooking; also »UI <>. olL^); to rid of 
moisture, dry out (a s.th.); to clarify, 
purify, rectify (a s.th., ^ by removing 
s.th.); to filter, strain (a s.th.); to settle, 
pay (a an account or bill); to liquidate 
(a s.o., = to murder); to realize (a 
assets) III to be sincere (o toward s.o), 
deal honestly (* with s.o.) IV — III 
(* or J); to be no longer in a position 
(to ...), possess no longer, forfeit; to 
cease composing poetry (poet) j ali^l 
p^\-i to have s.o. in mind for s.th., 
choose, select, or single out s.o. for 
s.th., grant s.o. s.th. in preference to 
others, bestow upon s.o. s.th. (oj* 
u^i which others do not have) VI to 
be sincere toward one another, be 
honest with one another, be of pure 
intent toward one another VIII to choose, 
select (* s.o.) X = VIII; to deem (a 
s.th.) clear or pure | <dL j**i-l to 
realize all one's assets; to confiscate s.o.'s 
property 

jju* safw clearness, clarity, limpidity, 
untroubledness, cloudlessness, serenity, 
purity, sheerness; happiness, felicity, 



pleasure, delight; clear, limpid; un- 
troubled, undisturbed, serene, pure, 
sheer 

*j**> safwa, sufwa the best, or choicest, 
part, prime, cream, flower, elite, quint- 



Lls<» safan (coll.; n. un. 3 Li** safdk pi. 
iTjIjjIu* safawdt) stone(s), rock(s); UvJI 
as-safd name of a hill in Mecca, nowadays 
levelled off, see L ^JI as-sa r y 

o\jJl^ safwan stones, rocks 

iyue sifwa sincere friend, best friend, 
bosom friend 

*\Ju* safa* clearness, clarity, limpidity, 
untroubledness, cloudlessness. serenity, 
purity, sheerness; happiness, felicity, 
serenity, gaiety, cheerfulness; sincerity, 
candor, honesty | Aju* oUU pleasant 
time, delightful hours; Ak^\ Mj*. quick 
to cheer up, quickly forgetting one's anger 

J^* safly clear, limpid, untroubled, 
undisturbed, serene, cloudless, pure, 
sheer; (pi. »LL«I asftya 2 ) sincere friend, 
best friend, bosom friend 

4~i-rf» saflya pi. \AJua safayd leader's 
share of the loot; lion's share of the 
booty 

J^*« masfan refinery 

J-^. mis fan sieve 

SLLa* mis j ah pi. JsLt. masafin strainer, 
colander, filter; strainer cloth; sieve; 
refinery, purification plant | S^iJl *Ll^» 
coffee filter, percolator 



tasfiya pi. -at clarification, 
clearance, purification (also fig.); filter- 
ing, filtration; elimination (also in 
sports) , pi. qualifying contests ; settlement, 
straightening out, adjustment; clearing 
(com.); liquidation (com. and = killing, 
removal of s.o.); clearance sale j vL-aj 



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oLjU-l t. cd~hi$dbdt settlement of ac- 
counts; J t^j^ ^LjiaJ t. at-tarassuh 
elimination rounds qualifying for (e.g., 
the Olympics); h_fiL~*& -^^ a JLa> {^aska* 
rlya) closing of military posts or bases; 
A.Ji^irW jjA* official receiver, receiver in 
equity 

SULa* musdfdh cordiality, concord, 
harmony; good will, sincere attitude or 
disposition 

i_jUJ tasdfin peaceful settlement, 
compromise (,>j between) 

A istifd 3 selection (also biol.) 

-I istisfd" : Jj^Vl *\JuaZ*>\ se- 
questration of property 

J»U» tfifin clear, limpid; sheer, pure, 
straight, unmixed, undiluted, unadul- 
terated; untroubled, undisturbed; serene; 
pure; net | ijJl ^U» 5. n-nlya sincere, 
candid, openhearted; aJ^J-I jU* net 
tonnage; ^-IjjVi jL* netprofit(s); J>-4)1 
jLaJI (dakl) net income, net receipts; 
jUaJI ujjJI (wazfi) net weight 



musaffln official receiver, re- 
ceiver in equity; clarifier, clarifying 
agent 

J^a> musaffan purified, pure, clear, 
limpid, cloudless 

JksA. mustafan chosen, selected; JL~JJ 
epithet of Mohammed 



jJl^ sajlr sapphire 

4lli*0 (It. scala) saqdla pi. JjUL* saqail 2 
scaffold; gangway, gangplank 



JLvo III to approach (* s.o.), go or come 
near (» s.o.); to be neighbors (» with s.o.), 
be adjacent (a to s.th.), adjoin (* s.th.) 

4-5 La» mU'Sdqaba affinity 



x Jju? saqr pi. jja** suqur, JiuA asqur saker, 
falcon, hawk; pi. jyL^\ the hawks {pol.) 

2 jj*L* sdqur stone axe 

«JLv<» saqa'a a (saq% p^» swqd') to crow 
(rooster) ; pass, suqi'a to be covered with 
hoarfrost (ground) II to be icy, ice-cold, 
frozen 

*JL** suq' pL pLL^I afiga' area, region, 
country, district, locality, land | fUL^Vl 
i-jjj-l S-u^*dl (mutajammida, janublya) 
the Antarctic 



» saq'a frost, severe cold 

*ji-^ saqi frost; ice; hoarfrost 

*JL^>1 asqa' 2 more eloquent 

-JL^. misqcf pi. >JLa- masaqV* elo- 
quent; loud-voiced, having a stentorian 
voice 

f : 5..rtu tas^r deepfreezing | JjjAw* 
*jCsxJi sunduq at-t. deepfreeze chest, 
freezer 

«Jl^» musaqqcf deepfrozen 

1 JJU* saqala u (saqi, JUU* siqdl) to smooth, 
polish, burnish, cut (a s.th.); to refine 
(a style, taste, and the like) VII to 
become smooth 

JJLm* saqi polishing, burnishing | Jl*» 
oUi*yi mental training 

J-JL^ sag^ polished, burnished; smooth, 
shiny, glossy 

J Ulu» saqqdl polisher, smoother 

JJw saiqal pi. iiSL^ saydqila polisher, 
smoother 



misqala pi. JiLa* masdqil 2 bur- 
nisher (tool) 

J^a. masqul polished, burnished; 
smooth, shiny, glossy; cut (glass, and the 



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like); acute, refined (wit) | vi^ Jj*<*» 
of polished manners, urbane, polite; 3jj 
J^L*m (waraq) glossy paper, glazed paper 

2 4JIam» look up alphabetically 



siqiUlya* Sicily 

Ja^» siqilli Sicilian (adj.); (pi. -fin) 
a Sicilian 



^lil^ saqlabi Slavic, Slavonic; Slav; pi. 
*JlisJl a?-?aqaliba the Slavs; (hist.) slave 
troops of European origin (in Muslim 
Spain) 

1 iiJL* sakka u (sakk) to beat, strike; to shut, 
lock (a the door) | jli'Vi «u c£l** his ears 
were tingling or ringing; <ur" c*JL-» 
{sam'aM) to strike s.o.'s ear (noise); to 
roar in s.o.'s ears VIII to knock together, 
shake, tremble (knees), chatter (teeth) 

2 ^L* sakk pi. 4>S^ sukuk, 4l£«* sikdk f dLa\ 
asukk (instrument of) contract (1st Law); 
legal instrument, document, deed; check, 
cheque | j^*** *iL«» (masrifl) bank check; 
dJLLc* *iJL> title deed 

1 4U» see J^j 

*J^> saKa * (J-l^ salil) to clink (e.g., metal, 
glassware) ; to clash (weapons) ; to jingle 
(coins) ; to rattle (car) 

J^ sill pi- cbU»l asldl, J^U» £i£aZ a 
variety of venomous adder, viper 

JJL» salil clink; jingle; rattle 

1 ._JL« saluba u (*£k*> salaba) and saliba a 
to be or become hard, firm, solid, stiff, 
or rigid, solidify, harden, set, stiffen 
II to make hard, firm, solid, stiff, or 
rigid, harden, solidify, stiffen, indurate 
(a, » s.o., s.th.); to support, prop, shore 



up (a s.th.); to harden (a the heart) 
V — I; to show o.s. hard or severe 

lJL? stM hard, firm, solid, stiff, rigid; 
steel; — (pi. tJU»l aplub, w^U»l aslSb) 
spinal column, backbone; loins; — text, 
body (of a book, and the like) | i_-(„- 
J{J\ s, ar-ra'y obstinate, stubborn, head- 
strong, opinionated; <SJ\ vJL* s. ar- 
raqaba do.; iyJi *JL» 9, aVvd of robust 
physique, strongly built, husky, sturdy; 
stubborn, resistant, unbending, unyield- 
ing, relentless; *JL» ^\ j* (ibn sulhihl) 
and 4JL* t> j* he is his own son, his 
offspring; «U-1 i r JL» ^» i^iw*. i.[p 
{mustakraja mm svibi l-hayah) a drama 
taken from real life; <uL» j at heart, in 
his innermost; *JU» j ~Jj! (indamaja) 
to amalgamate, merge, combine with 
s.th.; to become incorporated in s.th.; 
£>*»>!! i^S~* the essence of the subject 

y^? sulba: ^1 iJLtf £. a/- c ot» sclera 
(anat.) 



salib hard, firm, solid, stiff, 



rigid 



Zs%# salaba hardness, callousness; 
hardening, induration; firmness, solidity, 
stiffness, rigidity; stubbornness, ob- 
stinacy, unyieldingness; intolerance | 
jj*JI 4j^U* $. al-vd sternness, severity, 
hardness, obstinacy, stubbornness, in- 
flexibility, relentlessness 



tasallvb hardness, callousness; 
stiffness; hardening (esp. of the arteries; 
med.) I ^l^l «_JLa; t. aS-Sardyin and 
(jl ji> ^Lai (Hryani) arteriosclerosis (med.) 



*z* mutasaUib unyielding, inflexible, 
relentless, hard 

2 vJL* salaba i (salb) to crucify (♦ s.o.) II — I; 
to make the sign of the cross (J* over); 
to cross o.s.; to cross, fold (a one's 
arms) 



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cU 



i_JL» #aK> crucifixion 



> ^aKft pi. jLL-? $ulban, ^JL* s-wfe& 
cross j fjj^ v^~*^ (janubi) the Southern 
Cross (astron.); j^-V! v^*^ *^ e ^ e( l 
Cross; Js^i*. <_~JL» swastika; ( _^ r UiJl SjU 
and *--i-A]l SjUl sign of the cross (Chr.); 
i-j-JLJI 2f£. 'ud a§'S. peony {Paeonia; hot.) 



tpiA-** 



x 



*SJj^ ' the 



crusades; Oj-aJLJI the crusaders 



§alibiya pi, -af crusade 

C^X^ salbut {representation of the) 
crucifixion, crucifix 



mu$allab crossing, interjunction 
(of roads) 

cJL» saluta u (ZjL* suluta) to be glossy, 
be smooth and shining IV to draw, un- 
sheathe (u-J—Jl as-saifa the sword); pass. 
uslita to be drawn (sword) 

1 gL> sullaj (coll.; n. un. 5) pi. -at cocoon, 
chrysalis of the silkworm 



a oUj^> look up alphabetically 

^U» §alaha u a (^-iL^ salath, ^jL^> suluh, 
*>JLt» maslaha) and saluha u (?-*>l^ 
saldk, Ajjs-^U? saldhiya) to be good, right, 
proper, in order, righteous, pious, godly; 
to be well, thrive; to be usable, useful, 
practicable, serviceable, fitting, suitable, 
or appropriate (<j for), lend itself (j 
to), suit, match (J s.th.), fit («-. s.th. 
or s.o.), apply (** to s.o. or s.th.); to 
be admissible, permissible (« in, at, 
with); to be valid, hold true (o for) 
II to put in order, settle, adjust, restore, 
restitute (a s.th.), make amends, com- 
pensate (a for); to mend, improve, a- 
meliorate, fix, repair (a s.th.) Ill to 
make peace, become reconciled, make 
up, reach a compromise or settlement 
(« with s.o.) ; to foster peace (t>j between) , 



reconcile (^ people) IV to put in order, 
settle, adjust ((> or * s.th.), overhaul, 
restore, restitute, rebuild, reconstruct; 
to make amends, compensate (j- or 
a for); to mend, improve, ameliorate, 
fix, repair {,y» or a s.th.); to make 
suitable or fitting, adjust, modify (a 
s.th.) ; to reform (j- or a s.th.) ; to remove, 
remedy (,y or a s.th.); to make arable 
or cultivable, reclaim, cultivate, till, 
(a land); to further, promote, encourage 
(a s.o.), make (« s.o.) thrive or prosper, 
bring good luck (a to s.o.); to make 
peace (<>j between), bring together (>j 
people), bring about an agreement (<jsi 
between), conciliate (j\i people) VI to 
make peace, make up, become rec- 
onciled with one another VII to be put 
in order, be righted, be corrected, be im- 
proved, be ameliorated VIII = VI; to 
agree (Jp on), accept, adopt (Jp s.th.) 
X to deem (a s.th.) good, proper, suit- 
able, fitting, usable, useful, practicable, 
or serviceable; to make arable, cultiva- 
ble, reclaim (a land) 

~L? sulh peace, (re) conciliation, settle- 
ment, composition, compromise; peace 
{pol.) t peacemaking, conclusion of peace | 
^JLaJl TU- {Syr.) justice of the peace; 
^UJI ^15 do.; ^JUaJI 4-:.j~a* qadawlyat 
as-s. jurisdiction of the *JL*)1 ^U 

l _ s *JL* sulkl of peace, peace (adj.); 
conciliatory, conducive to settlement or 
accomodation | 4~>JU» <J~ (lajna) arbitra- 
tion committee 

*v)L*» saldh good, proper or right con- 
dition; healthy, intact, thriving state of 
affairs; righteousness, probity; pious 
nature (of a person); salvation (to be 
found in religion) ; improvement, recovery 
(of conditions) 

^-•^L* saldhiya suitability, fitness, 
appropriateness, aptness; efficiency; 
usability, practicability, usefulness, use, 



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worth; serviceability, proper or work- 
ing condition (e.g., of a machine); 
competence; validity, applicability; {pi. 
-at) full or mandatory power, power of at- 
torney, also <*tt 4^^U» (tdmma) | oL^ 
V-*>UJi c»lS competent authorities; jik. 
i-»-*iLaJl mutlaq as~s. plenipotentiary 
(dipl.) 

<^jL^> suluhiya = <u»-">U* saldhiya 

pL*\ aslah 2 better, more proper, more 
correct; more pious, godlier; fitter, more 
suitable 

^Law maslaha pi. i-U^» masalih 2 matter, 
affair; requirement, exigency; that which 
is beneficial, helpful, or promoting; 
advantage, benefit, interest, good, wel- 
fare; office, authority, department, 
governmental agency, administration 
(chiefly Eg.) | i^l jU'Vl ^JL^. (mt> 
rlya) Administration of Egyptian An- 
tiquities; i*Vl £L** m. al-umma the 
welfare of the people; JU^Jl a>JL** postal 
administration; ijJJ-i *>JLa* administra- 
tive agency for the territories outside 
the cultivated area (Eg.); i-^&U 4-Uail 
(hukumiya) the governmental agencies; 
4**-*aJI 4>JL:t. m. as-sihha health office; 
i*Ul i»»is<ail {'dmma) public welfare, 
commonweal ; o"$i LjJU^. (j in s.o.'s 
interest; Sj — ailj ^^Uail J (mafsada) 
in good and bad times, for better or for 
worse; b*$* 4>*L*ai in s.o.'s favor, for the 
benefit of s.o., to s.o.'s advantage, on 
behalf of s.o., in s.o.'s interest; f-U- 
j"^i *JUa« to serve s.o.'s interests; <d 
j iaJUi* he has an interest in . . . 

^yJ-^t* maslahi administrational, official, 
governmental 

£~L*j taslik pi. -at restoration, resti- 
tution, mending, fixing, overhauling, 
repair, improvement, amelioration 

ii-La* musdlaha peace, conciliation; 
compromise; composition, settlement 



£^Le\ isldh pi. -at restoration, resti- 
tution, redressing, reparation; improve- 
ment, amelioration, betterment, mend- 
ing, correction; reconstruction; recon- 
ditioning, repair; renovation, refur- 
bishing; adjustment, settling, remedy- 
ing, removal, elimination; restoration of 
order, establishment of peace, happiness 
and order; reformation, reform; recla- 
mation, cultivation (of land); (recon- 
ciliation, settlement, compromise, peace- 
making (jru between) j ^L^-l f%^\ 
social reform; ^bj r^"' {zira'i) agrar- 
ian reform j^pUadi I fi^>\ economic reform 

j>-*^>\ . isldkl reformatory, reforma- 
tional, reform- (in compounds); re- 
former, reformist | j^^>\ J^*. (ma'had) 
reformatory, house of correction 

V-tiLoi \§ldhlya revisionism; reform- 
ism; (pi. -at) reformatory, house of cor- 
rection | d.lA>.VI v-:>L*l youth rehabilita- 
tion center 

^JU»j tasaluh (re) conciliation; friendly 
settlement, amicable arrangement {jut.) 

£>^JLu*l istildh pi. -at agreement, 

convention, practice, usage; (colloquial, 

linguistic) usage; technical term, ter- 
minus technicus 

^^Jwi istildhl conventional; tech- 
nical (of a term) 

r^La^\ istislak reclamation, cultiva- 
tion 

£L» salih good, right, proper, sound; 
thorough, substantial, downright, out- 
and-out, solid; virtuous, pious, devout, 
godly ; usable, useful, practicable, service- 
able, fitting, suitable, appropriate (J for); 
(pi. <M>~* sawdlih?) advantage, benefit, 
interest, good, welfare | i-LJl ^jJLJl 
(salaf) the worthy ancestors, the vener- 
able forefathers; j^JI 1L» (sair) pass- 
able, practicable (road); J**U 1U» 



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{'atrial) fit for action, ready for use, 
serviceable, practicable; valid (j for), 
applicable (J to); fUl! £LaJl (amm) 
public welfare, commonweal; £L» J 
(with foil, genit.) in favor of, for the 
benefit of, to the advantage of, in the 
interest of s.o. or s.th. ; ^L*J do. ; ,j* uS~ 
aj-U» it was in his interest; w^ £[^-» 
(faksiya) personal interests 

C>U-L*Ji as-sdlihdt the good works, the 
good deeds 

*JLw musallih pi. -im repairer | ^Ul. 
3jJU-I m. ahdiya shoe repairman, cobbler 

J- La* musalih peacemaker, conciliator 

~L** muslih peacemaker, conciliator; 
reformer, reformist; salt 

~JL*^ mutasalih (mutually) reconciled, 
at peace, pacific | U-Lo^ll oljL^l (ima* 
rat) Trucial Oman (formerly 7 emirates 
on the Persian Gulf) 

^LUa. mustalah and <ult ^LL**. generally 
accepted, universally followed, commonly 
established, conventional, customary; 
(pi. -at) technical term, terminus tech- 



aL» salada {S^^L^ salada, Is^a suluda) to be 
or become hard, firm, solid, compact 
II to harden (a esp. steel) IV = I 

AJU» said pi. y>L*l asldd hard; firm, 
solid; dry, barren, arid (ground); rigid, 
lifeless, inert 

ot>L* salada and »ijL* suliida hard- 
ness, firmness, solidity 

<A*> (It. salsa) salsa pi. -at and L>r ^L* 
sauce I >j^jL ivaJL* mayonnaise 

J*JL» saMa to clink (e.g., metal, glassware) ; 
to jingle (coins); to rattle (car) II tasaU 
sala do. 



iJLaJL* salsala clinking, clink; jingle; 
rattle 

jLaL* salsdl dry clay, argillaceous 
earth 

,JiLa. musaltah = ^kL*. shallow, shoal, fiat 

«iv* sali'a a {sola) to be bald 

*JL» sala* baldness 

aJL* safet bald pate, bald head 

*L*1 asfo"" 2 , f. »LL* saVa' 2 , pi. ^L* ?«/% 
Jl*L» sttZ'an bald( -headed) 

^J^ abbreviation of the eulogy following 
the name of the Prophet Mohammed: 
L-j <uU aii I J-^» (saZZa, «aMam) God bless 
him and grant him salvation ! 

lJlL* salt fa a (salaf) to boast, brag, bluster, 
swagger V = I 

JaL* salaf vainglory, bragging, boast- 
ing, conceit, arrogance, pomposity, self- 
importance 



» salif pi. *UJL^ sulafa 2 vainglorious, 
bragging, boastful, showing off, pompous, 
blustering, swaggering; braggart, boaster, 
show-off, swaggerer, fourflusher 

iJaJLJ tasaUuf vainglory, bragging, 
boasting, conceit, arrogance, pomposity, 
self-importance 

(JiJUax* mutasallif vainglorious, brag- 
ging, boastful, showing off, pompous, 
blustering, swaggering 

jLo II to perform the salat (y~* see 
below), pray, worship | j^LJIj J^» to 
lead people in prayer; Jp J^» to pray for; 
(of God) to bless s.o.: L>j <J^ *»l J-^» 
(sallam) God bless him and grant him 
salvation ! (eulogy after the name of the 
Prophet Mohammed) 



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«>U», a^L* saldh pi. oJ^L* salawat 
salat, the official Islamic prayer ritual; 
intercession, intercessory prayer, bene- 
diction; blessing, grace (of God) | S^LJl 
SJIjJI (rabbdmya) the Lord's prayer; 
£jW s ^~* a prayer performed during 
the nights of Ramadan; jlxJ I S*^ vesper 
prayer (Ghr.); SjUA-l S^U ? . al-jinaza 
death prayer performed before burial (J* 
over the corpse); ^JUI !^U» death 
prayer for the deceased who was buried 
previously or on foreign soil (i.e., not 
over the corpse) 

J*** mu$allin prayer, worshiper 

J~a. musallan place of prayer, oratory 

Oj!*» safcm salon, parlor, reception room 

J*-» £aJa t (s<%) to roast, broil, fry (a s.th.) ; — 
§aliya a (salan, sully, oL* sila) to burn 
(intr.; uor* in); to be exposed to the 
blaze of (<^> or a) II to warm, heat (<_; a 
s.th. with or on) IV = II (aa s.th. on or 
with); to make (o s.o.) burn (a in, esp. 
jU! in the fire) | SjroJl ^ i^U *%*\ (gaira) 
to make s.o. undergo the most excru- 
ciating pangs of jealousy; ljU <oL»l to 
set s.th. on fire; to fire at s.o. or s.th. 
(mil.) V to warm o.s., seek warmth (<_> 
at, by, jbJU by the fire) VIII = V | ^ 
*jUj Jk-aj (yustald bi-ndrihi) invincible, 
a great hero 

Jkut* mustalan fireplace 

£* $amma (1st pers. perf. samimtu) a (samm, 
p£* §amam) to be or become deaf; — 
samma (1st pers. perf. §amamtu) u 
(samm) to close, plug, cork, stopper 
(a s.th., e.g., a bottle) II to deafen (. 
s.o.); to make up one's mind (J* to do 
s.th.), determine (J* upon, to do s.th.), 
resolve, be determined (J* to do s.th.), 
decide (J* on, to do s.th,); to persist 
(Jp in); to design (a s.th.); to plan 



(a s.th.), design (J a s.th. for) IV to 
be or become deaf; to deafen ( 4 s.o,), 
make (* s.o.) deaf (a, ^ to s.th.) | ^ 
ulj^t ear-splitting, deafening (noise) Vlto 
give a deaf ear (^ to) 

«* simma plug, cork, stopper 

<*£* §amam deafness | j* »s? j l£ 
to be deaf to s.th. 

f U* simam pi. -at plug, cork, stopper; 
valve; tube (radio) | (j-Vl) ul^l ^ 
s, al-amdn (al-amn) safety valve ; O A++ 
£>4xJl rectifier tube (el); jJU >»U^ and 
Jli£ pL-^ ?. kindq throttle valve (techn.); 
*\j^\ pLw» s. al-hawa air valve (techn.); 
j^ixJl |»U^» detonator, bomb fuze; «jj 
^ pU^aJl to let s.th. take its course, 
give free rein to s.th. (also to a feeling) 

O itis? sammdma embolism (med.) 

pfl* §amim innermost, heart; core, 
essence, marrow, pith; true, sincere, 
genuine | ^UJI ^ ^ (5. il-qalb) from 
the bottom of the heart, wholeheartedly, 
most sincerely; . . . ^ J amid, in; 
j r^dJ! j o^J to affect s.o. to the very 
core, touch s.o. most deeply 

^f samlmi cordial, hearty 

^1 asamm 2 , f. »U* sammd' 2 , pi, ^ 
summ, £>U* $umman deaf; hard and 
solid, massive (rock); ^\ the deaf 
one, epithet of the month of Rajab | J*i 
f\ (fi'l) triliteral verb with identical 
second and third radical, verbum mediae 
geminatae (gram.); jJUl ^\ ( a $lah) 
stone-deaf; ^Ll ^1 (abkam) deaf-mute; 
(*-*' J-^r (fadr) irrational or surd root 
(math.); #U^ 2JT willing tool; »lw» «j£ 
(gudda) endocrine (or ductless) gland 
(pAysio/.) 

(P— ^ tasmlm determination (J* for, 
to do s.th.), resolution, decision; resolute 
action; tenacious pursuit (of a plan); 
planning, projecting; design, designing 



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(^h*"*"^ 



(e.g., of a dress); (pi. -at, ^UJ tasdmim 2 ) 
plan; design; sketch | d*$s -wJ ^ 
designed by so-and-so; »Uji oU*^J t. 
azijd 1 fashion creations 

|H ^> muqammim determined (J* to do 
s.th.); {pi. -un) designing engineer; de- 
signer | »bjVl ft**** fashion creator 



tf §amata u (samt, c^s" sumut) to be 
silent, be taciturn, hold one's tongue, 
hush up, be or become quiet or still 
II to silence (* s.o.) IV = II 

C*C §amt silence | £j? j silently, 
quietly 

Ctyt* $umut silence; pi. of act. parti- 
ciple cu^U» 

£jy* $amut silent, taciturn 

C-*U» sdmU pi. Cjyf pumut silent | 
iuU*» I^ju* silent film 

£ ■ « .,rt . musmat uniform (color); plain, 
unpatterned; blank (wall); uniform in 
texture, made of a single material; 
massive, solid, not hollow, compact 



rXaf §imdk pi. 
meatus 



a$rnika auditory 



■is? §amada u {§amd) to betake o.s., repair, 
go (a, » or J or Jl to, into, toward); to 
turn, apply o.s. (a or J or Jl to s.th.); — 
(sy* sumud) to defy, brave, withstand 
(**TJ J /* wajhihl or J s.o., s.th.); to 
stand up (4$*-j J or J against s.o. or 
s.th.), resist, oppose (*$»-j J or J s.o. or 
s.th,); to hold out {*4>-j J or j against); 
to maintain or hold one's ground (pLI 
against an opponent), remain unaffected ; 
— i to close, plug, cork, stopper (a 
s.th., e.g., a bottle) II to betake o.s., 
repahy_go (« to s.o., a to, toward); to 
close, plug, cork, stopper (a s.th., e.g., 
a bottle) ; to save, lay by (money) III to 
come to blows, fight (» with s.o.) 



Jj? $amad lord; eternal, everlasting 
(epithet of God) 

<jUi* §amaddni eternal, everlasting 

olc* simdda (ir.) headcloth (worn by 
men) 

j>«-^ §umud staying power (pLI in the 
face of an opponent) 

.uL* §dmid resistent (J against), -proof 
(in compounds) | JjUiJl JLiU» bombproof; 
»LJJ "UL# waterproof 

**£* ?am$ama to persist ( j in) 

I**}** sauma'a pi. £*]>-^ $awami e2 monk's 
cell, hermitage; silo (for grain storage); 
(mor.) minaret 

ic" II to gum (a s.th.); to paste, glue (a 
s.th.) IV to exude gum (tree) 

»sf samg pi. 9jsf sumu§ gum; 
resin | JjU- ^s? mucilage; Oj* A^ 
(*arab%) gum arabic; «£JU1I i^ £. al-lakk 
shellac; Oja *s? (marin) rubber, caou- 
tchouc; <j£j> k£? (hindl) do.; i^*J1 j£ 
iajar as-s. rubber trees 

i ys? samgi gummy, gummiferous, 
gumlike, mucilaginous 

ij*~<aj tasmlg gumming; resinification 

1 Jj^ samala u {§aml) to be firm, be hard, 
hold one's ground, stand firm, hold out, 
last, endure 

Jx" paml rigidity, stiffness, [ J*>- Jjr» 
(jifi) rigor mortis 

2 4jj£* $amula pi. JJ_^ sawdmil 2 , iJj^U* 
sdmula pi. J^'j-** $awdmil 2 nut (of a bolt), 
rivet 

£*^ simldk pi. £JLtf* pamdlik 2 earwax, 



cerumen 



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614 



j? IV to deal (» s.o.) a fatal blow; to hit 
(a, a s.o., s.th.) fatally | ^j?^ e?j rama 
fa-asmd to shoot and hit, shoot dead on 
the spot 



^a sann basket 

ZL*a sinna odor emanating from the 
armpit 

jLm* sunan odor emanating from the 
armpit 

SjLs* sinndra pi. j^t^ sananir 2 hook, fish- 
hook; crochet hook 

bj-i-M* mnbur pi. _/ull*<» sanabir 2 (water) 
faucet, tap 

2 jj~* l°°k up alphabetically 

^fv*^-^ santimitr pi. -a( (f-wn.) centimeter 

>.rw* santim pi. -a( centime (Vmo franc) 

1 £^ san? pi. ?r>-^ sitnwj cymbal (m«s.) 

3 C-»U-b^ §annajat castanets 
^j-a^Imo mnjaqlya s< 



OjOjl,^ sindld pi. -Lob-** sanddtd 2 leader, 
notable; brave, valiant 

3j-&~* sunduq, sandiiq pi. Jj-* 1 -^ panddiq 2 
crate, box; chest; trunk, suitcase; case, 
cabinet; money box, till, coffer; pay 
office, treasurer's office; any public 
institution where funds are deposited 
and disbursed for a special purpose (e.g., 
sick fund, health insurance, etc.) | 3j£~** 
wbjOl post-office box; ^jj^l JjJU-^ s. at- 
turus gearbox, transmission (techn.); 
tJjJl JSj-U^ s. ad-dunyd peep show; kalei- 
doscope; £jL*=J1 Jj-U-m* deepfreeze chest, 



freezer; u-jylSCli JjJL-^ mailbox; 3j^> 
Jjjdl oiJI 5. an-naqd ad-duwall Inter- 
national Monetary Fund; j*iyJI jjA^# 
savings bank; iijJL^» ^jJ (e£.) hunchback; 
JjX-yJI j\*l treasurer; JjAIsaII ^jj da/* 
tor as-s. cashbook 

iSjJU««» sanduqa vendor's box (e.g., of 
a street merchant) 

(J-C^ sandal sandalwood; sandals; (pi. JjL^» 
§anddiP) (freight) barge; lighter, barge 

*jL^» look up alphabetically 

y nL^a sanaa a (san, sun% ^c^> sanV) to do, 
make (a s.th.); to arrange, stage, put on 
(* s.th.); to produce, build, manufacture, 
fabricate, design (a s.th.) | Uj^*. *JI »u# 
to do s.o. a favor; *>L*- -u. «^c» do.; *i^> 
a <u to do s.th. to s.o.; U-^ U-JL* <j jCU* 
to play s.o. a dirty trick; 4*^** ^w» (sawi* 
*aM) to do just like somebody else; U 
^j-iJb *Lm aj its effect on people's feelings 
or spirits (e.g., of a work of art) II to 
manufacture (a industrial products); to 
process, rework, treat (a material, in 
industry), utilize industrially (a s.th.); 
to industrialize (a s.th.) Ill to cooperate, 
go along (a, » with); to flatter, cajole 
(o s.o.); to bribe (^ * s.o. with) V to pre- 
tend, feign, simulate, fake, sham, affect 
(a s.th.); to speak or write in an artificial, 
affected, stilted, or mannered way; to use 
means for enhancing her beauty (woman) ; 
to become industrialized (of a country) 
VIII to have (a s.th.) made, produced; to 
order, commission (a s.th.); to create 
(a s.th.) artificially; to produce, manu- 
facture, make, fabricate (a s.th.); to pre- 
tend, feign, fake, assume falsely (a s.th.); 
to invent (a s.th.); to win by friendliness, 
commit to oneself (* s.o.); to choose and 
use (J o s.o. for s.th.) X to have (« s.o.) 
make (a s.th.) 

*L~e san r , sun' production, manu- 



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615 



**-*? 



facture, fabrication, making, design, 



make, workmanship | jJI 



Cr" 



al-i 



handwork; *^*J1 mJo badi as-san r of won- 
derful workmanship 

( jC^» san'i artificial; synthetic | Jsj^l 
artificial limbs, prostheses; <~£\J? 
artificial satellites 



*~& sun e benefit, favor 

^cUtf san'a work, workmanship, mak- 
ing, manufacture, fabrication; art; tech- 
nical skill, artistic skill; work, craft, 
trade, business, occupation, vocation, 
profession | i*L^JI i—^Lo artisan, crafts- 
man; expert, specialist 

gtu* sana: jlJI 9\x*# s. al-yad skillful, 
skilled, dexterous, deft 

ipL^o sinaa pi. -at, *jLs<? sanai' 2 art, 
skill; occupation, profession; handicraft; 
trade, craft; manufacture (of industrial 
products) ; industry; pi. branches of indus- 
try, industries J oljLJl lULu^ s. assay* 
yardt automobile industry; *wj^ IAl^ 
honorable, respectable trade; ^-^j' 
CjULuoJI the artisans, craftsmen; J>-j 
ApL^aJI rajul as-s. industrialist; i_jI^*I 
uijJ- 1 j *jL^JI (Mraf) artisans and trades- 
men; «JT oLpL^> mechanical industries; 
SjjL-T oUlw» chemical industries; 
4jj-UI S-iiJl oULuaJl {fannlya, yadawiya) 
artistic handicrafts 

jjjJLLvo sanai'i artificial, synthetic, 
imitation; workmanlike, handicraft, 
trade (adj.) ; industrial ; artisan, craftsman 

^L^ sind'i artificial; synthetic, imi- 
tation; workmanlike, handicraft, trade 
(adj.); industrial | ^clu* ^ (sirr) indus- 
trial secret; ^U*aJI j^l (fann) applied 
arts, artistic handicraft; JLcL^ Jj^> (du- 
vnl) industrial nations; ^L^aJl ^^^1 
the industrial revolution 

«JL* sani action, acting, doing; act, 
deed; fact; good deed, benefit, favor; 



charge, protege; creature, willing tool; 
meal, repast, banquet 



sanfa pi. ^^> sana'i' 2 action, 
deed; good deed, good turn, benefit, 
favor; charge, protege; creature, willing 
tool 

«l^ magna* pi. *JUt. masani' 2 factory, 
plant, mill, works; establishment, firm; 
*JLa* also: large structures, installations, 
man-made works | *JLaii (^U?!) *-»bjl 
manufacturers, industrialists 

ILjwa,. masna'iya wages, pay 

«JUaj ta§nV fabrication (of an indus- 
trial product) ; industrial utilization, pro- 
cessing, working, treating (of a material) ; 



industrialization | OiUil 






metal 



working; p_>*JUI a^" processing of meat 

*waj tasannu" hypocrisy, dissimulation, 
dissemblement ; affectedness, affectation, 
mannerism 

pUa^l istina' production, making 

xibJa^l istincfl artificial; synthetic, 
imitation; LtLk^! istina'lyan by artifi- 
cial means 

«jL«? sani r pi. -un, f\^~* sunna? maker, 
producer, manufacturer, creator; artisan, 
craftsman; worker, workman, ]aborer; 
servant 

?y~A* masnu* product, produce; pi. 
ul*)U. (industrial) products, produce, 
articles, manufactured goods 



processed, utilized in 



*^~*a musanna 
industry (material) 



»„;,.a"« mutasanni" behaving in an af- 
fected or unnatural way; affected, stilted, 
mannered; industrialized (country) 

*da-A. mustana* artificial; synthetic 
affected, simulated, imitated, sham, 
bogus, phony | v.U..,?. ^-Ua» (miftah) 
duplicate key, masterkey 



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616 



Mw» san'd' 2 San'a (capital of the Yemen 
Arab Republic) 

jL»irf» Qan'a'i and Jl*!^ §an?anl per- 
taining to, or coming from, San'a 

«_ku* II to sort, assort, classify, categorize 
(a s.th.); to compile, compose, write (a 
a book) 

Jo pan/, £•»/ pi. J»Ls^l apnaf, J»>^» 
piwm/kind, sort, specimen; article {com.); 
genus, species, class, category; sex; U^» 
in kind (as opposed to: in cash) 



uwJ tapnif classification, categori- 
zation, sorting, assorting; compilation, 
composition, writing; (pi. ^iJUJ tasanlf 1 ) 
literary work 

tasnifa assortment, selection 



mu§annif pi. -un compiler, com- 
pilator; author, writer; (pi. -at) binder 
(for documents, letters, etc.), file 

musannaf pi. -at literary work 



'~* panfara to rub with sandpaper, to 
sandpaper, to emery (a s.th.) 



panfar and ZjJ£-*> sanfara em- 



ery 



^ sanam pi. >»L*»l asndm idol, image 

jL* sinw pi. o\j~<f sinwdn, »L^1 asnd* one 
of two, twin brother 

jj^e sanaubar stone pine (Pinuspinea; hot.) | 
j-^JI <_-»- Aa66 as-s. pine nut, piiion 

ifsjU* fanaubarl pine (adj.), piny, pine- 
like; pineal | \jj~Jh »juJI (gvdda) pineal 
gland (phyaiol.) 

4** jah p*t! hush! quiet! 



IX and XI ishabba to be or become 
reddish, red-brown 



ashab 2 , f. »L*m* sahba' 2 , pi, ._- <y . 
0«A6 reddish; »U^^J( wine 

o^» sahada a (sahd) to scorch, parch, burn 
(a, » s.o., s.th., esp. of the sun) 

•If** §ahd heat 

-Ufv*» paAid scorching heat, blaze 

sj+*9 suhud scorching heat, blaze 

j^t* sakara a (sahr) to melt, fuse, smelt (* 
s.th.) Ill to become related by marriage 
( j or o to s.o.) IV to become related by 
marriage (Jl or <~> to s.o.) VI to be 
related by marriage VII to melt, fuse; 
to melt away, vanish, break (intr.) 

ji^a sihr relationship by marriage; 
— (pi. jl^a\ ashdr) husband of one's 
daughter, son-in-law; husband of one's 
sister, brother-in-law 

lj4*e sihra pi. -at sister-in-law 

j^*> §ahlr molten, in fusion 



ar pi. jaU*. ma§dhir 2 found- 
ry; smelting furnace; blast furnace 



O 



mi§har pi. -at fuse (el.) 



djbl^LA mu?ahara relationship by mar- 
riage; O affinity 

jL^^il in?ihdr melting process | O ^ 
Jl^JljLfvfljVl silk al-ins.al-waqlium (el); 
<£jy jl^a}\ (nawawi) nuclear fusion 
(phya.) 



O 



munsakar pi. -at fuse (el.) 



£.jf* sihrtj, sahrlj pi. £j\+** sahdrlf 
cistern; large (water) container, tank; oil 
tank 

J,^ §ahala a i ( J-f^ §ahll) to whinny, neigh 
(horse) 

Js4^ sahil whinny (ing), neighing 



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617 



ej4*e sakwa pi. sahawdt, »Lf^ siJu? back (of 
a horse) 

bj*4~" $(ihyuii 2 , also sihyaun 2 Zion 

tj>-f*s» §ahyuni, sihyauni Zionistic; (pi. 
-tm, <Cjlf^> §ahayina) Zionist 

Vjs4~* $ahyuniya, sihyaunlya Zion- 



*^* 9uwwa pi. tj^-rf» suwan mound or hillock 
of stones; roadmark, stone sign marking 
a trail (in the desert) ; signpost | O *y* 
\j£ (bahriya) buoy 

Ht-jj**) Sr'U* sa&a u (saub, *>>^ saibuba) 
to hit (a s.th., the target); to be right, 
hold true, be to the point, hit the mark, 
be pertinent, be apposite (opinion) | uU 
*i«l A {am aqla'a) by all means, under 
all circumstances II to direct, fix (Jl * 
s.th., also, e.g., the glance on, to), aim, 
point, train (Jl a s.th. at or on); to 
agree (a with s.o.), concur (a, » with s.o., 
in s.th.), consent, assent (a to s.th.), 
approve (a of s.th.), sanction (a s.th.) 
IV to bit (a a target, * s.o.; bullet, blow, 
etc.); to wound, injure (a s.o.); to attain, 
reach, achieve (a s.th., e.g., end, purpose) ; 
to reach out {a for s.th., of the hand); to 
get, obtain, win, gain (a e.g., a fortune), 
acquire (a s.th., e.g., a certain amount 
of knowledge) ; to have, eat (a a snack;; 
to take (a a meal); to befall (a s.o.), 
fall (a upon s.o.), happen (» to s.o.); to 
allot (lj a to s.o. s.th.), bestow (<~> a upon 
s.o. s.th.), make (^ s.th.) fall to s.o.'s 
(a) lot; to cause losses (j* to s.o.); to be 
right, be in the right; to do the right 
thing, hit the mark; to do right, properly 
{a s.th., expressed by a verbal noun) ; to 
say the right word; pass. <-*i-^>i uslba to be 
Btricken, attacked, afflicted (<_> by a 
disease, and the like); to be injured | 
obU»i ijL*! {isdbdt) to score, make 
goals (in sports) ; <U> j <-jU»I {'amalihi) 



to do right, act properly; r!/^ Vi* - *' 
to incur multiple wounds; ZjUz ujw»I 
(bi-kasdratin) to suffer a loss; *jU>1 lj*jl*»1 
S.u-ii (ipdbatan) to be hard hit, be griev- 
ously afflicted; £...,.^1 asabta you hit the 
mark, quite right! t->l^<aJI JS**c-*U»l (kulla 
§-§awdb) to be perfectly right X ^j^ai^\ 
istaswaba to approve (a of s.th.), sanction 
(a s.th.) 

<~>j+*> saub direction, quarter; that 
which is right, proper, or correct; sauba 
(prep.) in the direction of, toward, to | 
Vj-^J V*^- Ji^ a* (hadabin) or ^j^> J?" j> 
«_jA>-j or v^-y g* $ i> (f a ?P n ) from all 
sides, from all directions, from all 
quarters, from everywhere; vj^» J£* <i 
i-jJ^-j every place, everywhere, all over, 
in all quarters 

l-w» sayyib rain cloud 

4jL# §dba pi. -at harvest (tun., mar.) 

»-*!>** sawdb that which is right, proper, 
or correct; right, proper, correct; Tight- 
ness, correctness, properness; reason, in- 
tellect, mind, consciousness; \-*)j«* sawdban 
rightly, justly | u!^ Jc ^a he is right; 
jJJj i-jl^iJl &J* dlU (haqq) to act in 
exactly the right manner, pursue the right 
course; *u[^» Jl (»U) *>-j to regain one's 
reason, get back to one's senses, become 
reasonable again; -ol^ ?J~^» *>.]?** •& *° 
lose one's mind; aj1^» & uU to lose 
consciousness; o)j»a y> wJU unconscious, 
senseless 

«->**'' aswab 2 more pertinent, more 
apropos, more apposite, more proper, 
more correct 

*~> t j-*\ aswablya advisability, expe- 
diency 

*--j>a> taswlb aiming; turning, point- 
ing; (pi. -at) correction, rectification | 
<~»ij~*i jL^r jdhdz I. sighting device, 
(gun)sight 



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618 



ajLo! isdba pi. -at hit; goal, score (in 
sports); injury, wound; state or process 
of being afflicted (by a disease), (attack 
of) illness, sickness; crop damage; acci- 
dent; an injured, wounded person | <jU*1 
J*jJI i. al-'amal industrial accident; J^ 
i|U»V! mahall al-i. scene of the accident; 
jl^L oU (bi-adrdr) damage done to, or 
suffered by, s.th..; jl^ obLsl *jjL (sijr) 
(to win) by 4 to (sport) 

^\j^o^m\ istiswdb approval 

t-J L* sd' ib pertinent , apropos , apposite , 
right, correct; suited, appropriate 

<_.a.,^« musib pertinent, apropos, appo- 
site, right, correct; suited, appropriate 

5-i-A. musxba pi. -at, JU. masa'ib 2 
misfortune, calamity, disaster 

^L** musdb stricken, befallen, at- 
tacked, afflicted (*-> by) ; injured, wound- 
ed, sick, ill; wounded person, casualty; 
victim of an accident; misfortune, 
calamity, disaster | Jl »— >La* grievous 
misfortune, mournful event, death 

z \^> (Turk, soba) sdbe stove (syr.) 

{Cjj^) ljU sdta u a (saut) to ring, sound, 
make a noise or sound; to raise one's 
voice, shout II = I; to vote, cast ballots 
(in an election) | Jp fLr-Vlj &j+* (ijma r ) 
to vote unanimously in the affirmative 
on ...; (-U<i) «JUJ Ct^ff to vote, give 
one's vote for, in favor of (against) . . . 

C^» saut pi. o|^»! aswdt sound (also 
phon.); voice; tone, strain; melody, tune; 
noise; fame, renown; vote; pi. interjec- 
tions (gram.) j C^aS\ A*j bu r d as-s. fame, 
celebrity; O^JI a*-j raf as-s. echo, re- 
verberation; d\j^^\ jp Him al-a. phonet- 
ics; Oj^aJI S^S quwwat as-s. volume, inten- 
sity (radio) ; P^**~» ^-^ audibly; o^sj 
JU aloud; *J*\j £*>j~*> (w&ti) softly, in a 
low voice, under one's breath; (phon.) 



^1 £j>y*e (anfi) nasal (sound), jy%£ Oj* 
voiced sound, ^l&p-l o_^» (ihtikakl) 
fricative, Jl»- <1>j^> (halql) and &j*, 
iSj>^>- (hanjari) laryngal, £*- Oj^ 
(hanaki) palatal, Jfl* C^e consonant, 
(jU>-l Cjy^> (asndnl) dental, (£jji£ £>j*s 
(Safawi) labial, >i*aJI c^ sibilant, Oj^ 
(^jU*iJl explosive, ^^i Cjy* (lahawl) 
uvular, tfj+4* £>>j** voiceles sound; for 
other compounds look up the second word 

Jj^> sautl sonant, sound- (in com- 
pounds), vocal, sonic, acoustic; resound- 
ing, resonant, sonorous; phonetic | Aju\ 
iJj-^ speech organs (phon.); Oj>*> (U*i 
phonological system, sound system (phon.) 

oLJj-^ sautiydt, oLJ^aJI ]p phonetics 

J^ J^m* sauti-mar'iy audio-visual 

C*j^» sweat crying, shouting, clamor 

£*>-*> sit (good) repute, standing, 
prestige; fame, renown; celebrity, fa- 
mousness j .i^vaJi -Uj bu'd as-s. fame, 
celebrity; Co^oJI «j!i famous, celebrated, 
well-known 

*^-i~* ? a yyit loud-voiced, having a 
stentorian voice; O loud-speaker (Syr,) 

O £~>\j~aa miswat microphone 

iio j~aS taswlt voting, vote, casting of 
ballots, polling (election) 

tiJL» sait sound- (in compounds) | 
O <j\~* \^*f sound film 

Oj-a* musawwit voter; entitled to 
vote, franchised 

t-Lc look up alphabetically 

ry* II to dry (* s.th.) 

y*«« musawivah withered, dried (herb, 
etc.) 

l (jy^>) ^L* sdka u = rl— $a£a « 



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619 



JJ~* 



3 ^» IV to listen, lend one's ear ( jl or J to 
s.o.. to s.th.) 



■>L» name of the letter ^ 

li^ soda | o j£ ta^-* (kawiya) caustic soda, 
sodium hydroxide; li^-JI £~>\jj (nitrdt) 
sodium nitrate 

ty*y* (Lat. sodium) sodium 

hj+e II to form, shape, mold, fashion, 
create (a s.th.); to paint, draw, sketch 
(a, « s.o., s.th.); to illustrate (with 
drawings or pictures, a s.th.); to make 
a picture (a, » of s.o., of s.th.); tc photo- 
graph (a, o s.o., s.th.); to represent, de- 
scribe, depict, portray (a s.th.) | <d j^> 
(suwwira) it appeared to him, seemed to 
him; L>\ *J jy^ to portray to s.o., lead 
s.o. to believe that ... V — pass, of II; 
to imagine, fancy, conceive (a s.th.); to 
think (a, o s.o., s.th.) to be s.o. or s.th. 
(a, »); to seem, appear, look (J to s.o.) | 
JiJl «jj-^j *i ( r aqlu) unimaginable, in- 
conceivable, unthinkable 

jj^> sur horn, bugle; see also below 

hj~e $wra pi. jj^f suioar form, shape; 
pictorial representation, illustration ; 
image, likeness, picture; figure, statue; 
replica; copy, carbon copy, duplicate; 
version, form, draft (of a proposal, etc.); 
manner, mode; suratan formally | ljj~# 
iwU total picture, overall picture; jj*^> 
SS^i. (mutaharrika) motion picture, film ; 
STpdl jj-^JI j\* motion-picture theater, 
cinema; 2L«jr hy* (Samsiya) photo- 
graph; J^*V! J^U h_f (tibqa l-asl) 
true copy; exact replica (fig.); un- 
distorted picture; »jSl* hy+ (mukabbara) 
enlargement, blowup {phot) ; ,>~oT hy J 
in human shape; 4JU- hj^ (jolly a) 
obviously, evidently; 4-^-~£ hj~*t P er_ 
ceptibly, tangibly, palpably; i^U- hj^H 
(ka§sa) especially, particularly; i-U h.yt 



( r dmma) generally, in general; IjSl* hj^ 
(mukabbara) increasingly, on a larger 
scale, to an increasing degree; hj*** 
&^JU noticeably, markedly; hy^ ^ 
aJL*-T (I&miyd'iya) chemically, by che- 
mical means; lii U *j>-» J m case that * • *> 
if; ljk^» »jj** j (musaggara) on a reduced 
scale, in miniature; Q <J\<Xt hj-* (budd* 
*iya) archetype (psych.); "hj>- hj~* {jaw* 
wiya) aerial photograph; «J-*i hj~* {4%h* 
nlya) sensory image ;j±s\J{j hj^> (radiyo) 
photoradiogram; O V>-» »jj~" (sautlya) 
(sound) doublet (of a word; phon.); hj*H 
«juj chiefly, mainly 



i£jj~0 suri, suwarl formal; superficial; 
false, sham, deceptive, fallacious; arti- 
ficial, fictitious, seeming, fancied, im- 
aginary 

j yJl taswtr drawing, sketching; rep- 
resentation, portrayal, depiction; il- 
lustration; painting; photography, also 
,^-^Ji j j^\ (samsl); take (in motion 
picture making) | jj^\ SJT camera; 
iSj}-\ jj~a^\ (jawwi) aerial photography; 
OjUl yj-^JI (mulavnvan) color photo- 
graphy 

I j j*oj taswira pi. j jLaj tasawir 2 
pictorial representation, image, picture, 
illustration 

iSjj*^ ta$wiri descriptive, pictorial; 
illustrating, illustrative | lijy^u J-*^* 
(muslqd) accompanying music, incidental 
or background music (film, radio, TV play, 
etc.) 

jj~*o tasawumr pi. -af imagination 
(also philos.), fancy, fantasy, idea; 
conception, concept (philos.) 

i£jj~aj tasawwurl existing in imagina- 
tion only, imaginary, fancied, fictitious | 
O (Sjj^^ i-J^-UI (madhab) idealism (as a 
philosophical school) 

jj~oj> rnusawwif pi. -un former, shaper, 



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JJ^ 9 



620 



fashioner, creator; painter; photog- 
rapher; cameraman (motion pictures); 
draftsman, commercial artist, illustrator | 
oLjI&I jj^* the Creator of the Universe; 

uJUJI cJ!-|jf*£il jj-*°^ (kahraba'i, qalb) 
electrocardiograph 

%jj~oa mvgawwira camera 

jj~*+ mu$awwar illustrated; — (pi. -at) 
photographer's studio; motion-picture 
studio | Uil^iA-J jj~** m. al-jugrdfiya atlas 

2 jj** §ur 2 Tyre (town in S Lebanon) 

t { yj** su§ pi. OLa^ $%san young chicken, 
chick (syr.) 

i i$"J~" ? au §& {tQ-) *° peep, cheep, squeak 

£>*# VII to turn on one's heel; to obey, 
yield, give in, submit (J to s.o., to 
s.th.) 

pLo pi. £>**»! asvm\ f\y*\ aswa% 
OU^ $l f dn saa, a cubic measure of 
varying magnitude | fUtJ UU» tit for 
tat; ,>\pU» £L*J1 <J ij (radda, 0ain) or 
(>,eLaj UL? <d J IT to pay s.o. back 
twofold, bring double retaliation on s.o. 

^U» 0a salon, parlor, reception room 

HfJ**) £}"> W « (?aug, ^-U* siyaga) to 
form, shape, mold, fashion, create (a 
s.th.); to formulate (a s.th.); to coin (a 
a word); to fabricate, invent, make up 
(a a lie) | ImLUIj ^JUI £U* (dahab, fidda) 
to work in gold and silver, practice the 
art of goldsmithing ; <J U. I j^L* (alhdmhu) 
to set to music, score s.th. 

j^» sawgf forming, shaping, molding, 
fashioning, creating 

4A;m» jH^a forming, shaping, molding, 
fashioning, creating; — (pi. i^ §iyag) 
shape, form; external form; wording, 
text, version (e.g., of a letter, of a treaty) ; 



formula (in general, also math., chern.); 
jewelry, gold and silver articles; (gram.) 
form | J*UJ( ^tf the active (gram.); 4w 
Jj*ill the passive (gram.); ifU- ii-^j in 
a decided form, in no uncertain terms; 
4~.U Ai«^ ( f dmmtya) dialect or colloquial 
form (gram.); Sju-j- ~<&~* Jl J^j (mw* 
ivahhada) to find a common formula (for 
s.th.) 

UU*» siydga composing, drafting, word- 
ing, forming, formulation, fashioning, 
molding, shaping; goldsmithery, gold- 
smithing 

£L** masag jewelry, jewels, gold and 
silver articles 

£>L> sa*ig pi. £L*> puyyag* ^-U* §aga, 
^\y* suwwdg goldsmith, jeweler 

frj*** ma§ug finely wrought, artistic- 
ally worked (products of a goldsmith, 
literary work) ; pi. oUj-a. gold and silver 
jewelry, products of a goldsmith, jewelry 

2 jL* look up alphabetically 

Jfiy^ $uf pi. oj^l astvdf wool 

j,^» sufi of wool, woolen; Islamic 
mystic, Sufi 

4-i_j-*» suflya Sufi way of life; v>-*^ 
Sufism (Islamic mysticism) 

uLi^> $ufan tinder, touchwood, punk 

Z\jj^ sufana tinder, touchwood, punk 

^\j^> sawwaf wool merchant 

<_>^*axJl at-ta§av?wuf Sufism (Islamic 
mysticism), the Sufi way of life; mysti- 
cism 

li^adll al-mutasawwifa the Sufis, 
members of Sufi communities, mystics 

li^s* §ofa sofa 



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<■>>** 



Li>*> sofiyd Sofia (capital of Bulgaria) 

1 {(]y^>) JU» sola u (saul, *J^» saula, <JL*-» 
siydl) to spring, jump, leap (Jp on), 
attack, assail, assault (J* s.o.) II to 
pan, wash out (* grain, gold) III to as- 
sault, attack (* s.o.); to vie, compete 
(a with s.o.) 

4^» saula pi. -at attack, assault; 
force; tyranny, despotism, arbitrary rule | 
oV^-j oVj~«» {jauldt) bold, fearless 
deeds in battle 

*JjL** mu§dwala pi. -at assault, attack | 
hXtu oVjLa* (naqdiya) attacks of the 
critics 

% 6y+ (Turk, sol) sol regimental sergeant 
major, master sergeant; warrant officer 
(formerly, Eg., Sudan; mil.) \ ^jS 3j~* 8. 
icfyin regimental quartermaster sergeant 
(formerly, Eg., Sudan), ^Ul Jy J^> 
(Turk, sol kolagasi) warrant officer, adju- 
tant (formerly, Eg., Sudan; mil.) 

6U;j^» saulajtin pi. Q\y*> sawdlija staff 
with a curved end; polo mallet; scepter, 



Jj^t solo solo (mus.) 

{{j**) /*U» sama u {saum, >»L*s> siyam) to 
abstain (J& from s.th.); to abstain from 
food, drink, and sexual intercourse; to 
fast 

p^» saum abstention, abstinence, 
abstemiousness; fasting, fast; p*Ji fast- 
ing during the month of Ramadan, one 
of the five principal duties of the Muslim | 

jSl\ f^-aJl the Great Fast — Lent 
(Chr.); ^jVl pj«* s. al-arba'ln do.; Xx 
oj^iill p^ 'Id s. al-gufrdn Yom Kippur, 
Day of Atonement (Jud.) 



j*L*» siyam fasting, fast 



^Lm* siydml Lenten fare 

fL» sa'im pi. -«», 
^ suyyam, a\~* y , 
faster, one who fasts 



pw pu, tut, jj±. -»/«., c>^» suwwam, 
*-* suyyam, a\~* siyam fasting (adj.); 
faster, one who fasts 



JU^JI as-somdl Somalia (country in E Afri- 
ca); (formerly) Somaliland; the Somalia 

JL^> somdli Somali (adj. and n.) 
l**j**> sauma'a see *£* 

(j^#) jU> sdna u (saun, SiL-^ siydna) to 
preserve, conserve, keep, retain, main- 
tain, sustain, uphold (a s.th.) ; to maintain 
(a e.g., a machine, an automobile); to 
protect, guard, safeguard, keep, save 
(^ a, a s.o., s.th. from); to defend (^ a, » 
s.o., s.th. against) V to uphold one's 
honor, live chastely, virtuously (woman) ; 
to shut o.s. off, seclude o.s., protect o.s. 

bj^> saun preservation, conservation, 
guarding, keeping; susten(ta)tion, up- 
holding; maintenance, upkeep, care; 
protection, safeguarding ), securing, de- 
fense; chastity, respectability | L»-L* 
u>.sJl honorary title of ladies of high 
social standing 

o\y** siivan, suwdn pi. *j^»1 aswina 
cupboard, case | <->^r" o!j-^» and u|>^ 
^^il wardrobe; S^LJl b\j** s. as-sufra 
sideboard, buffet; ^z&l jlj** s. al-kutub 
bookcase 

o\y+ sawwdn (coll.; n. un, 3) flint; 
granite 



j \j^> sawwdnl : 
flint implements 



*!>[>jl {adawdt) 



4jLm» siydna preservation, conservation 
(e.g., of old buildings, monuments); care, 
servicing, maintenance (of autos, machin- 
es, rooms, etc.); protection, guarding, 
safeguarding (against damage, loss) | 4jL^» 
otjLJI s. assay y drat auto care, servicing; 



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4JL«aJl oljii adawdt as-s. preservative 
agents, preservatives; iJL^I SJU- state of 
preservation; iiLwsJI Jy firaq as-s. main- 
tenance crews; ^JL^aJl <iil» malak as-s. 
guardian angel (Chr.) 

^Ltf sd'in preserver, sustainer, main- 
tainer, keeper, guardian, protector; pro- 
tective 

dj~** masun well -protected, well-kept, 
well -guarded, sheltered; chaste, virtu- 
ous (woman) ; also an epithet for women 

4jU^u» sonata, a^Uj^ sonata sonata (mus.) 

(£j*e sawd i (suwiy) and sawiya a (sawan) 
and II to dry up, wither, wilt; — sawd 
to peep, cheep, squeak, chirp, screech 

tSj** suwan see »j~* 

U^s<» soya soya | L>>**N Jy ful as-s. soybeans 

C-jw? see Cjy4» 

{ « r ^) 7-U. saha i {saih, ^-Lv* siydh) to cry, 
yell, shout; to scream, screech; to crow; 
to utter, let out (***** saihatan a cry); 
to call out (l-j to s.o.), shout, bellow, 
bawl ( j or Jp at s.o.) II to cry out (loud), 
roar, bellow, bawl VI to shout at one 
another, call out to one another; to 
clamor, raise a din 

^a saih crying, clamor 

i^u* saiha (n, vie.) pi. -at cry, outcry, 
shout | ^^1 ^-r^ £• »Z-/tar6 battle cry, 
war cry; uLh-^ J-yl (arsala) to utter 



-L* to utter a cry; 



> 



within shouting distance; i'jj *a+~* >_-*i> 
{saihatan) to die unheard (call); j^\ 
i>^» akir s. the latest thing, the last 
word ( = Ft. le dernier cri) 

*-L*» siydh crying, clamor, cry, outcry; 
cry of a bird 



£-Um# sayydh crier, loud-mouthed per- 
son; noisy, clamorous, vociferous, crying 

f L*S tasayuh crying, clamor, roar, 
bellow(ing) 

1 (A~*) ^L* soda i (said) to catch (in a trap), 
trap (a game); to hunt (a game); to 
hunt down {a game); to catch (a fish) 
V to hunt for prey; to hunt down (a s.th.); 
to catch (a s.th.) VIII = I | »UI J jIU^I 
j$^i\ {'akir) to fish in troubled waters 

-L^» said hunting, hunt; angling, 
fishing (also jJLJl jl^» 3. as-samak); 
game, venison, prey, quarry | JU* ^ 
4JL^ (s. Jcaydlihi) dreamed up by him, 
a product of his fantasy (of a story) ; ju^aii 
tSj»-JI (bahri) deep-sea fishing; JJjUi ju„ 
s. al-WliL pearl fishery 

->L^ sayydd pi. -un hunter; fisher j 
dL-JI iLstf 5, as-samak fisher, fisherman; 
kingfisher (zooL); iilcV! aL^ fisher, 
fisherman 

aj^Um* sayyddiya {syr. t pal.) dish of fish 
and rice 

*I*W» saida* 2 , 1-U** Sidon (city in Leba- 
non) 

«V" misyada pi. AjUx» masayid 2 trap, 
snare; net; hunting or fishing implement 

SXwsa. mmyada pi. .u'La* masd'id 2 , 
OjUa* masayid 2 fishery, fishing grounds 
(also iSlrVI «.****• | <JjJi ju'Uu {bitro* 
liya), cjJ AjU*. m. zai( oil traps, oil 
deposits 

2 j Up sat? name of the letter ^ 

4Jjl-«p saidala apothecary's trade; pharmacy, 
pharmacology 

JXjm? saidali pi. «J jLu» sayddila pharma- 
cist, druggist, apothecary 



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jV-U** saidaldnl pharmacist, druggist, 
apothecary 

UJUtf saidallya pi. -at pharmacy; drug- 
store 

oUi^ saidaliydt drugs, pharmaceutics 

(jw»)jL* sara i (sair, hjs-** sairura, jy*** 
ma&ir) to become (* s.th.); (with foil, 
imperf.) to begin, commence, start to..., 
come to..., get to..., get into a situa- 
tion where..., get to the point where...; 
to set in, occur, happen, come to pass, 
take place; to fall to s.o.'s (<J) lot, 
befall (J s.o.) ; to betake o.s., come, 
get (JUt or Jl to); to arrive (Jf at); to 
end, wind up (Jl with), result (Jl in); 
Jl <u jL» to lead, bring s.o. or s.th. to; 
Jl jUij (yusaru) one proceeds to..., one 
will eventually..., one will wind up 
with... II to induce (o s.o.) to become 
(a s.th.), make (* » s.o. into s.th., out of 
s.o. s.th.) 

jw» sir crack (of the door) ; small salted 
fish 

*jjj^ sairura (act or process of) be- 
coming, development; end, outcome, 
upshot, result 

>a. maslr development, progress (e.g., 
of work) ; — (pi. j L^ masdyir 2 ) place at 
which one arrives; end, outcome, upshot, 
issue, result ; destiny; future; path to the 
future; see also under ^ | j^al\ j Jju 
self-determination (poL); ^~ JTjw^ m. 
kulli hxyyin the way of all flesh; j^A\ 
i]jiil\ (mustarak) the common destiny; 
j^wall 4^w ma'rakat al-m. decisive battle 
(over the final destiny) 

<Sj^a* masiri crucial, decisive for the 
future j *>j\ m a* ^j- {harb) showdown war 

jwJ tasylr cession, transfer (jur.) 



^-^ slsiya pi. ^L 
rooster 



saydsin spur of the 



«jU» sayi e (eg.) vagabond, vagrant 

4*^ see fj** 

{Ol^) JsU> sdfa i (saif) to be summery; to 
spend the summer, estivate (* or u in) | 
Ui *l OUjJI JsL* (zamdnu am sata) at 
all times, under all circumstances II, V, 
VIII = I 

vJi-^* saif pi. vjL^I asyaf summer 

Jw> saif I summery, estival, summer 
(adj.) | J--? ^^fS* daylight-saving time 



kjt~^ maslf pi. .JuLa* masayif 2 
summer residence, summer resort; rest 
center, holiday camp; summer vacation 
region 

(Jlj^ tasyif summering (in a summer 
resort), summer vacationing, summer stay 

(JsLkv^l istiydf summering, summer 
vacationing 

IajL* saifa summer(time) 

,_v ^. musayyif pi. ~un summer vaca- 
tioner 

Jslk^. mustdf summer resort; (pi. 
-un) vacationist, summer visitor 



,jwJl as-sin China; the Chinese; jrw» (= 
porcelain, china | jw*M ^. China 



<j=~*) 



^-^ sinl Chinese (adj. and n.); porce- 
lain, china 



slnlya (syr. seniya, leb. sainiya) 
pi. (ji^s> saivdni a large, round metal 
plate with raised brim, esp. one made of 
copper, used as baking tin, serving tray 
and table top; turntable, also iT,^i* *~i~^ 
(mutaharrika) ; pi. chinaware, porcelain 
vessels 

j}*** siwdn pi. -at, ifj\y sawawlri 2 (large) 
tent, pavilion, marquee 



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624 



^L* dad name of the letter ^; a sound 
peculiar to Arabic, hence: jiL^JI JaI aid 
ad-$. the Arabic-speaking peoples, the 
Arabs; *IM\ »b! do.; jLiJi jlk»l the 
Arabic-speaking countries; jUiJI *iJ lugat 
ad-d. the Arabic language 

Jj^-» da'ula u (^JL* daala, ^jj** diiula) to 
be small, tiny, little, scanty, meager, 
slight, sparse, feeble, faint, thin; to 
diminish, dwindle, wane, decline, shrink, 
decrease III to reduce, diminish, weaken 
(a s.th.) VI = I 

4jLi dcfala {V>\XJ> didla) smallness, 
littleness, tininess; minuteness, scant- 
iness, meagerness, slightness, sparsity, 
paucity, feebleness, faintness, thin- 
ness; waning, dwindling, diminution, 
decrease; shrinking, shrinkage; small 
number 

a}jj^ du'ula = aJ \J> da' a la 

JJL^ da'il pi. lHjLJ di'al, ^j^> duald' 2 
small, tiny, minute, Uttle, scanty, 
slight, meager, sparse, feeble, faint, thin 

JjUiJ tadd'ul = 4J*U? da'tila 

Z*\J> dama checkers 

oL* da'n sheep (coll.) 

JL^ ddni> ddni mutton (meat) 
£\J> dd'in sheep 

^^ dabba i (dabb) to take hold (J* of s.th.); 
to keep under lock, put in safekeeping, 
guard carefully (J* s.th.) II = I; to bolt 
(a the door) IV to be foggy (day) 



^J> dabb {eg.) front teeth 

<~^ dabba pi. -at, v^ dibdb door bolt, 
latch; wooden lock 

V W dabdb fog, mist ; smog 

(jL«i dababi foggy, misty; nebulous, 
hazy 

j^J> dabara u to gather, collect, assemble 

ZjLj> dibdra, dubdra and SjL^l idbdra 
pi. juL»l adablr 2 file, dossier 

I vdbur file, dossier 



^wJ c?afe6 pi. uU dibdb, 
di~J> dubban lizard 



*l adubb, 



~yj> dabaha a (dabh) to blacken (a s.th., 
said of fire) ; to snort (horse) 



.k^ dabata i u (dabt) to grab, grasp, seize, 
apprehend, arrest, detain (o s.o.) ; to catch, 
nab (* s.o.); to take hold (a, « of s.o., of 
s.th.); to keep, hold, retain (a s.th.); to 
tackle resolutely, master, overcome {a 
s.th.), cope (a with s.th.); to have (a s.th.) 
under control, have command (a over 
s.th.); to restrain, hold back, keep 
down, subdue, check, curb, control 
(a, o s.o., s.th.); to seize, distrain, im- 
pound, confiscate (a s.th.); to do (a 
s.th.) accurately, precisely, meticulously, 
or well; to render precise, define pre- 
cisely (a s.th.); to regulate, adjust (« 
s.th., e.g., techn.); to determine precisely 
(UT kalimatan the spelling and pro- 
nunciation of a word), vowel (ize) (a a 
word); to observe strictly, keep exactly 
(a time); to regulate, settle, put or keep 
in order (a s.th.); to correct (a s.th.); 
to enter, book, record, register (a s.th.); 
to measure off exactly, measure out (a 
s.th.), take exactly the right amount, the 



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625 



J* 



right proportion (a of) VII to be de- 
tained, be held back, be held up; to be 
regulated, be kept in order, be disciplin- 
ed; to be determined, be established, etc. 
(pass, of dabata) 

)euj> dabt capture, apprehension, 
arrest(ing), detention; restraint, suppres- 
sion, subdual, curb { in g), check (ing) ; 
control; seizure, impoundage, distraint, 
confiscation; accuracy, correctness, exact- 
itude, precision; vocalization (of Arabic 
script) ; improvement (of relations), settle- 
ment (of differences) ; correction ; control, 
regulation (techn.); tuning, focusing, ad- 
justment (of an apparatus or set; techn.); 
(pi. \fj~j* dubut) protocol, minutes, 
proces-verbal; entering, entry, record, 
registry; Ik^ dabtan accurately, exactly, 
precisely, punctually | J-e.^Hj = Lk^ 
datyan; ^b^l -U^ d. al-arddi cadastral 
survey; obUJ-i .L-^ bookkeeping; ia^ 
S^JiJI d. as-Sakwa abstemiousness, conti- 
nence; SjjUJI £J*>UVI $o~J> (aqdrlya) ca- 
dastral survey; {J Jci\ Sa^ self-control, 
self-command; Ja-^iJi jl^ jahdz ad-d. 
control apparatus, controlling device; 
Ja-^aJl je j[p [ f drin) unvoweled; iwJ 
ljj^a}\j Cjj^ail d. as-saut wa-S'Siura tuning, 
adjustment of the sound and picture (TV) ; 
ju jJ^UJI Ss^ adjustment of relations 
between . . . 



dabtiya police station; police 



^a^Ju modbata pi. JajU-i* maddbit 2 pro- 
tocol, minutes, proces-verbal 

kLrfiil indibdt discipline | J?L^aJV^ kX 
lajnat al-ind. disciplinary board 

LUL^Jl indibdtiya state of being dis- 
ciplined, disciplined behavior 

JijLs^ ddbit controlling device, control, 
governor, regulator (techn.); prepositor 
entrusted with discipline (in Eg. schools) ; 



(pi. kL^ dubbat) officer; (pi. l*}\yJ> 
dawdbif) general rule, canon, (moral) 
precept or order [ ^T JajU^ senior officer; 
j^*L JajUi subaltern officer; *J«-^Jl .UjL* 
d. as-$aff pi. .JwsJ! J»L^ noncommissioned 
officer; <l>j*d\ JajL» d, a§-§aut volume 
control (radio); JaoLi <Ju-» saff d. pi. 
i*Lj> Outf noncommissioned officer; j\Aj 
9j>\j *i/j JajL? (gctir) completely unre- 
strained, out of all control 



iiaj'wi dabita police; (pi. 
wdbit 2 ) curbing force, order 



J*L 



da* 



^>j~Jla madbut accurate, exact, correct, 
right, precise | Ibj^JL* S*U- precision watch 



*yj> dab", dabu c f., pi. J-U* diba", gj>\ adbu* 
hyena 

^J> VIII to take under one's arm 
,j<J> dibn armpit 

™J> dajja i (dajj, p^f 4 a Pf) to be noisy, 
boisterous; to clamor, shout, raise a 
hue and cry; to make a tumult, make 
uproar IV — I 

l^ dajja cry, yell, outcry; clamor, 
noise, din, row, hubbub, tumult 

■pJ? dajij cry, yell, outcry; clamor, 
noise, din, row, hubbub, tumult 

ry& dajuj roaring, bellowing, scream- 
ing, crying 

A*? dajjdj violently roaring, bellow- 
ing, screaming, crying, boisterous, up- 
roarious 

j*f dajira a (dajar) to be angry, annoyed, 



irritated, exasperated (,> or 



at, 



about); to be dissatisfied, discontent, 
displeased (^oru with); to sorrow, be 
worried, uneasy (j* or t-j about), be 



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disquieted, grieved, troubled (j- or lj 
by, over) IV to anger, vex, irritate, 
trouble, torment (& s.o.), disquiet, dis- 
comfit, aggrieve (o s.o.) V — I 

ye? da jar annoyance, irritation, vexa- 
tion, anger; dissatisfaction; discontent, 
displeasure; sorrow, worry, grief 

j£? dajir annoyed, irritated, angry, 
vexed; morose, sullen; dissatisfied, dis- 
content, displeased, uneasy, restless; 
worried, grieved, troubled 



\pr annoying, irritating, ex- 
asperating, irksome, tedious 

j*?^£-* mutadajjir = j^ dajir 



£** daja'a a (daj r , ^yf duju') to lie on 
one's side; to lie down; to lie, recline; 
to sleep; to slumber, rest (e.g., manu- 
scripts in an archive) III to lie, have 
sexual intercourse (U with a woman) 
IV to bed, put to bed, put to sleep {* s.o.) ; 
to embed (a s.th.) VII and VIII (*^J>\ 
and £?-J>\ iddaja'a) to lie down; to lie, 
recline; to sleep 

<*jf daj r a (n. vie.) lying position, 
lying, recumbency; slumber 

4*^ duja'a, duj'a late riser, slugabed, 
sluggard, lazybones; lazy, sluggish, inert 

ijj? duj'i late riser, slugabed, sluggard, 
lazybones; lazy, sluggish, inert 

£^& dajV one sharing the bed; bed- 
fellow; comrade, companion 

£»-^A* madja' pi. **»-LL« niadaji' 2 couch, 
bed | A****** A>-1 he lay down (to sleep); 
a^^Jl* u Jlz\ aqadda madja'ahu or ^*5l 
£>wiil <uip or 4»bii jjji (madja'ahu) to 
deprive s.o. of sleep 

£>-U^* muddji r bedfellow 

£>*k*i. mudtaja* couch, bed 



<£%Jl£? dahdaha to vibrate, flicker (mirage); 
to shatter, break, crush II to vibrate, 
flicker (mirage) 

^La^ ddhdah shallow, shoal, flat 
(water) 

dU^ dakika a (dahh, dihk, dahik) to laugh 
(uo r (> at, about, over) ; to jeer, scoff, 
jibe (<-i or J* or ^ at s.o., at s.th.), 
deride, ridicule, mock, scorn (<-> or J* 
or j, s.o., s.th.) | <uU£ »Jjc die* {bi-miVi 
Sidqaihi) or 4Jjti * J* ,*1**» {miVa) to grin 
from ear to ear; XJc* j* jp ^\#? (durrin 
munaddadin) (to laugh by showing 
stringed pearls, i.e., the teeth), to show 
a toothy smile; to grin from ear to ear; 
4J0 Jp dJUtf* (daqanihi; pi. *^»i Jc) {eg. 
syr.) to fool s.o,, make a fool of s.o., pull 
s.o.'s leg, make fun of s.o., lead s.o. 
around by the nose (<^> with s.th.), put 
on an act for s.o. ; <cii j £\&? {daqanihi) 
to laugh in s.o.'s face II to make (« s.o.) 
laugh III to joke, jest, banter ( ft with 
s.o.) IV and X to make (» s.o.) laugh (^ 
about) I J&JI £Ujo L. {tabid) (that 
which makes a woman who has lost her 
child laugh = ) irresistibly comical VI to 
laugh together 

db& dahk, dihk, dahik laugh(ing); 
laughter 

i£>** dahka pi. dahakdt, dihka pi. -at 
(n. vie.) laugh; laughter 

4O? duhka object of ridicule, laugh- 
ingstock 

ily* dahuk frequently, or constantly, 
laughing; laugher 

iiU? dahhdk frequently, or constantly, 
laughing; laugher; joker, jester, wag, 
buffoon 

aS^* 9 ! itdhuka pi. dJL»-L*l addhlk 2 
object of ridicule, laughingstock; lark, 
spree, hoax, practical joke 



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v~ 



di^l adlmk* more ridiculous, more 
laughable, more ludicrous, funnier, more 
comical 

iS^m^oA madhaka object of ridicule, 

laughingstock 

iJUH idhdk comicality, humor 

<iJU-t^ ddhik pi. d\*-[)~Z dawdhik 2 
laughing | ^Jl .fJUL* d. as-sinn cheerful, 
gay, sunny; dJU-L* jJ = dJU»*i« Li 
(mudhik) 



mudhik ridiculous, laughable, 
ludicrous, droll, funny, comical; co- 
median, buffoon, jester | iSC»wi* 4.1* c" is*J 
{qissa tamtlllya) comedy; <£JU«^a. Lj 
comic film 

{ y** 4ahl shallow, shoal ; a shallow, a shoal ; 
trivial, superficial 

( i y^ and j#?) U? dahd u (dahw, dzihuw) 
to become visible, appear; — ( j& > 
dahiya a (U? dahan) to become visible, 
appear; to be struck by the sun's rays 
II to sacrifice, offer up, immolate (<^> 
s.th.) J 4*~ij ^e to sacrifice o.s. ; j** 
^pjuLJlj ^jJcMj to sacrifice life and property 
(properly: the soul and that which is 
precious) IV to bring to light, make visible 
(* s.th.); to come to be, become (with 
ace. : s.th.) ; — with foil, imperf.: to begin, 
start, commence, or set about to (do s.th.) ; 
to come to . . ., get to . . ., get to the 
point where . . ., get into a situation 
where . . . 

Zy** dahwa pi. dahawdt forenoon; 
morning 

( j^* duhan (m. and f.) forenoon | ^n 
UU**j LJLp i?a$iyatin wa-duhaha) over 
night, from one day to the next, all of a 
sudden 

\J? dahiya forenoon; — (pi. \A&* 
daliaya) slaughter animal, blood sacrifice, 



immolation; victim | o.^ ^j or u*i 
(dahiyatahu) to fall victim to, become a 
victim of s.th, or s.o. 

L ^?\ adhan (coll.; n. un. *UH adhdh) 
slaughter animal, blood sacrifice, im- 
molation | (y^V' -JUt 'id al-a. the Feast 
of Immolation, or Greater Bairam, on 
the 10th of Zu'lhijja; ^/^Vl rji yaum 
al-a. the Day of Immolation, i.e., the 
10th of Zu'lhijja 

4*j*'\ udhiya pi. jy-Lil addhiy 2 slaughter 
animal, blood sacrifice, immolation 



*j tadhiya sacrificing, immolation; 
readiness to make sacrifices; (pi. -at) 
sacrifice 

£-Li dahin: ( j*+J$ <A** sunlit 

4*>-U^ dahiya pi. t-\*~* dawahin sur- 
roundings, vicinity, outskirts; suburb 

mvdahhan place where one has 



breakfast 

£«# dakka u (dakk) to spurt, spout, squirt (* 
water); to pump (a water, oil, Jl, J into 
s.th.) 



• midakka pi. -at squirt, spray (er); 
pump | 4jlJi>- Siwi* (jadddba) suction 
pump; (Jj>J-I) JhIA' Uwi- fire engine; 
3U*ij ***J^ suction pump; V[y> a^J^ 
(hawd'iya) air pump 

J*? dakuma u (i.U* 9 dakama) to be or 
become big, large, bulky, heavy, gross, 
voluminous II to inflate, blow up (* 
s.th.); to amplify (a sound, voice; eL, 
radio) V to swell, become inflated; to 
expand, distend 

J&* a\tkm pi. pU*' dikdm big, large, 
sizable, great (also of a name, of pres- 
tige); bulky, gross; heavy, voluminous 
huge, vast, ample, colossal; stout, cor- 
pulent, plump, buxom; magnificent 



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splendid, gorgeous, luxurious, pompous | 
4~±*~a}\ vj-dl (midfa'lya) heavy artillery 

<*\j& dakdma bigness, largeness, great- 
ness; bulkiness, grossness; heaviness; 
volume, voluminosity; stoutness, plump- 
ness, corpulence, obesity; pomp, splendor 

*»~J3 tadkim inflating 

*i«-^j tadakkum inflation; swelling, 
expansion, dilation, distention; (mone- 
tary) inflation, also (^-UJ) J I* ^Jo 
(naqdi) | jU»LJi *.>*«a5 distention of the 
spleen {med.) 

<+±*Jl> mutfakkim pi. -at amplifier | 
Cjj^\ m. as-saub loud-speaker 

* III to be contrary, opposed, contrasting, 
antagonistic, inverse; to act, set o.s. 
(a, e against), antagonize (» s.o.), contra- 
vene, violate (a s.th.), be opposed (a, * 
to), be contradictory (a to s.th.), act 
contrary to s.o. or s.th. (a, 6 ) VI to be 
opposed to each other, be contradictory, 
contradict one another 

•\J> didd pi. $\x«*\ adddd an opposite, a 
contrary, contrast; word with two 
opposite meanings; adversary, opponent; 
antitoxin, antidote, anti- (in compounds) ; 
-U^ didda (prep.) against | XJ>5\ J* ulT 
dJUS j* to do or think the opposite, take 
an opposite stand 

<uJU» diddlya contrariness, opposite- 
ness, opposition; enmity, hostility, ani- 
mosity 

!oLi« mudddda contrast, opposite, 
contradiction 

^U^j tadddd contrast, opposite, contra- 
diction 

j Li. mudadd opposed, opposite, con- 
trary, counter-, contra-, anti- (in com- 
pounds); pi. CjULI. antidotes | j>Li» 
•ill I m. al-mddda antimatter (phys.); 



oL*. ijjj (taura) counterrevolution 
(pol.); J~>J obLi« {habal) contracep- 
tives; *ij-^ obLi. (ha$ariya) insecti- 
cides; jL-ili obUi* (U-l-fasdd) anti- 
septics; oUjJ-1 ilibUl* m. al-hayawiyai 
antibiotics (med.), *ij?~ o^L** do.; 
**j^«J! ^U*» (mujtanuf) asocial, antisocial 

jUiu mutadddd contrary, opposite 

9 darra u {darr) to harm, impair, prejudice, 
damage, hurt, injure (a, » s.o., s.th.), do 
harm, be harmful, noxious or injurious 
(a, » to s.o., to s.th.) II to damage, harm, 
prejudice III = I; IV = I (<_j or a, *); 
to force, compel, coerce, oblige (J* • 
s.o. to); to do violence (» to s.o.), bring 
pressure to bear (* on); to add a second 
wife to one's household V to be damaged, 
harmed, impaired, prejudiced, hurt, or 
injured; to suffer damage or loss; to 
complain (j* of, about) VII to be 
damaged, harmed, impaired, prejudiced, 
hurt, or injured; to suffer damage or 
loss VIII to force, compel, coerce, oblige (» 
s.o., Jl to) ; — pass, udturra to be forced, 
compelled, obliged (Jf to); to be in an 
emergency or predicament, be hard 
pressed; to be in need {Jf of s.th.), 
need, want (Jl s.th.) 

jj> d,urr t darr damage, harm, im- 
pairment, prejudice, detriment, injury, 
hurt; loss, disadvantage; need, distress, 
adversity 

jj> dirr, durr addition of a second wife 
to one's household 

ljj> darra pi. -at, J\jJ> dard'ir 2 wife 
other than the first of a plural marriage; 
udder 

jjj> darar pi. j\jJ>\ adrdr harm, damage, 
detriment; loss, disadvantage | j^jl\ U 
what does it matter? what's the harm 
of it? ^jj^ail (_Jt^l akaff ad-d. the lesser 
of the two evils 



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%\j* darra' 2 distress, adversity | »1 / JI j 
»lj-iJlj {sarra) in good and bad days, for 
better or for worse 

j jj> darlr blind 

ojjj^ darura pi. -d£ necessity, stress, 
constraint, need; distress, plight, emer- 
gency, want, austerity; daruratan nec- 
essarily | ojjjjji* necessarily; hjj-^ J ^ 
in case of need, if need be, when nec- 
essary; ,jj~<zJiJl ljjjji& (quswa) in case 
of dire necessity, if worst comes to 
worst; |»lSv*-l ojjjMi and ^oj £*>\jjjJii\ 
Cs\jj!la£-\ (tubihu) necessity knows no laws 

tSJjj^ darurl necessary, imperative, 
requisite, indispensable, inevitable; pi. 
CjIjjj^ tfaruriydt necessaries, necessi- 
ties | tfjjjjiil j* OS" to be necessary; 
*LU Cj\ijj^ d. al-hayah necessities of 
life; Jlp-"i/l cAijjj^ exigencies, require- 
ments of the situation 

IjJ^k madarra pi. -at, jUi. maddrr 2 
harm, damage, detriment, loss, disad- 
vantage {J* for) 

j\jj>\ idrar harm, injury, detriment 
(jur.) 

j\J*~e\ idtirdr compulsion, coercion; 
necessity, exigency, requirement; plight, 
predicament, emergency | jl^k^l Xj> in 
case of emergency 

&j\J*-+\ idtirdrl coercive, compulsory, 
inevitable, necessary, obligatory; emer- 
gency (in compounds) 

jL> darr harmful, injurious, detri- 
mental, noxious, disadvantageous 

jju muulirr harmful, injurious, detri- 
mental, noxious, disadvantageous (<_-> 
to, for) 

JaJt* mudtarr forced, compelled, oblig- 
ed (J( to); poor, destitute; wanting (Jl 
s.th.), in need ( Jl of s.th.) 



c-^ daraba i (darb) to beat, strike, hit (* 
s.o., a s.th., lj with; Je «--» with s.th. on; 
J* 6 s.o. on); to shoot, fire (a, a at s.o., 
at s.th.), shell, bombard (*, » s.o., s.th.); 
to play (a, Jp a musical instrument); 
to make music; to type (on a type- 
writer); to sting (scorpion); to separate, 
part ((>j people); to impose (a Jp on 
s.o. s.th.); jc ^>jJ> to turn away from, 
leave, forsake, abandon, avoid, or shun 
s.o. or s.th.; — (darb, oU^*» darabdn) to 
pulsate, palpitate, throb, beat (vein, 
heart); to ache (violently), hurt (wound, 
tooth); to move, stir; to rove, roam 
about, travel (j in, through), loiter, 
stroll (in streets) ; to cruise (ship) ; to mi- 
grate (bird); to incline (Jl to a color), 
shade (Jl into a color); — (vLr-* dirab) 
to cover, mount (U the camel mare) | v^r-* 
t>U-l J (ajalan) to fix a date for s.o.; 
JjVl <-?j~* (aruzz) to hull rice; ^ Vjr<* 
^jVI {ard) t .oil ^ji j ^jJ> to travel 
all over the world; Jp \y t <-?jj> (boi/a) 
to paint or daub s.th.; <—>Ul ^j** to 
knock on the door; ^j^} «-rV* {jams) to 
ring the bell; Li>- v>* (hagnan) to 
administer a syringe, give an injection; 
Ua>- i~>jJ> (kattan) to draw a line; ^jJ» 
^1-uV Uli-l (li-asdasin) and <wli-l >-*>jJ> 
<u-!.ul j to brood, rack one's brain in 
order to find a way out; to be at one's 
wit's end; to intrigue, scheme; to build 
air castles; to daydream; 1*-*- v^ 
(kaimatan) to pitch a tent; ^ij\ vy» 
^LiJI (raqma, qiydsiya) to break a 
record; f*>Ul <~>jJ> {saldm) to give a 
military salute; \JoJj> U^ l-j^ to deal 
severe blows (a to s.th., e.g., to corrup- 
tion); Uyi Vy* to impose a tax (Jp 
on s.o.); j 4*Lk1 ^-j^ (atnabahu) to 
take root, prevail (at a place); Vy"* 
J* 4jU»I to settle down, take up 
permanent residence in a place; bjk ^jJ» 
(tuban) to make brick; j>-\ j IjAp ^^ 
('<uZo<£an /? dkara) to multiply a number 
by another; aJcp ^-^ {"unuqahu) to 



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behead, decapitate s.o., have s.o.'s head 
cut off; <JU i-jjJ* {qdlabahu) to imitate 
s.th.; Uf 4i rJ J> (kaffan) to slap s.o.'s 
face ; *^t* <-rl/- < » {maialan) to apply a pro- 
verb (J to) ; to give an example (<J to s.o.), 
point out a model (J for s.o.); to quote 
an example; to quote as an example (i-> 
or * s.th., J or Jp for s.th.); Jli.^1 <->j** 
to adduce proverbs; to speak in parables; 
to impart words of wisdom, point out 
morals; Vli* v>^ {mitotan), pi. \y tJ £ 
iii*l (amtilatan) to give or quote an ex- 
ample (J* for); \*jAJ <~>jJ> to mint money; 
\i&j* <^jjJ> {mau'idan) and IjU^ ^jJ> 
{mfddan) to agree on time and place of a 
meeting, make an appointment; to have 
a date (J in a place); S^J-i J I ^>j^ 
(ljk«A>\ J!) (humra, sufra) to shade into red 
(into yellow); i y>j'i\ ^ ^jJ> (arda) to 
throw s.o. or s.th. to the ground ; j ^jj> 
JUi-l {kayal) to be in the clouds, be un- 
realistic; to want the impossible; vy* 
«j-U> Jc- 4-t/ (bi-rdsihi 'aid sadrihl) to let 
one's head sink to the chest; *^— J v./-"* 
j <_-£-<** (bi-sahmin muslbin) to take an 
active part in; <j *_^aJj *-§-«j W - * (ww- 
nasa&in) to participate in, share s.th. ; ^jJ» 
3j*i t 4J (bi- r irq) do.; JaJU-l ^-^ <u V/** 
Curda l-h.) not to give a hoot for s.th. ; to 
disdain, despise, reject s.th. ; to throw s.th. 
overboard, jettison s.th,; *,k-^-> v^ 
Ji (nazarihi) to turn one's glance to; 
•i.-j-L^ <-=r>! Vj-^ (M-wajhi sdhibihl) 
to boomerang, fall back on the orig- 
inator; 4-JT Jp u^ (kalima) to 
efface, strike, or erase, a word; Vj-* 
U*i-^> 4^p (safhan) to turn away from s.o. 
or s.th.; to pass over s.o. or s.th., ignore, 
snub, slight, disregard s.o. or s.th., desist 
from s.th.; .a>b -AjJU- J ^jj> to take 
futile steps; to beat the air; «u*iJ i~>jJ> 
a\j\ 1*~m (sab'ata ayydmin) he decided 
to stay seven days; fbVl «Cju^ ^ ^^ 
{ay yam) fate separated me from him, 
drew us apart; e^j vLr"* {bi-yadihl) and 
oJb t-^i to put one's hand {J* on s.th,, j j 



in or into s.th.), reach out (Jp toward) 
II to mix, blend (t-j a s.th. with); to sow 
dissension, cause trouble (,>j among); to 
quilt (a a fabric) III to contend, vie, fight 
{» with s.o.); to speculate IV to turn away 
{^p from), leave, abandon, forsake, desert, 
avoid, shun (jp s.o., s.th.); to remain, 
stay, abide (J in) | J Ut»- ^jJ»\ (ja'fan) 
to be prepared for s.th., make up one's 
mind to take s.th. upon o.s.; <£& ^jj\ 
[*Jls* — l>Ju& <cs- '-Sir* ( see above); 
(J**JI Cf) v>*' Carnal) to stop work, to 
strike; |»UUI jc vtr* 1 ^ {la* am) to go on 
a hunger strike VI to come to blows, 
brawl, fight, strike one another; to 
be divided, differ, conflict, clash, be 
contradictory (opinions, and the like) 
VIII to move, roll along (ball); to move 
around, wander about; to be in a lively 
stir, bustle, romp; to clash, surge, lap 
(waves) ; to be set, or get, into a state of 
unrest, turmoil, excitement, commotion, 
tumult, agitation, be or become agitated, 
troubled (e.g., people, crowds); to be 
irresolute, waver; to be or become dis- 
turbed, unsettled, disorganized, disar- 
ranged, disordered, confused, upset; to 
be or become restless, uneasy, or anxious; 
to tremble, shake 

<-?jJ> darb beating, striking, hitting, 
rapping; shooting, shelling, gunning, 
bombing, bombardment; multiplication; 
coining, formation; minting (of mon- 
ey); — (pi. ^>jj** durub) kind, sort, 
specimen, species, variety; last foot 
of the second hemistich; (pi. vlr*' 
adrdb) similar, like | Zik-^J and jli 
<-r>jJj\ (money) mint; J^jl Upi d. ar-raml 
geomancy; jbJ! ^>jj> shooting, firing, 
shelling, gunning, bombardment; ^ 
^>jJ^\ c^- £-:>LJl to level a weapon, hold a 
weapon ready to fire; <o[^tj y> he and 
the likes of him 

\jJ> darba (n. vie.) pi. darabdt blow, 
knock, punch; thrust, push, jolt, shock; 



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stroke, lash; shot; plague, affliction, 
trial, tribulation, punishment | "^j^> 
,j~J&\ d. as-sams sunstroke, heatstroke; 
yli "kj~* (qddiya) fatal blow, death- 
blow (Jc for); knockout (boxing); <jjj> 
»lj»- d. jam penalty kick (soccer); \jJ> 
ljf~ (hurra) free kick (soccer) ; ^Ij <j jJ> 
header (soccer); '^Sj '^jJ> (ruknlya) 
corner kick (soccer); «JU-ij \jJ> <J at one 
stroke, with a single blow; all at once 

i-jI^J dirdb copulation (of a female 
animal) 

i-fij*0 darlb beaten, struck, smitten, 
hit; similar, like | o*>te £-iJI <-~ijJ> one 
of the caliber of Sheik So-and-So 

4-j^ dariba pi. ^j^ dard'ib 2 im- 
position, impost; levy, tax, duty ^char- 
acter, nature | J*-Jl i~»^ d. ad-dakl 
income tax; oljLJI \ij~* d. assay ydrdt 
motor vehicle tax; <jjUc \ij^> (aqa- 
rlya) real estate tax; J**Ji ^— T \ij^> 
d. kasb al-amal wage tax; ^tAi! \ijJ» d. 
al-maldhi admissions tax, entertainment 
tax 

*-?jJu» madrib pi. ^jLa* maddrib 2 
camp site, camp; place, spot, locality; 
way, path; large tent, marquee | uK" 
(Jli.^1) Jill v./**-* ( m " al-matal) to be 
proverbial, be exemplary, be unique, 
be cited as an example; Jjl cjjLi* m. 
aruzz rice-hulling facilities 

^j-*-* midrab pi. i_jjLi. maddrib* large 
tent, marquee, pavilion; bat, mallet; 
racket (tennis, etc.); whisk, beater 
(e.g., for eggs); swatter, flyswatter: 
drumstick, stick, beater (mus.); piano 
(instrument) 

>-?\jJl* midrab bat, mallet, racket (ball 
games, tennis) 

ijjLi. muddraba pi. -at speculation 
(stock exchange); silent partnership 



(I si. Law), limited partnership, partner- 
ship in commendam 

(.jj^l idrdb pi. -at strike j ^ vlr^' 
l*Ukll (to* dm) hunger strike 

^jU^j tadarub opposition, contradic- 
tion, inconsistency, discrepancy, incom- 
patibility, conflict, clash (of opinions, and 
the like) 

^\JLj\ idtirdb pi. -at disturbance, dis- 
order, disarray; confusion, muddle, per- 
turbation; disorganization, disruption, 
upset, derangement; trouble, commo- 
tion, unrest, riot (also pol.); restlessness, 
restiveness | ^w^ ott^^l ( e o$abiya) 
and <L~jiJ obl^k^l (nafslya) nervous 
disorders 

L-jji^ dawdrib 2 pi. of <-->jL* ddrib 
beating, striking, etc. | <^j\jj^\ 3jj^ the 
arteries; V->W J^ (pair) migratory 
birds 

<^>_SjJzj> madrub appointed, agreed 
upon, fixed, determined (time, date, 
place); multiplicand (math.) | *J VJy*-* 
multiplier (math.) 

<j^oj* mudarraba quilt, comforter 

t-jjUL. muddrib pi. -un speculator 

w»jl sM» mutaddrib conflicting, irrecon- 
cilable, incompatible, divided (opinions, 
and the like); contradictory, discrepant, 
inconsistent 

^JoJl* mudtarib disturbed, disordered, 
disarrayed, unsettled; confused, muddled, 
perturbed; indistinct, unintelligible; up- 
set, disrupted, disorganized, deranged; 
uneasy, restive, agitated, excited, anxi- 
ous; weak, insufficiently supported (tra- 
dition) 

c-j^k^L. mudtarab playground (fig.) 



*&, 



; t-^tf 



darb 



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632 



rj£ daraja % (darj) to spot, stain, betleck, 
smear (fJUb * s.th. with blood) II - I; 
to redden, color red, flush (* eap. the 
cheeks) V to redden, be or become red 

£j-U mvdarraj: J/XJI 7:j-^* m. al-yadain 
with bloodstained hands; (caught) red- 
handed, in the act 

f,j^ darlh pi. i^j<+ daraih 2 , l*-jj>\ adriha 
grave, tomb ; domed sepulcher (of a saint) ; 
mausoleum 

^jjt darasa i (dars) to bite firmly or fiercely 
(a s.th.) j — darisa a (dams) to be dull 
(teeth from acid food and drink) II to 
make (a s.o.) tough, battle-hardened; to 
render dull (uL-VI the teeth by acid 
food and drink) IV to render dull (OU-Vi 
the teeth by acid food and drink) 

^tjj* dirs pi. ^'j-il adras, ^jjJ* 
durus molar tooth | JJbJl ^jjr d. al- f aql 
wisdom tooth; -u-^ J» (halld; eg., leb.) 
to eat a sweet, have one's dessert 

yjfjj^ ^y~ karb darus fierce, mur- 
derous war 

^-jjUij taddris* surface profile; topo- 
graphy (of a region; geol.); elevations of 
the ground, reliefs, inequalities of a land 
surface (= ^jV jj-JjUaj t. al-ard) \ 
^ji\ ^jLij (. al-wajh wrinkles of the 
face 

bjj> darata % (dart, ^ljJ> darit> \*\jj> darat) 
to break wind 

\?jj> dart (n. un. 3) wind, fart 
lAjJ* durdt wind, fart 

9jJ> dara'a a, daru'a u (ap!^ dara'a) and 
dari'a a (dara') to be humble, submissive 
(Jl toward s.o.), humiliate o.s., abase 
o.s. (J! before); to implore, beg, besrech, 
entreat (Jl s.o.) Ill to be similar, be 
equal (a, a to s.o., to s.th.), be like s.o. 



or. s.th. (a, a), resemble (a, » s.o., s.th.) 
V and VIII to humiliate o.s., abase o.s. 
(Jl before); to implore, beg, beseech, 
entreat (Jl s.o.) 

fjj> dar r pi. fjs* duru% f-l^J dim' 
udder, teat | fj^j fjjh (zar e ) agri- 
culture and stock farming 

9j^ dir f like, alike, similar 

**\jj> dara'a submissiveness, humble- 
ness; imploring, begging, entreaty, sup- 
plication 

A£-j{Ja.» mudara'a likeness, similarity, 
resemblance 

£\y-*j tadarru* imploring, begging, en- 
treaty, supplication 

fj\J> ddrV frail (of a person) 

£jLi* muddri* like, alike, similar; 
(gram.) imperfect; £jLAll name of a 
poetical meter 

fjj> dargam pi. Jp>\jJ» daragim? lion 

dirgdm pi. m *JF-\jjk dardgima 



f\*S0 



lion 

Aj^ darima a (daram) to catch fire, be on 
fire, burn, flare, blaze; to break out, 
flare up (war) II to kindle, light (a fire) | 



Jj 



ui 



(v* 



to set s.th. on fire, set fire to 



s.th. IV == II; V to burn, flare, flame, be 
ablaze (also of emotions, of passion) 
VIII ^ I 

A j** dirdm burning, blaze, flare; fire, 
conflagration 

AJ*~i>\ idtirdm burning, flare, blaze; 
fire, conflagration 

{J*J»* mudtarim burning, flaming, on 
fire 

j j** II to set (i^> a a dog on game); to 
provoke (o s.o.) to a fight (<_> with) 



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jjj> dirw pi. jJ>\ adrin, *\jJ> 
hound, hunting dog 



dira 



Ij\jJ> dardwa greed, voracity; eager- 
ness, zeal 

j[j> ddrin voracious, ferocious, savage, 
rapacious; (pi. j\j^ dawdrin) beast of 
prey, predatory animal 

£o*J> da' da' a to tear down, demolish, 
raze, ruin, undermine, weaken (a s.th.) 
II tada'da'a to decline, decay, become 
dilapitated, perish; to become weak or 
weaker, wane; to dissolve, fall apart 
(organization) 



«* da e da'a demolition, razing ; sap- 
ping , undermining ; debility , frailty , 
feebleness | j&\ 4****** d. ahhibar senility, 
dotage 

*,rt« l ,rV'. mutada'di" dilapidated, de- 
cayed; weakened, debilitated; weak, 
frail, feeble; submissive, humble 



da'ufa u {dvff, dcff) to be or become 
weak, weakly, feeble, frail, delicate, 
debilitated, impotent, languid, flabby, 
or slack; to become weaker, wane, de- 
crease, diminish, abate, be attenuated; 
to be too weak (^ for s.th,) IV to weaken, 
enfeeble, debilitate (^ or a, « s.o., s.th.) 
X to deem (* s.o.) weak; to behave 
arrogantly (a toward s.o.) 

J&j»J> du'U da'f weakness, feebleness, 
frailty; weakening, enfeeblement, de- 
bilitation | oljVl <Ja*J> weakness of will; 
^-aJl iJwwlJl ( e a?abi) neurasthenia, nervous 
debility; J-Ldl <Ja*^ d. at-tanasid sexual 
impotence 

uuw da'lf pi. m. »U*^ duafa 2 , <Ji[*J> 
di'af, Ia*J> da'afa, pi. f. tJuU^ da a if 2 
weak, feeble; frail, weakly, delicate, 
debilitated, impotent, languid, flabby, 
slack; deficient (as a school-report 
mark) | olj^l ^ju*^a weak-willed; 



JJU 1 d. al-aql dim-witted, feeble-minded; 
<_~UJI iju*-^ d. al-qalb weak-spirited, 
pusillanimous, meek, faint-hearted, de- 
spondent, cowardly; i^Ja— *— «oJI iJU my own 
insignificant self, I (as an expression of 
modesty) 

<J»U^I id'af weakening, enfeeblement, 
debilitation; impairment 

i_i>wix— * mustad'af deemed weak; weak; 



oppressed, miserable 



II to double, redouble (a s.th.); to 
multiply, compound (a s.th.) Ill do. 
(<> or a s.th.) | 4kJJ Ja*\J> (hita) to take 
multiple precautionary measures {xj> 
against) VI to be doubled; to be com- 
pounded, be multiplied 



J> di'f pi. .JsL^I adfdf double, 
that which is twice as much; a multiple, 
that which is several times as much, 
(after numerals) -fold; fold of a garment; 
pi. interstice, space | *Ji*J> 4L* miatu 
di'fihi a hundred times as much, the 
hundredfold of it; -olu^l 4j^j talatatu 
ad'djihi thrice as much, the threefold of 
it; «iliw?l i_iL>w»l a. ad r afihi many times 
as much, e.g. JsUvil aJj* iJLil Iaa JU 
*t3lwil (mablagu murattabahu afidfa a.) 
this amount was many times as much 
as his salary; Sip Li. UU^I ad'dfan 
mudd'afatan many times, a hundred- 
fold 

oJi^LaJ tadd'lf 2 contents, text (of a 
piece of writing); folds; space between 
the lines; (as an expletive after j) j 
^cXjo within it, therein contained 

a^La. mudd'afa doubling; compound- 
ing, multiplying; pi. -at complications 
(of a disease) 

(Ji^UiJ tadd'uf doubling, multiplying 

mvda tf af twofold, double; mul- 



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tiplied, compounded, increased many 
times 

.JipLx. muda'af twofold, double; mul- 
tiplied, compounded, increased many 
-•times; see also di'f 

~*> da r a t di r a see *-J>j 

dagata a (dagt) to confuse, muddle, 
mix up (* a story) 

<L^J> digt pi. d*U-^l adgdt bunch, 
bouquet ; mixture, muddle, jumble, maze | 
f^Vl ili-^1 confused dreams; J* <iJ^ 
liU (ibdla) always more misfortune! it 
gets worse and worse! aJUI Jc \ik~a alj 
to make things worse 

wi dagata a {dagt) to press, squeeze (a, a 
s.o., s.th.); to compress (a air); to 
exert pressure (J* on); to oppress, 
suppress (Jp s.o., s.th.), bear down 
heavily (J* upon) VII to be pressed, 
be squeezed, be compressed 

J*A^ dagt pressure; emphasis, stress; 
oppression, suppression; voltage, tension 
(el.) | i£j^\ JaJUill (jaivwl) atmospheric 
pressure; foJI \±kj> d. ad-dam and -ki-^il 
(j^JLlI (damawl) blood pressure; iaA-J- 
»I^J1 c?. al-haiea* air pressure; iaJU^ c^ 
pLJl J\J\ (d. ir-rayi l-'amm) under the 
pressure of public opinion 

Z*kJ> dagta {n. vie.) pressure 

O ^>j^J> dugutlya (wind) pressure 

]ffjc\j> ddgut nightmare 

O JaiU*. maddgit 2 : *J\j* kbLa.* {Kawa* 
'iya) compressors 

JapLaj taddgut compression (phys.; as 
opposed to J^*!^ tahalkul) 

.H^til indigdt compressibility 

JaiUi rfa^f pi. ]ah\jj> dawdgif and SJ S 
iia^U* compressor (fecAn.) 



<LpU* ddgita pi. Jaij^ dawdgif com- 
pressor ((ec^n.) 

\>jkj±* madgut: i^i-A* *Jy> (Jiawc?) 
compressed air 

jw dagina a (dagan) to bear a grudge, 
harbor (secret) hatred (J* against), 
resent (Jp s.o.) VI to harbor a grudge 
against one another 

jw dign pi. oU^I adgdn rancor, spite, 
grudge, malice, malevolence, ill will, 
(secret) hatred 

( jk«J> dagin malicious, malevolent, 
rancorous, spiteful, resentful 

4^*J> dagina pi. JU-^ dagd'in 2 rancor, 
spite, grudge, malice, malevolence, ill 
will, (secret) hatred 

<i*» daffa crowd, throng, jam (of people) 

UlJ> diffa, daffa pi. JslU> difdf bank, 
shore; coast 

<JaaJ> dafaf poverty, destitution 

£4i^i difdi% dafda f pi. f-iLL^ dafddV 2 frog | 
t^^ ^-Li^# (fiasart) frogman 

jJlJ dafara i (dafr) to braid, plait (a hair), 
interweave, interlace, intertwine (a s.th.); 
to twine (a a rope) II — I; III to help, 
assist, aid (* s.o.) VI to interweave, inter- 
mix, come together (different forces or 
efforts); to help one another (J* to do 
s.th.); to be tightly interwoven, be tied 
up, be closely connected (** with) ; to be 
concatenated (evidence) 

jaJ> dafr pi. jjU> dufur (saddle) girth 

jU^ dafdr pi. jhJ> dufur (saddle) girth 

ZjJlJ> dafira pi. JUlJ> dafd'ir 2 plait; 
braid, tress, pigtail; plaitwork, wicker- 
work; galloon, lace; strand, hank, skein; 
plexus (anat.) 



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£W» 



h 

h 

t; 
sr- 
n; 



I 



{jaJ>) LL* dafa u (dafw) to be abundant, 
copious; to flow over IV to allot gen- 
erously (Jp a s.th. to); to grant, award 
{Jp a s.th. to); to let s.o. or s.th. ( Jp) 
have (a s.th.); to fill (a Jp s.th. with); 
to wrap, envelope (Jp s.th., a with), 
spread (Jp * s.th. over) 

6j}lJ> dajwa; { J^\ ~*j&~0 d. al- r aiS an 
easy, comfortable life 

*U-^! idfa award, bestowal, conferment 

JU ddfin abundant, copious, ample; 
detailed, elaborate, extensive 

J-^ dalla i ( J">L^ daldl, *J^* dalala) to lose 
one's way, go astray; to stray (jc or a 
from the way); to err | <u*~- J-,* {sa* 
yuhu) his effort was in vain II to mislead, 
lead astray, misguide (<> s.o.); to delude, 
deceive (a s.o.) | «wii ^U> to delude 
o.s. IV — II; to make (• s.o.) lose his 
way (a); to let (a) s.th. get lost 

J^ dull error 

J*^ daldl a straying from the right 
path or from truth; error | O ^ VI J*^ 
color blindness, dichromatism 

iJ'^L* dalala error 

'4jUi\ udlula pi. JJUil addlil 2 error 

iLi* madalla an occasion, or possi- 
bility, of going astray 

JJUij tadlil misleading, misguidance, 
delusion, deception 

d^l idldl misleading, misguidance, 
delusion, deception 

JU ddll pi. Jl^ dawall 2 , J*>UJ eMaZ 
Btraying, roaming, wandering; astray, 
loat; erroneous, false; erring, misguided 
person 

4JL* dalla goal of persistent search, 
object of a long -cherished wish [ i'U. 
•ijiJu do. 



JJUi» mudallil misleading, misguiding, 
deceptive, delusive, fallacious 

JjL« mudill misleading, misguiding, 
deceptive, delusive, fallacious 

JUi dalala a (daV) with **: to side with s.o., 
make common cause with s.o.; — dalu'a 
u (4Pt>Ui data' a) to be strong, sturdy, 
robust; — dali'a a (dala?) to be crooked, 
bent, curved, to curve II to crook, bend, 
curve (a s.th.) V to be jammed, crammed 
(j- with); to be versed, skilled, pro- 
ficient, knowledgeable (j* in), be con- 
versant, be thoroughly familiar or 
acquainted {^ with), be at home (<y 
in a field of knowledge) VIII to be 
versed, skilled, proficient (<-» in), be 
thoroughly familiar or acquainted, be 
conversant (<_-» with); to assume, take 
over, take upon o.s. (*-> s.th., a task, 
financial expenses, a job, and the like) 
X to be versed, skilled, proficient (<y 
in), be thoroughly familiar or acquainted, 
be conversant (j* with) 

^JLi daV affection, attachment | 4*JL^ 
4a* he sympathizes with him, he is 
on his side 

^U- dil% dila* pi. P>L* dulu% fOUM 
adld\ *LJ>\ adlu r rib; cutlet, chop; side 
(of a triangle); post, banister (of a balus- 
trade); PtjL^VI the chest, the breast | 
Jw^Jl (Lj> d. al-birmll barrel stave; 
£oOV (jjtS* mutasdwi ha. equilateral 
(geom.); ja^\ j ^JU» «d utf he had s.th. 
to do with the matter, he had a hand in 
it, he played a role in the affair 

^JU» dali* strong, sturdy; knowl- 
edgeable, experienced, skilled 

4Ll\J> dalcta strength, sturdiness, ro- 
bustness (of the body) 

AJl* inudalla' ribbed; polygonal; (pi. 
-at) polygon | ^Li* ^L^. corrugated iron 



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*JLii. mutcufatti* versed, skilled, pro 
ficient ((> in), thoroughly familiar, con- 
versant (^ with); expert (j- in) 

iiJUi dilfa wing of a two-part window or door 
(eff.) 

-uJL* (Turk, dolma) $olma stuffed food (e.g., 
eggplants stuffed with meat and rice) 

~i $amma u {damm) to bring together, join, 
draw together, contract (a s.th.); to 
add (up), sum up (a s.th.); to gather, 
collect, reap, harvest (a s.th.); to unite, 
bring together (j* persons) ; to embrace, 
hug (» s.o.); to enclose, surround (a e.g., 
the hips, of a belt); to combine within 
oneself (a different things); to closo, com- 
press (a the lips) ; to attach closely, fasten 
(Jf a s.th. to s.th. else); to close tightly 
(J* a s.th, around) ; to join, subjoin, annex 
(Jl a s.th. to), add (Jl a, » s.o., s.th, to), 
unite (Jl a, o s.o., s.th. with); to grasp, 
grip, grab, seize (J* s.o., s.th.); to get 
(* s.o.) into a predicament (said of fate); 
to pronounce with the vowel u (a a 
consonant; gram.) | J^LJI ^0 to close 
the ranks; «jJU* J I <v? (sadrihi) to press 
s.o. to one's bosom, embrace s.o. ; 
4^-jj *JI *+ (zaujatahu) he embraced 
his wife VI to unite, rally, join forces 
VII to close, draw or crowd together, be 
closely packed; to be joined, united, 
or combined (Jf with), unite, join forces 
(Jl with); to be added, be annexed (Jl 
to); to associate, affiliate (Jl with); to 
enter, join ( Jl an organization, and the 
like); to comprise, include, encompass, 
embrace, contain (J* s.th.) 

*> damm addition, subjunction; gather- 
ing, collecting, rallying, joining, uniting, 
amalgamation, fusion; admission, en- 
rollment; the vowel u {gram.) 

is* damma the vowel point for»; (pi. 
•at) embrace, hug 



4amtma pi. f\sf damaim? ad- 
dition, supplement; increase, raise (of 
salary) 

fLaj tadamm: a* UUiJ together with, 
jointly with 

fl^iJl indimam annexation (Jl to), 
joining (Jl of), union, association, af- 
filiation (Jl with); entry, enrollment 
(Jl into an organization, and the like), 
accession ( Jl to) 

(y~** madmum closed, tight, com- 
pressed (mouth, etc.); having a damma 
(consonant; gram.) | J£*J1 Jp fj-**"** C«W£) 
tight fitting (round the neck, dress, etc.), 
high-throated 



mundamm : 



> U*i close order 



(mil.) 



O < «..<*'. mundamma accessory, attach- 
ment (teckn.) 

J^J^l idmakalla to disappear, vanish, 
dwindle, fade away, melt away; to 
decrease, become lesB 

J^Ui^l idmihldl disappearance, van- 
ishing, evanescence; fading 

J»*wL» mudmahill vanishing, evanes- 
cent, fading; damped (oscillations, waves; 
phys.) 



r^ 



damaka u (damk) to oil, anoint, rub, 



perfume (<-» a, a s.o., s.th. with) II — $a* 
maka; to make up (a the lips, y-Vl> 
bi-l-ahmar with lipstick) 

As? damada u i (<Lamd, sis? <j,imad) and II 
to dress, bandage (a s.th., esp. a wound) 

*\j? 4%mad bandaging (of a wound); 
bandage, band, ligature; carrying on 
of several love affairs (of a woman) 

•i\sf $imdda dressing (of a wound), 
bandage (also over the eyes) 



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Cf 



i» mu4ammid (ir.) male nurse 

Ix*vaa mudammida O compress; (ir.) 
nurse 

ji? (Jamara, damura u (dumr, jji? dumur) 
to be or become lean, emaciated, skinny, 
thin, slim, slender; to contract, shrink 
II to emaciate, make lean, thin, or 
slender (a s.th.) IV — II; to secrete, 
conceal, hide, keep secret (<L~ij j a s.th. 
in one's heart), keep (a s.th.) to o.s. 
{>t~Jj j); to harbor, entertain (J a a 
feeling toward, against) | ^Jjl *J ^r 9 ! 
(farra) to bear s.o. a grudge, harbor 
ill will against s.o. V to become lean, 
emaciated VII to dry up, wither, wilt, 
shrivel ! 

J? $umr emaciation; leanness, skin- 
niness, thinness, slenderness, slimness 

jjt? dumur emaciation; leanness, 
skinniness, thinness, slenderness, slim- 
ness; atrophy (med.) 

j[£* gimart jlc* ^ (dain) bad debt 
(i.e., a debt deemed uncollectible) 

jj? damlr pi. J\sP damd'ir 2 heart; 
mind; innermost; conscience; (inde- 
pendent or suffixed) personal pronoun 
{gram.) j _>waJl t-*wtj compunctions, 
contrition, repentance; jn+Jx\ ^- hayy 
ad-d. conscientious, scrupulous; r}^j* 
,/v*NrtJl murtdh ad-d. of peaceful mind; 
j^J}\ A*U unscrupulous 

jljJw midmar pi. j^UL. maddmlr 2 
race course, race track; arena; field of 
activity, field, domain 

jlx*l idmdr concealment (of a thought), 
mental reservation; ellipsis (rket.) 

j*Vj> ddmir lean, skinny, thin; slender, 
slim, svelte 

j+«a* mudmar secret, hidden, covert; 



(independent or suffixed) personal pro- 
noun, also^f^vi* f\ (ism; gram.) 

£s* damina a ( jli* daman) to be or become 
responsible or liable, be guaranty, give 
security or guaranty, vouch (cj or a 
for), warrant, ensure, safeguard, guar- 
antee (a j to s.o. s.th.); to insure 
(ja a s.th. against) | \l±S> wJ jj* to 
be absolutely certain of s.th. II to have 
(a s.th.) insured (^ against); to insert, 
include, enclose (a a s.th. in s.th. else) 
V to comprise, include, comprehend, 
imply, embrace, contain (a s.th.) VI to 
be jointly liable, have joint responsibility 
(a for s.th.); to be responsible for one 
another, share mutual responsibility; to 
be solidary, be in accord, stick together 

j£* dimn inside, interior; tfimna 
(prep.) in, within, inside of, among; 
Li" dimnan (adv.) inclusively, implic- 
itly, tacitly | Lr* fjt** tacitly comprised, 
implicit; Jsf ^ min dimni (with foil, 
genit.) included in, implied in, belonging 
to, falling under; ++J:* <y among them; 
bs*j ajiif* (mubdSaratan) directly and in- 
directly 

^s* dimni included, implied; hidden, 



implicit, tacit | 
tacit consent 



iiU 



(mwv&faqa) 



utwJ daman pi. -at guarantee ; guaranty, 
warranty, surety; security, liability; as- 
surance, safeguard; insurance | <5^> ol^J 
(banki) bank guarantee; <** b\*J> $. sana 
a one-year guarantee; ^U* oL*J (jamd T i) 
collective security ; ilJLzll o\jJ\ (midta* 
rak) do.; ^L^-l OL-*J social security; 
social welfare; social benefits; (Tun.) 
social insurance; -uUdl uL^ d. at-taqa'ud 
(Tun.) retirement insurance; o\ r ai\ *j-&- 
of limited liability, Ltd.; o\ c M\ iS^J 
sirkat ad-d. insurance company 

t>w» damin pi. fLw» dumana 2 respon- 
sible, answerable, liable (l-> for); war- 



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638 



rantor, bail(sman), bondsman, surety, 
guarantor (t-» for) 

"aXs? damana guaranty, surety, ^var- 
rant(y), collateral, security, bail 

^e°\ adman 2 offering better guaranty 

J\^oj tadmin use of a verb with the 
prepositional government of a different, 
semantically similar verb which the writer 
has in mind (a variety of contamination; 
gram.) 

^LaS iaddmun mutuality, reciprocity; 
joint liability; solidarity | j-UiJl iST^JS 
sirkat at-t. commercial company of joint 
liability; « L.Uaj (taddmunan) out of 
solidarity with 

^1-saj taddmuni solidary (e.g., an 
action) 

<j>L<j ddmin responsible, answerable, 
liable; warrantor, bail(sman), bondsman, 
surety, guarantor 

Oj+*Jt* madmun guaranteed, ensured, 
warranted; insured (object); (pi. i>*Ui« 
maddmln 2 ) content, purport, meaning (of 
a letter, and the like) | J>uyJI u^-^L. 
registered (letter) ; Jj^Jl* ^ (dain) bond- 
ed, or funded, debt {fin.) 

mudamman included, implied 



^yUiu mutadamin mutual, reciprocal; 
solidary, united in solidarity 

^ danna (1st pers. perf. danintu) a and 
danna (1st pers. perf. danantu) i (dann) 
to keep back (l-j s.th.), be sparing or 
stingy (^ Jp toward s.o. with), withhold 
(v J*" from s.o. s.th.), (be)grudge <Jp 
s.o. c-» s.th.) | J* ZjlLx i yJ» U (bi-masaq* 
qatin) to shun no effort for the sake of 

i yJf dann: <-> \ij> (dannan) in order 
to spare s.th., in due consideration of 

,>;«# damn niggardly, avaricious, 



stingy; sparing, thrifty, economical, 
scanty, meager, poor, insufficient 

danuka u (dank, «TL^ dandka) to be 
straitened, cramped, confined (circum- 
stances) ; to be weak, be exhausted 

.iJL^ dank poverty, distress, straits | 
*^~- * uri* {'ais) a hard, wretched life 

dULi. madanik 2 straits, hardships 

i mudnik weak, exhausted 



j^J> danw, dinw children 

^J> daniya a (danan) to become or be lean, 
emaciated, gaunt, enervated, or worn 
out; to pine away, be consumed (with 
grief) IV to emaciate, debilitate, weaken, 
enervate (* s.o.); to exhaust, wear out 
(• s.o.); to undermine, sap (a the health); 
to consume (* s.o.; of anxiety, and the 
like) 

,yj> danin lean, emaciated, gaunt, 
languished, wasted, worn out, enervated; 
exhausted; consumed with grief, care- 
worn 

^J> danan weakness, feebleness, de- 
bility, exhaustion, emaciation; grief 

fra* mudnin enervating, weakening, 
exhausting, wearing, nerve- wrecking 

^L. mudnan lean, emaciated, gaunt, 
languished, wasted, worn out, enervated; 
exhausted; pining away, wasting away 

X$~* dahada a (ddhd) to suppress, oppress, 
treat unjustly, persecute (» s.o.) YIII = I 

jljW.rfl idtihdd pi, -at suppression, 
repression, oppression, maltreatment, per- 
secution, enslavement 

JL^ksA* mudtahid oppressor, tyrant, 
persecutor 



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<£j~* 



j$J> dahr pi. j^J> duhur summit, top (of a 
mountain) 

^i III to be similar, alike, or corresponding; 
to resemble (« s.o., a s.th.), be like s.o. 
or s.th. (a, *), correspond (» to s.o., a 
to s.th.); to compare (J*, u-> a s.th. with; 
(jo j — ^j two things); to imitate (»_-< 
s.o., s.th.) 

{ j^J> dahan O menopause, climacteric 

^^Jf dahiy similar, (a)Iike, correspond- 
ing, analogous 

*IaUa. muddhdh similarity, resemblance, 
likeness, correspondence, analogy; com- 
parison (J* with) 

oLi. mudahin similar, (a)like, cor- 
responding, analogous 

{*jj>) »U» dd'a u (dau') to gleam, beam, 
radiate, shine II to light (a s.th., a 
lamp); to illumine, illuminate (a s.th., 
e.g., a house) IV — I; to shed light, cast 
light (Jp upon, over); to light, illumine, 
illuminate (a s.th.); to enlighten (a 
s.th., the mind) V = I; X to be illumined, 
be lit; to seek light; to seek (to obtain) 
enlightenment or insight («~» by, through, 
in, with); to let o.s. be enlightened or 
guided (v by) 

*jj> dau" pi. *\jJ>\ adwa light; bright- 
ness, glow | ^-^tSl *jj> d, as-sams sunlight, 
sunshine; _ / JUl *jj> d. al-qamar moon- 
light; (J^iKT *jj> searchlight; jL^Jl *jj> 
d. an-nahar daylight; *jJ> Jc (with foil, 
genit.) in the light of, under the circum- 
stances of, as seen from; according to; 
#lj^^J jIp to return to the bright lights, 
make a comeback; Jt iiiS*" *\jJ*\ JH to 
turn spotlights on s.th.; J* »jjjl JaJL- 
see under JaL- II 

tjjj> dau 3 1 luminary, light- (in com- 
pounds) | l^jJ> 4i-* (sana) light-year; uJ^ 
dj*i (mirqab) optical telescope; <JsL±S" 



tjj^ {kasSdf) searchlight; *4yJ> r[>*' light 
waves (phys.); iSj^—Jj^ dau'l-klmdwi 
photochemical 

»L*i diyd' light, brightness, glow 

S*Lil ida?a lighting; illumination I 
*xJUi »*LiVS (muqayyada) restricted 
illumination = dim-out; #»U»VI *-U-a* 
misbah al~i. incandescent lamp 

* iS a» mudi' shining, luminous, bright; 
enlightening 

y^* dad name of the letter ^ 

( Jj~*) J^ da> r( x> « [daur) to harm, injure, 
damage, prejudice (a, * s.o., s.th.), 
inflict damage (a, « upon); to suffer 
violent hunger, starve to death V to 
writhe with pain; to writhe, wince, be 
convulsed (a with pain, with hunger) 

jjj> daur violent hunger 

*\J>jJ> daudd' 2 noise, din, uproar, racket, 
hubbub 

i&ejJ* daudd = *\*J>j*,0 

{9-j*J>) £U* da' a u {dau') to spread, diffuse, 
emanate (fragrance); to be fragrant, 
exhale fragrance V = I 

i*L* look up alphabetically 

<jjj> dawd i to resort, have recourse (Ji 
to); — dawiya a to be lean, thin, spare, 
slight, scrawny IV i£j*J>\ to weaken, 
debilitate (a, *> s.o., s.th.); to harm, injure, 
damage, prejudice (* s.o., a s.th.) VII to 
join, follow (Jl s.o.), attach o.s. (Jt 
to s.o.); to rally, flock (J! around, 
<£\j) c^ around or under s.o.'s banner) 

jlj» dawin thin, lean, spare, slight, 
scrawny 

O »[>«fli1 indiwd 1 enclisis (linguistics) 



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(>«*) J^ 4dra * ((MO to harm, injure, 
damage, prejudice (a, « s.o., s.th.), 
inflict damage (a, » upon) 

j*** cfotr harm, damage, injury, prej- 
udice; wrong, iniquity, offense 

^>*i 2u* i qisma dlzd unjust division 

(*^) pUi d<Ta i ($n f , i*~*«i dai'a, 9\~J> 
day a*) to get lost, be lost (J* for s.o.); to 
be in vain, be futile, be wasted (efforts, 
etc.); to vanish, fade away; to have 
faded t-uJU from s.o.'s memory); to lo^e 
itself, disappear; to perish | l^J> dind we 
are done for ! lfjh*» <tJU fUs (§autuka) he 
had forgotten her voice and did not re- 
cognize it II and IV to ruin, let perish, 
thwart, frustrate, cause to vanish (a, * 
s.o., s.th.); to lose, forfeit (a s.th.), 
be deprived (a of s.th.); to waste, squan- 
der, spend uselessly (» s.th.); to neglect, 
omit (a s.th.); to miss, let go by (a s.th.), 
let slip {a s.th., e.g., an opportunity) | 
-u>- *-^ (haqqahu) to forfeit one's right ; 
(^\i!l C**^ <Jtu^\ aS'Saifa dayya'ti l-labana 
(invar.) approx. : you have let the oppor- 
tunity go by, you missed your chance; 
**^J** f'Lii (sawdbahu) to lose one's mind; 
a«0j* <uLp f-L^i (fursa) to make s.o. miss 
an opportunity; cXjJI pU^I (waqt) to waste 
time 

*5*J dai" loss 

**~J> dai" a loss; waste; futility (of 
efforts), uselessness | jJLi JLcJI l*^J> b 
all of your education was wasted ! 

**~J> dai f a pi. p L^S $2/a f (mor. also -at) 
landed estate, country estate, domain; 
small village, hamlet 

pL^ daya* loss; ruin, destruction, 
perdition | cJj\ £_L** d. al-waqt loss of 
time 

AiU-^ L ya dtdnahu what a loss! 



£**l adycf 2 more wretched, more 
miserable 

£^Ua» midya* prodigal, squandering, 
wasteful; squanderer, wastrel, spend- 
thrift 

££^j tadyV waste, squandering, dis- 
sipation; neglect, omission 

ApUil idd'a waste, squandering, dis- 
sipation; neglect, omission | cJj\ SpUI 
i, al-waqt waste of time 

£j*Li da'V pi. gj, duyya r , ^L^i faytf 
(getting) lost; poor, wretched, miserable 



madia ruin, destruction, per- 
dition, loss; — mudia, c-*Ji 4*~ju 
{li>l-waqt) waste of time, loss of time 

£-**• mudayyi' prodigal, squandering, 
wasteful 



(^w) *Jt~i (?«/a i (^U^J diydfa) to stop 
or stay as a guest II to take in as a 
guest, receive hospitably, entertain (os.o.) 
IV = II; to add, subjoin, annex, attach 
(Jl a s.th. to); to admix (Jl a s.th. to); 
to connect, bring in relation (Jl a s.th. 
with); to ascribe, attribute, assign (Jl * 
s.th. to s.o.) | ^1 J I IH <_jUI (isman) 
to annex a noun (the first member of a 
genitive construction) to another (the 
second member; gram.); jl tifli Jl tm j L j\ 
(adif) what's more,.,, moreover..., fur- 
thermore... VII to be added, be annexed, 
be subjoined, be attached (Jl to) X to 
invite s.o. (») to be one's guest; to have 
as a guest (* s.o.) 



daif pi. t-Jj^J duyuf, 
adydf, ubL^ dljdn guest; visitor 



jl—jl 



«Li diydfa hospitable reception, 
entertainment as guest, accomodation; 
hospitality | ^>Lr^ J Cj\ you are my 



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■ midydf hospitable; hospitable 



host 



« Li. madafa hostel, guesthouse, inn 

!luL.^a.« madyafa guest room ; guesthouse 

4sL^I iddfa pi. -a£ addition, apposition; 
subjunction, annexation, appending, at- 
tachment; additive, admixture; assign- 
ment; ascription, attribution (Jl to); 
genitive construction (gram.) | Jf 4Jl^l 
J>-l (ajal) limitation (of a legal trans- 
action; IsL Law); Jl HiL^U in com- 
parison with, in relation to; with respect 
to, regarding . . .; with regard to, in con- 
sideration of; in addition to, beside; 
dili Jl «U;VLj moreover, furthermore, 



jLil iddjl additional, supplementary, 
auxiliary, contributory, extra; secondary, 
subsidiary, tributary, accessory, inci- 
dental, side-, by- (in compounds) ; relative 
(philos.) | 4JL»1 CjUU overtime, extra 
working hours 

<L»U^l iddfiya relativity (philos.) 

mudif pi. ~un host ; steward 

mudifa pi. -at hostess; air hostess, 



tJLi. muddf added, subjoined, ad- 
joined, apposed; construct state (gram.) \ 
4JI cJUiil the second, or governed, 
noun of a genitive construction (gram.) ; 
illi Jl ULi* moreover, furthermore, 
besides; «Ua. a*J (qima) added value, 
surplus value (econ,) 

{&«*) 3Ui ddqa i (daiq, diq) to be or become 
narrow, straitened, cramped, confined; 
to become too narrow, too confined {<_j 
for); to be anguished, uneasy, de- 
pressed, dejected (c_> because of, by, at, 
about) ; to be or become angry or annoyed 
(lj at s.o., s.th.) ; to become or be tired, 
weary (<_j of s.o., of s.th.); <o JjLi to 



oppress, depress s.o. | ^jVI <o c-SL* 
(ardu) to be at a loss, be at one's wit's 
end; SLJ-1 <u cJ>\j> (haydtu) life depressed 
him, he had a bad time, he was bad off; 
J«JI 4j ciLtf (subulu) to be at a loss, be at 
the end of one's tether, be at one's wit's 
end; ^ Lji JL* (dar'ari) not to be up to 
s.th., be unable to do or accomplish 
s.th.; not to be able to stand or bear 
s.th., be fed up with, be tired of, feel 
uneasy about, be oppressed by; <&* JLi 
Up do.; sj-U* JL* (sadruhu) to be 
annoyed, angry; ^ «-b C-iU^ (yaduhu) to 
be incapable of; to be too poor to... 
II to make narrow or narrower, narrow 
(down), straiten, cramp, tighten, confine, 
constrain, restrain, restrict, contract 
(jb s.th.); to pull tight (a s.th., e.g., a 
dress) ; to harass, oppress, beset, besiege, 
beleaguer (Jp s.o.); to keep (J* s.o.) 
short (j in s.th.) | jUai-l J-^ to tighten 
the blockade; J* JU-I i }~J> see Jl^-j 
*~J6 Jt J*** 1 to restrain o.s., take restric- 
tions upon o.s. HI to vex, annoy, anger 
(* s.o.) ; to harass, oppress, beset (* s.o.) ; to 
trouble, bother, inconvenience, disturb, 
hinder, hamper, impede, affect gravely (», 
a s.o., s.th.), bear down heavily (*, 
upon); to cause trouble (* to s.o.) VI to 
be or become narrow, to narrow; to be- 
come annoyed, become irritated; to be 
angry (j* at, about) 

J~J> diq narrowness; tightness, close- 
ness; confinement, restriction, limitation, 
constraint; shortage, scarcity; oppression, 
anguish; dejectedness, depression, dis- 
tress; lack, want, paucity, poverty; care, 
worry, anxiety; anger, annoyance, ir- 
ritation, exasperation; weariness, ennui | 
JiJi £j\s i j~J> d. ddt al-yad poverty, desti- 
tution; >»Uil j^ d. ahmaqdm and s j T J 
4*-U11 d. al-masdha lack or shortage of 
room, lack of space; JlkJI ^J> do.; small 
range, limited extent, narrow scope; 
xjl ^J> d. al-yad poverty, destitution 



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^J> dayyiq narrow; tight; cramped; 
short, scarce; confined, limited, restricted | 
jU-'i ^J» d. al-kuluq illiberal, un- 
generous; impatient, annoyed; j.UaJI £~J> 
d. as-sadr vexed, annoyed (l-j over, at, by), 
angry («-> at, with); upset, depressed, 
downcast, dejected; JUl &J> d. al-aql 
narrow-minded, hidebound, dull-witted; 
JlkJI ( j T J> small-range; of narrow scope, 
limited in extent; confined, limited, re- 
stricted 

vuj> daiqa, dlqa straitened circum- 
stances, poverty; anguish 

l j T J>\ adyaq 2 narrower, tighter 

JipA* madiq pi. J»U« maddyiq 2 , jJUi* 
madaiq 2 strait(s); defile, (mountain) 
pass; narrow(s), stricture | JjU* J~r- &r&* 
m. jdbal t. the Straits of Gibraltar 

j-x^ij tadyiq narrowing, tightening; 
restriction, limitation; oppression | J^-ij 
jLai-1 tightening of the blockade; 0~^ 
tSU-*l (tightening of the rope =) stran- 
gling, suppression 

AjuljtA muddyaqa pi. -at affliction, 



distress, grievance, embarrassment; ob> 
struction, impediment, disturbance, har- 
assment, molestation; depressing state 
anger, annoyance, vexation, irritation 
inconvenience, difficulty, trouble, nui- 
sance 

£ajL^ daiqa pi. $\yJ> dawd'iq 2 predic- 
ament, straits, difficulty; critical sit- 
uation, crisis | ,_^i*Jl *5jL* d. al-'ati 
straitened circumstances; «JL <a>\J> 
(maliya) financial straits 

JjLa. muddy iq troublesome, irksome, 
wearisome, disturbing, annoying; nui- 
sance (person) 

JjL^u mutaddyiq annoyed, vexed, 
irritated, exasperated, angry ; hard pressed 

1 ( r J>) #LS dama i (daim) to wrong, harm 
(o s.o.), inflict damage (» upon s.o.); to 
treat unjustly (o s.o.) X = I 

^J> daim pi. rj~>0 duyum wrong, 
inequity, injustice; harm, damage, det- 
riment, injury 

2 <uLi look up alphabetically 



J. 



.U abbreviation of J»1j*» gtraf 

»U» M' name of the letter \? 

^lU M6 pi. -at (eg.) stick, small piece of palm 
frond | *-ilUl vJ Za r 6a£ a£4. (eg.) a game 
of chance played with small pieces of 
palm frond 

2 4jli* tdba pi. -at {syr.) ball; splint (med.) 

jji}b tabur pi. j^ljL tawabir 2 battalion; roll 
call (of a battalion, mil.; eg.); long pro- 
cession (of marchers) ; column; (eg.) line, 



file, single file (of soldiers, of persons 
walking one behind the other) ; gym team, 
squad of gymnasts; queue | ^U-l j^UJl 
the fifth column; »L-II j_^Ll» <. al-ma&a 
retreat, evening roll call (mil.) ; ^L-*Ji j^lk 
£. as-sabah morning call (of pupils in the 
schoolyard); ,yy>i\ jy>}^> h al-ard parade 
(mil.); j^U* S ^J to l me U P m a <l ueue 

jll» tabiya pi. v'j^ .tewwfttn fortress, fort; 
round fortress tower; (eg.) rook, castle 



r ll» £a/ro pi. t>r^ tawajin 2 frying pan; 
(eg.) shallow earthen pot 



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w-I» 



jll», SjUs- see j jl» 

lylt tdrima pi. -d£ kiosk, booth, cabin, stall 

aJlU fdza (invar, for number and gender) fresh ; 
new; tender, soft, delicate 

r-jli? tdzaj, tazij fresh; new 

1 Lr rlL and L-Us> see j^U 

2 ^jU» fd'tts and ^jjU* iawiis pi. ^j^J* 
tawawis 2 peacock 

Wt ta'fo'a to incline, bend, tilt, bow (<u-lj 
Ta'sahu one's head; also used without 

^Ulk* mutati with bowed head 

with bowed head 

C^pIL pi. c-*I^L> see under_^, <yJ* 

l jlt fa*? pi. -at, oULk (tgdn arch (arch.); (pi. 
-d() layer, stratum 

2 iilL <d(jfa pi. -dt window 

3 4JU> fdgiya pi. jy* tawdqin, □ jljk white 
cotton skullcap (often worn under the 
tarboosh; in Eg. = U/0; fatigue cap 
(of the Eg. Territorial Army) ; forage cap, 
overseas cap [mil.) 

(till* see under *j&> 



j*IL see oU» 



*Jjlt (It. tavola) tdwila, tawula pi. -at table | 
iJjli»Jl 4*aJ Za f 6a£ at-t. backgammon, trick- 
track; <JjllaII U J3 table tennis 



^jjli? pi. ^jLfk see ^jjU* 

,_.U fa6&a w i (fa&b, *t*66, /w6&) to treat n.-d- 
ically (a, « s.o., s.th.), give mediflal 
treatment (a, * to s.o., to s.th.); to seek 
to remedy, tackle (J s.th.) II to treat 
medically (a, • s.o., s.th.), give medical 
treatment (a, t to s.o., to s.th.) V to 
receive, or undergo, medical treatment, 
submit to medical treatment ; to practice 
medicine, engage in the medical field 
X to seek medical advice (*. from s.o.), 
consult (* a doctor) 

i_J* tibb medical treatment; medicine, 
medical science } ubViM «_-!» t. al-asnan 
dentistry, dental science; <jJ*?J\ *-^' 
(baitarl) veterinary science; ^j^\ «~-Ul 
(sar T i) forensic medicine; jLJd\ <-JaJl (na/*= 
sani) psychiatry; <^D! i* Him af-£. medical 
science, medicine ; «_JJl ^15 kulliyat at-t. 
medical school, medical college, (chiefly 
G. B.:) faculty of medicine 

J» tibbl medical, pertaining to the 
medical profession or science | Li» JpV 
(tibblyan) physically fit (e.g., for mili- 
tary service); 4*J» £>jij medicinal oils; 
IA> Jjlfi (sahada) medical certificate 

2LL tabba pi. -at {eg.) cushion, pad; 
plug, stopper, stopple; bung 

^oJ» tabib pi. *LU atibba' 2 , <LU atibba 
physician, doctor | (£^j t^^i* (batton) 
veterinarian; ^U- c-^jJ* (fcdss) physician 
in ordinary, private physician (e.g., of 
a king); >>-U ^S medicine man, 
shaman; uL-Vl ^^ dental surgeon, 
dentist; ^J^ *_~jJ* (sar'i) medical 
examiner (jur.); Sj-aU-J u^l/*^' Vi^* 
{jildiya) dermatologist; S^SLLl ^--jJo t. al- 
hukuma public health officer; jLjuI vic^ 
(. imtiy&z medical assistant, intern (em- 
ployed in a hospital); »LUVl j-wj head 
physician; *U>^i j^" senior physician 



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^ujuI* tablba female doctor, doctress 

h\J? tibdba medical treatment; medical 
profession 

<_Ji» matabb pi. -at pothole ; (also «_*k. 
d|>*) air pocket, down gust (aviation) 

i_-jJ«j tatbib healing art, medical 
practice, medical profession 



&• mutafabbib quack, quacksalver 

j+&> tabaka u a (tabk) to cook (a s.th.) 
VII to be or get cooked 

«J» tabk cooking, cookery; cooked 
food; O celluloid 

4^J* tabka (n. un.) (article of cooked) 
food, meal, dish, course 

^■U* tabbak cook 

ryb tabik cooked food, fare 

4^ LI* fibdka culinary art, cookery, 
cuisine 

£-k. matbak pi. £lk. matabik 2 kitchen ; 
cookshop, eating house, luncheonette 

it-k. mitbak pi. £Ua* matabik 2 any 
cooking apparatus (also, e.g., a hot 
plate), cooking stove, kitchen range, 
portable range 

1 jjL tabar hatchet, ax, battle-ax 

jb^l» fabardar sapper, pioneer (mil.) 

2 jjl& pi. jwljU look up alphabetically 

8 4j j\> tabariya 2 Tiberias (city in Palestine, 
on W shore of Sea of Galilee) 

3j\* tubruq* Tobruk (town in Libya) 

SjytJ* tabsura (syr.) chalk 



>iLl» tabasir* chalk 

j>iLt tabaHiri chalky, 
chalk- (in compounds) 



cretaceous, 



vW* tabtaba to gurgle, purl (water) ; to pat, 
stroke, caress ( Jp s.o.) 

^UaJ* tabtaba bat, mallet, racket (for 
ball games) 

*J» taba'a a (tab') to provide with an im- 
print, impress or impression (a or J* 
s.th.); to impress with a stamp, seal or 
signet (a or Jp s.th.), leave or set 
one's stamp, seal, mark, or impress (J* 
or a, * on s.o., on s.th.) ; to stamp, imprint, 
impress (J* a s.th. on); to mint, coin 
(a money); to print (a s.th.); pass. 
tubia to have a natural aptitude or 
disposition, have a propensity, be dis- 
posed by nature (J* for) | <uj11*j <ui» 
(bi-fabi'ihi) to place, set, or leave one's 
stamp, mark, or impress on s.o. or 
s.th., impart one's own character to 
s.o. or s.th.; <le «J* (tubi'a) to be 
innate, inherent in s.o., be native, 
natural to s.o. II to tame, domesticate, 
break in, train (a an animal) V 4*.Uaj «JJ 
(bi-tiba' ihi) to take on, assume, or 
receive s.o.'s peculiar character, bear 
s.o.'s stamp or impress VII to be stamped, 
be printed, be imprinted, be impressed; 
to leave an imprint or impression ( j on) ; 
to be disposed by nature (J* for) 

£~k tab r printing (of a book), print; 
natural disposition, temper, nature, 
character (of s.o. or s.th.); (pi. 9--LL tiba?, 
f-LU atba f ) natural quality, peculiarity, 
characteristic, peculiar feature | _^J- I *S 
t. al-hajar lithography; <jjj^\ *J* typo- 
graphy; ^JJI iZ*£ in (the) press, at press 
(typ.); *JaJl o_^~- • musuxtddat and musaw* 
ivadat at-U proof sheet, galley proof (typ.); 
•^JaJl oUI i r adat at-t. reprinting, reprint; 
Ld* tab" an or ^iaJLj by nature, by natural 



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j> 



disposition; naturally! of course! certain- 
ly! to be sure! *Ja)l [^ sayyi at-t. ill-dis- 
posed, ill-natured, evil by nature; SLS 
(f LUl) *~kJl Sadd at~t. eccentric, extrav- 
agant 

4*S $ab c a pi. -at printing, print; 
edition, issue, impression 

fU? tabba* printer 

pU» tibd" character, innate nature 

apLU tibffa art of printing; typography; 
stamping (of letters in metal, etc.) | 
icUJl *JT printing press 

^U. tibai typographic(al) 

i^L £a&i r a pi. ajU* tabai' 2 nature; 
natural disposition, constitution; pe- 
culiarity, individuality, character; reg- 
ular, normal manner; physics; nat- 
ural science | JU-1 "^^ by the very 
nature of the case, as is (was) only 
natural, ipso facto, naturally, as a 
matter of course; a*~LJ1 ^IU physicist; 
natural scientist; *»— W V e ilm> a H« 
physics; natural science; *\jj L. 4J-Jj 
4*~UJ1 (jUj) (falsafatu) metaphysics; 3y 
4*~UI supernatural ; #L-iV^ £?Li» the nature 
of things, state of affairs 

t yuJ» tabfl nature's, of nature, nature- 
tin compounds), natural; inborn, innate, 
inherent, native; normal, ordinary, usual, 
regular; physical; physicist; natural 
scientist; naturalist | L ^S iU physicist; 
natural scientist; oL*-JaJl physics; nat- 
ural science; ^y*-^' c-J^-Ui (madhab) nat- 
uralism; ol (j^i* (anna) it is natural 
that , . ., naturally it is . . . 



O 



taWxya naturalism 



£*k» matba* print shop, printing 
office, printing house, press 

4*Ja* matba'a pi. *jU*. matdbi 2 print 
shop, printing office, printing house, 



press I ajLLII 4j^>- hurriyat al-m. freedom 
of the press 

jUi* matba'i printing, printer's (in 
compounds), typographic(al) | ^^X* iLrf- 
(kata 3 ) and LuL 5U* (#a#a) typographi- 
cal error, misprint, erratum 

j>**^z* (eg.) Tnatba'gl printer 

«*Ju mitba'a pi. £ilk* matdbi rz printing 
machine, printing press 

frUU intiba,' pi. -d( (received) impres- 
sion (of s.th.) 

O ^tUail intibd'i impressionistic 

O v^LUil intibd f iya impressionism 

«jU» £a&i* printer; stamp, character; — ■ 
taba' and (a6i f pi. *»IJ» tawdbx* seal, 
signet; stamp; imprint, print, impress, 
impression; (postage, etc.) stamp; tablet, 
pill I Aj^JI £>li> and ^Jb^ *»lt postage 
stamp; il *jU? i. al-katm impression of 
a seal or stamp; ^jlTij *j,U» (tadkari) 
commemorative stamp; *jL»VI £>U* 
fingerprint; JL. £)U* fiscal stamp, duty 
stamp; (J JS\ ^jU* /> (iqltrni) having a 
regional flavor or character; ^jiiaJl i-»»-L* 
keeper of the seal; <bolkj ajuW to place, set, 
or leave, one's stamp, mark, or impress 

9 jAsa matbu' printed, imprinted; ster- 
eotyped; pi. -at printed material, prints; 
printed matter | <uj11*j fj-** bearing the 
stamp, mark or impress of s.o. or s.th., 
being characterized by; J* £\>?^l* do., 
being by its very nature..., having the 
innate property of . . . ; (jjj* £\>^ {dauri) 
a periodical; oU^JJ.1 <J^U press law 

Sp^-k. 7natbu'a (Tun.) form, blank 

1 j r U II to cover, cover up (* s.th.); to 
make coincident or congruent, cause to 
coincide, superpose (jw two figures; 
geam.); to fold (a s.th., also, e.g., the 
hands); (e^.) to shoe (* a horse); to 



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a Pp]y (J* * s-tfi. to); to be common, 
universal, widespread; to spread (also 
a throughout s.th.), pervade (i'^thji 
pass, tubbiqa to be applied, apply, be 
applicable, be effective, be valid | ^JLJ* 
<3liVl £j4$ (suhratuhu) he (it) enjoyed, 
or achieved, world-wide fame; 4^ jj, 
<>JuU.'i (sittihu, kafiqain) do., his (its) 
fame spread throughout the world 
III to bring to coincidence, make co- 
incident or congruent, cause to coincide 
(<>jj — ^j s.th. with), correlate, com- 
pare, contrast (^jj — ^j s.th. with); 
to adapt, adjust, tally, trim into shape 
(a s.th.); to suit, fit, match (a, , s.o., 
s.th.), go, tally (a, * with), adapt o.s., 
adjust o.s. (a, c to s.o., to s.th.); to 
correspond (a to s.th.), concur, agree, 
conform, be in keeping (a, 6 with s.o., 
with s.th.), fit (a into s.th.) IV to close, 
shut (a s.th., e.g., the eyes, mouth, etc.); 
to cover, cover up (a, Jp s.th., also a 
with one's hand J* s.th.); to surround, 
encircle, encompass (J* s.o.); to be 
agreed, agree, come to an agreement 
(J*- on, about) | ^Jb J* jJ»l {yadl) he 
pressed my hand; Jp 4-ju£ ji»l (safa= 
tmhi) to close one's lips around, press one's 
lips on s.th.; c~*A\ jS>\ (samt) silence 
prevailed V to be or become covered, 
closed VII = V; to be applicable, apply 
(J* to), fit, suit (J* s.o., s.th.), hold 
good (J* for), be true (J» of); to be 
in conformity, be consistent, be com- 
patible, be in keeping, conform, agree ( U 
with), correspond (J* to s.th.) 

jJ* tibqa (prep.) according to, cor- 
responding to, in accordance with, in 
conformity with | J ULk (tibqan) do.; 
J-^*i/l jJ? *jj~* {sura, ad) true copy; 
exact replica 

J-J* tabaq pi. JLU atbaq lid, cover; 
plate; saucer; shallow bowl; dish (food); 
course (of a meal) ; (round) tray, salver ; 
ash tray; (pi. JU»I, also J)L1* tibaq) layer, 



tier; stratum (of the air); pi. JU, (with 
foil, genit.) superposed masses, layered 
formations, piles, large quantities of . . .; 
ULL tibaqan one on top of the other 
(layers) | lj\L jLUI flying saucers; jj, 
<s ~>jj main course (of a meal) 

<a^> Jj yad tabiqa closed hand 

iU* tabaqa pi. -at layer; stratum (of 
earth, air, society, etc.); class, category; 
social class; generation; (pi. JUU tibaq) 
floor, story (of a building) | oliJ* % 
classless (society); i*Li*-l oULU social 
levels, classes of society; O^aJI SJLi* t. as- 
§aut register, pitch (of a voice) ; O ~&M 
*ijjJ*XA\ {tukruriya) stratosphere; <JU» 
JL*)I t. al- f ummal, 5JL-LJ1 4JLWI the labor 
class, the working class; S^^JI oUiJI 
(najisa) the impure castes, the pariahs; 
y**ydl uJtll (mutawassita) the middle 
class(es); oUJaJI VjP - harb at-t, class 
struggle; ^j^\ oULU ^ Him t. al-ard 
geology; ^JliJi SJLkJl j :>j.u. regarded aa 
third-rate 

JJ* tabaql class (in compounds); per- 
taining to geological layers, stratigraphic | 
jy* £*zf (mujtamcf) class society; f\j*ai\ 
JJaJI class struggle (pot.) 

Jj11> tabaq, tdbiq pi. JjI^U tawdbiq 2 
large bricks; floor, story (of a building) | 
j^jVI JjUaJI (ardi) ground floor 

JLlt tdbdq pi. ^\J, tawdbiq 2 large 
bricks 

JLk tibaq (with foil, genit. or suffix) 
that which is in agreement, in keeping, 
or in conformity with..., corresponding, 
analogous (to s.th.), in accordance (with), 
conformable (to), consistent (with), com- 
patible (with); antithesis, juxtaposition 
of contrasting ideas (rhet.) 

ij-J* tabiq (with foil, genit. or suffix) 
s.th. in agreement, in keeping, or in con- 
formity with..., corresponding, analo- 



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gous (to s.th.), in accordance (with), con- 
sistent (with), compatible (with) 

J^U* tdbuq (n. un. I; ir.) bricks 



ao- 



matbaqiya {eg.) rack for rinsed 
dishes (for drying) 

j.,.U tatbiq pi. -at adaptation, accom- 
modation, adjustment; application; prac- 
tice (as opposed to theory) | \xX U^ 
{li-mabdd) by application of a basic 
principle 

J-JaJ tatblql applied; practical, serv- 
ing practical ends | "^^ fj^- applied 
sciences 

iiLLi* mutdbaqa agreement, conformity, 
congruity, correspondence 

oU*l itbdq velarization of the sounds 
s, d, t, z (phon.) 

JjUJ tatabuq congruence {geom ) 

Jilla^mutdbiq corresponding, congruous, 
conformable, in agreement or conformity 
(with) | 41JJ- JjU»* true, truthful, vera- 
cious, agreeing with the facts, true to 
nature, lifelike; J-^tAJ *ajU«* ^~i {niiska, 
ad) an exact transcript of the original 

jJu mutbiq entire, complete, utter, 
absolute, total; — mutbaq pressed; coat- 
ed, incrusted (^JJLj with gold); subter- 
ranean dungeon, oubliette, underground 
chamber | UJoll <-JjJ~\ {mutbaqa) {phon.) 
the sounds s, d, t, z; JbU-Vi jJ** mutbaq 
ai-et. with closed eyelids 

2 i3Li» tabaq, tubaq {eg.) tobacco 

^ tdbala u {tabl) to beat a drum ; to drum 
II = I; to beat the drum (J for s.o., 
i.e.,to campaign, make propaganda for s.o.) 

JJ* tahl drumming, drumbeat; (pi. 
Jji tubul, JLL1 atbdl) drum; bass drum 
(of the Western orchestra, also jS JJ*) 



2JU* fabla drum | oi^l iU* f. al-udun 
eardrum, tympanic membrane 

SLU tablet, pi. -at, JJ* tubal {eg.) lock, 
padlock 

JJ? tabli drum-shaped 

JLL fofc&aJ pi. -un drummer 

JJ** mutabbal moist, damp (ground) 

2 ^J» (a&Za pi. -a« table 

yj, ta&%a pi. -at, D J^ Maii 
a low, round table; turntable; tray, 
wooden salver 

1 ^ tabina a to be bright, intelligent 
lf.\> tabin bright, intelligent 

2 Zji\i» tdbuna {'^j^ tabuna) pi. -at a small, 
jar-shaped oven, sunk in the ground, 
open on top, used for baking bread ; bak- 
ery; {pal, eg.) (baker's) oven 

3 oU» tabbdn pi. -at (wheel) tire 

^J* tabanja pi. -at pistol 

S\jhJ> tobografi topographical ) 

4-i!A^ tobogrdfhja topography 

4-jli. (abiya pi. ^>\J» look up alphabetically 

j^-U. ta/*» pi. Jrl^ tawdjin 2 frying pan; 
(e<7.) shallow earthen pot 

J^Jt? tahtaha to break, shatter, smash 
(a s.th.) 

J**t <Wii sediment, dregs, lees 

JU1* tihdl pi. -a(, J~k ^*A«Z spleen, 
milt 

JUi ii/taZt splenic 



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JUJ» tuhdl inflammation of the spleen, 
splenitis 

J^pJkt. matkul having a diseased spleen, 
splenetic 

«_~UJ» tuhlub pi. v_JUJ* tahalib 2 water moss; 
alga [hot.) 

fjs^f fakana a (tahn) to grind, mill, bray, 
pulverize (a s.th., esp. grain); to crush, 
ruin, destroy (a, « s.o., s.th.); to wear 
out, wear down (* s.o.), exact a heavy 
toll (o of s.o.; age, years) VI to quarrel, 
wrangle, be antagonistic, be in conflict 
(with one another), to conflict 

^>Jk> tihn flour, meal 

(>*J? tahln flour, meal 

J~>*1» \ahlnl mealy, farinaceous 



tahiniya (eg.) a sweet made of 
sesame -seed meal and sugar 

£lj>J* tahina (eg., syr.) a thick sauce 
made of sesame oil, and served with 
salads, vegetables, etc. 

OL»«i» tahhdn miller 

Jj*-U» tahun and 5J_jj»— LU tdhuna pi. 
<jw-l^i» tawahin 2 mill, grinder | »!_^J1 4Jj>-W* 
t. al-hawd* windmill 

^xLm mithana pi. ,^-Lk. matdhiri 2 mill, 
grinder 



. mathana pi. ^y-lk* matdhin 2 mill; 
flour mill 

j^-U* tdhin molar tooth, grinder 

lo-LL tahina pi. j>-^ tawahin 2 molar 
tooth, grinder 

O \jjj*^\ iiJaJI at-tabaqa at-tukrurlya the 
stratosphere 

J> tarra u (tarr, jjj> turur) to sharpen, hone, 



whet (a s.th.); to grow; to sprout, come 
out {mustache, hair) 

\J* turran altogether, all without 
exception, one and all 

Ijb turra pi. jj* turar forelock; 
knotted cloth or kerchief 

jljj* tarrdr pi. oj\J<* tarrdra (magr.) 
tambourine player; rogue, scoundrel 

\J* tara'a a (tar\ *jj? turu) to descend, 
break in, come (Jp upon), overtake, 
befall (Jp s.o.), happen unexpectedly 
(Jp to s.o.); to occur {Jp or J to s.o., of 
an idea) | «ulp \J* lit. what's got into 
him all of a sudden? what's the matter 
with him all of a sudden? lj& <uU ^1^ 
(fikratun) an idea occurred to him, he 
had an idea; ^TX JoJ *JU-1 Jp I^kj i 
(tabaddulun yudkaru) (no change worth 
mentioning came over the situation, i.e.) 
the situation remained substantially 
unchanged; ^JoS^ll Jp j^JJ ^1 \ja* i (ayyu 
t., mauqif) do., there has been no change 
in the situation IV to praise, laud, extol 

(a S.O.) 



*(jj? tarV fresh, new | "<£jJ& 
fresh vegetables 



■ (kwkw) 



*<jj\]* tart' having happened suddenly 
(event); newly added (J* to); newly ar- 
rived from outside (Jp at); extraneous; 
accidental, incidental, casual; unforeseen, 
unexpected, contingent; a new factor or 
development intervening suddenly, a con- 
tingent; unexpected visitor; sudden stir- 
ring, sudden impulse (j* e.g., of joy) | 
IsjVb pUfaJ an unscheduled, extra- 
ordinary meeting 

4jjIL» tdria pi. *<jj\^> tawdri 2 un- 
foreseen event, unexpected case, a 
contingent; new factor or development; 
incident, accident; pi. J$j[>U emergencies, 
emergency cases | jijIjUI 5JU- state of 



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emergency; aJj-JI ^jl^^LJl C>\J* quwwdt at-t. 
ad-duwaliya UN Emergency Force, XJNEF 

JT^ tur'dni of unknown origin, wild 

Ojj\J* tarabizun 2 Trabzon (seaport in NE 
Turkey) 

j-MJ* tardbulus 2 Tripoli {capital of Libya, 
also i-^iJI (J-JLjI^ t. al-garb; city in Leba- 
non, also fliJi ijx^J*) 

oj* tariba a (tarab) to be moved (with joy 
or grief); to be delighted, be overjoyed, 
be transported with joy II to delight, 
fill with delight, enrapture, please, 
gratify (* s.o.); to sing, vocalize, chant 
IV to delight, fill with delight, en- 
rapture, please, gratify (e s.o.); to make 
music; to sing, vocalize, chant; to play 
music (o for s.o.), sing (a to s.o.) 

<-jJs> tarab pi. «-»1^i atrdb joy, pleasure, 
delight, rapture; amusement, entertain- 
ment {with music and the like); music | 
wJJl SjT musical instrument 

yjW tarib pi. v'J* #*Vo6 moved (with 
joy or grief), touched, affected; delighted, 
enraptured, transported, pleased, charmed 

^->jj? tarub gay, merry, lively 

Vjki atrab 2 more delightful; making 
better music, being a better musician; 
more melodious 

^jLj tatrib delectation, diversion by 



*->\Je\ itrdb delectation, diversion by 
music 

tjjk. mutrib delightful, ravishing, 
charming, amusing, entertaining; me- 
lodious; musician; singer, vocalist, chan- 
sonnier 

ija* mutriba singer, songstress, vo- 
calist, chanteuse 



S>j^ tarabeza (eg.) table 
^jSi)^* look up alphabetically 

J>j\J» tarbuB pi. L^n^Je fardbiP tarboosh, 
fez 

jaijjjjt tardbisi tarboosh merchant 

^jljjL. mutarbas wearing a tarboosh, 
tarbooshed 

Jiijai* mutatarbis wearing a tarboosh, 
tarbooshed; hence, in Eg., a member of 
the white-collar class, of the educated 
middle class 

^J* taraka a (tarh) to throw, cast, fling, toss 
(Jp <_j or a s.th. onto or upon); to throw, 
toss, or fling away, throw off, discard, 
dump (^ or a s.th.); to remove, drive 
away, expel, reject, disown, repudiate 
(«_j or a, » s.o., s.th.); to throw or put 
(Jp a a garment on or over s.o.); to 
present, submit (Jp a s.th. to s.o.); to 
teach (Jp a a tune to s.o.); to cede, 
surrender, yield (J a s.th. to s.o.); to 
miscarry, have a miscarriage; to deduct, 
subtract, discount (j* a s.th. from) | 
»ljT -JL> to express or put forward opin- 
ions; 4JLjL». j ^wixJl r-Jff (musdbaqa) to 
advertise a competition for a design; 
i.Ul i^SLil J ^-J^ (mundqapa, 'dmma) 
to invite tenders, or bids, publicly for 
s.th. (e.g., the government for some 
project); VJj-' <^1p t-J& (su'alan) to put 
a question to s.o.; <i->»JI J»Lj Jp ill—* *y]» 
(mas'alatan, 6. iUbaht) to broach or 
raise a question, present a problem for 
consideration II to cause a miscarriage 
(U to a woman); 1>-I^1 a rj? (ittirahan) 
to throw s.th. far away, fling s.th. off 
or away III to exchange (a « with s.o. 
s.th.) | vsO 4*-jU» (kaldm) to converse 
with s.o., have a talk with s.o.; ti-o J-L1 *>.jli» 
to chat with s.o., have a conversation 
with s.o.; ili-*^! 4»-jU» (as'ila) to exchange 



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questions with s.o. V to drop, fall, or 
tumble to the ground VI to exchange 
with one another (a e.g., thoughts) 
VII to be flung, be tossed, be thrown, be 
rejected, be expelled, be disowned, be 
repudiated ; to throw o.s. down, prostrate 
o.s. (e.g., ^jVl Jp on the ground); to 
be thrown down, be dropped ; to drop off, 
fall down VIII to throw far away, fling 
off or away (a s.th.); to discard, throw 
away (a s.th.); to delete, strike out (^ * 
s.th. from a text) 

£jl» park expulsion, rejection, re- 
pulsion, banishment, repudiation; mis- 
carriage, abortion; subtraction, deduc- 
tion, discount | j*J\ *-Jb t. al-bahr (eg.) 
alluviation, alluvial deposits; Jlj* ^J* 
«iJI t. su'al at-tiqa putting the question 
of confidence (pot.); Zsa*\x» j fjj^ rj* 
i*U (mundqasa f amma) public invitation 
of tenders or bids for a project 

•rj* tirh miscarried foetus 

49~Ja tarha pi. *-Jb turah veil (some- 
times embroidered) worn by Arab 
women as a headcloth; headcloth, head 
veil 

£j* tarlh pi. fj^-J* tarha thrown 
down, cp' 1 down, dumped; thrown to 
the grv j., felled, prostrate; expelled, 
banished, rejected, disowned, repudiated | 
^jm\ £js> bedridden, confined to bed 

4^-Jb tariha assignment, task j Jii 
i^^Ub (higl) job work, piecework (eg.) 



a*~\J? tarrdha pi. Aj\JL> tardrih 2 mat- 
tress; hassock, ottoman 

**-j^>\ utruha pi. -at dissertation, thesis 
(Syr.) 

t)a* matrah pi. ?-jlk» matdrih 2 place 
where s.th, is thrown or at which s.th. 
is discarded, a dump; place, spot, loca- 
tion, locality; seat (in an auditorium) 



g\J»\ ittirah rejection, repudiation 

£jjh» matruh thrown down, cast 
down, dumped, thrown off, discarded; 
lying on the ground, prostrate; sub- 
trahend (math.) | <o t-jJoL\ minuend 
(math.) 

^k- muntarih thrown down, cast 
down, dumped, thrown off, discarded; 
expelled, banished, rejected, disowned, 
repudiated 

Oj>-J* tarkun tarragon (Artemisia draeun- 
culus; hot.) 

sj* tarada u (tard) to drive away, chase 
away, push away, shove away, reject, 
repel, banish, exile, dismiss, drive out, 
expel, evict (^ a, « s.o., s.th. from); to 
compel to leave the country (a s.o.); to 
expel, bar from a game (• s.o., of the 
referees); to chase, hunt, hound (a, * s.o., 
s.th.) | ■ux. j* *$J* (mansibihi) to relieve 
s.o. of his office, dismiss s.o. II to chase 
away (• s.o.) Ill to chase after, hunt (a a 
game, » s.o.); to pursue, follow (a, « s.o., 
s.th.), run after s.o. or s.th. (a, *), give 
chase (a, » to) VIII to drive away as booty 
(a animals); to be consecutive, be con- 
tinuous, form an uninterrupted se- 
quence, succeed one another continu- 
ously; to flow uninterruptedly, carry 
water perennially (river); to progress or 
get on at a rapid pace, make good 
headway (undertaking) X to proceed 
(in one's speech), go on to say, con- 
tinue (a s.th., e.g., one's speech); to 
change, pass on (in speech) (J — ^ 
from — to); to digress (in speaking), 
make an excursus | dy J! dilS ,> i^LiJ 
b\ (qaulihi) thereupon he proceeded 
to speak about..., then he broached the 
subject of..., after that he went on to 
say that... 

*J& tard driving away, chasing away, 



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repulsion, expulsion, eviction, dismissal, 
banishment, expatriation; pursuit, chase, 
hunt; swarm (of bees); (pi. $jj& turud) 
parcel, package | L5Cp $ \sje> SJL~. £j£ 
(mas'alatan tardan wa-alcsan) to study 
a problem from all sides, in all its 



<S±Jb tardi parcel-, package- (in com- 
pounds), like a parcel or package 

o^L» tarda (n. vie.) a driving away, 
chasing away, repulsion, expulsion, evic- 
tion, banishment 

JU^ tar id expelled, evicted, ousted, 
outcast, outlawed, banished, exiled, 
expatriate ( d) ; fugitive, fleeing, on the 
run; expellee; outcast, outlaw; one of two 
brothers born immediately one after the 
other ( = being in dispute over preced- 
ence); du. jIju^UI at-tariddn night and 
day 

*JjJ* tarida pi. jtfljk taraid 2 game 
animal, game beast ; game ; — one of two 
sisters born immediately one after the 
other (cf. -b^k) 

ilj» tarrdd cruiser (warship); (eg.) 
dike, embankment, dam, levee (esp. of 
the Nile) 

li\J* tarrdda cruiser (warship) 

±\Jb tirdd pursuit, chase 

ojlk. mutarada repulsion, expulsion, 
banishment; pursuit, chase; hunt | S_/tL> 
ojliail fighter plane, pursuit plane, inter- 
ceptor 

j>l^U ittirad uninterrupted or regular 
sequence, continuity; uniformity; regular- 
ity (also gram.) 

jljku*l istitrad pi. -at digression, 
divagation; excursus 

jjlk« mutdrid pursuer; hunter | S^/IU 



SijLk. fighter plane, pursuit plane, inter- 
ceptor 

•ijlk. mutdrida pi. -at (= S-ijlk* 3_/U») 
fighter plane, pursuit plane, interceptor 

sjb* muttarid incessant, uninterrupted, 
continuous, continual, unvarying, steady, 
constant; general; regular (also gram.), 
without exception j Isja* a-teli general 
rule; J— ill sj** m. an-nasq uniform 
(adj.); *JuJl zj** m. an-nagm monotonous 
(song) 

jj* II to embroider (» s.th.); to embellish 
(a a story); to garnish [^ a s.th., e.g., 
a dish with) 

}J* tarz pi. jjjfi turuz type, model, 
make, brand, sort, kind; fashion, style 

i$jj& tarzl fashion- (in compounds) 

j\J? tira-z pi. -at, jj* turuz, ljjf\ atriza 
type, model, class, make, brand, sort, 
kind, variety, species; fashion, style; 
architectural style; embroidery | jlJJI i> 
fXa}\ old-fashioned, outmoded; jl^laJI £•** 
do.; j!^ d^-b-b ~L- » musallah bi-ahdat t. 
equipped with the latest arms; t> 
Jyyl j^aJI {awwal) first-class, first-rate; 
O jjWI \J& nazariyat at-t. typology, 
theory of types 

j ^IaS tatriz embroidering, embroidery 

^J* tirs pi. ^J^ atrds, ^jj» turns sheet 
(of paper) ; paper 

1 lTj^ t ar ^ (l a (Paras') to be or become deaf; 
— tarasa u to vomit, throw up, disgorge 
II to deafen (a s.o.) 

^Jb tars whitewashing 

J^Jv tars pi. ^jj* luruS (syr.) herd (of 
cattle), flock (of sheep) 

J.J& taras deafness 

%^J» tursa deafness 



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J^^>\ a$ra$ 2 , f. AZjb tarsd' 2 , pi. J J* 
\w§ deaf j ciJL-l J^J^ {asakk 2 ) stone-deaf 

JiJ** mutarris vomitive ; emetic 

2 ^J^ tursl mixed pickles 

J&J? tarfara to brag, boast, swagger, show 
off 

j^J> \urtur pi. A>\J* tardtir 2 high, 
conical cap (of dervishes, clowns, etc.) 

J J* J* taratur and jJ*>\J* tardtur {eg., 
syr.) a sort of mayonnaise (made of $a* 
hina, parsley, lemon, oil, milk, garlic and 
nuts) 

JbJ> tartaSa {eg.) to paddle (in water); to 
splash, bespatter, splatter (» s.o., <-> with 
water, etc.); to roughcast (a a building, 
a wall) ; to make a mess 

XtbJ? (arfaga (eg.) a mess 

tfjoj* tardus 2 Tartus (small coastal town in 
Syria, medieval Tortosa) 

"<^J^J» tartufa end, tip, point; Jerusalem 
artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. ; 
hot.); truffle 

jbje tarpir tartar, wine stone 

CsJ* tarafa i (tarf) to blink, twinkle, wink, 
squint (also «tJLu bi-'ainaihi); — tarufa u 
(4*1^ fardfa) to be newly acquired, be a 
recent acquisition IV to feature or tell 
s.th. new or novel, say s.th. new or 
original, introduce a novel angle or 
idea; to present (« s.o. <_j with s.th. 
new or novel), give (• to s.o. ^ s.th. 
new or novel) V to be on the extreme 
side, hold an extreme viewpoint or 
position, go to extremes, be radical, have 
radical views X to value as rare, original, 
unusual (a s.th.) 



J>J?tarf eye; glance, look | iJ>^ jLil L 
(a$ara) he didn't bat an eye; J*J* ^ 
^ {kafiy) secretly, furtively, discreetly; 
J»Ja}\ jIjJjIT ka-rtidddi 14. in the twin- 
kling of an eye, instantly 

J*J? taraf pi. J»\Js>\ atraf utmost part, 
outermost point, extremity, end, tip, 
point, edge, fringe, limit, border; side; 
region, area, section; j-. J»J* a part of, 
a bit of, some; party (as, to a dispute, of 
a contract, etc.); tarafa (prep.) with, at, 
on the part or side of; pi. J>\Je>\ limbs, 
extremities; (with foil, genit.) sections of, 
parts of I J»UJJI uj* corner or tag of a cov. 
er; uLJJl J>J& tip of the tongue; jl^l j^> 
tarafayi n-nahdr in the morning and in the 
evening, mornings and evenings; J* IjjS* 
cr^ jj* (tarafai naqxdin) they were at 
variance, they carried on a feud; »Ulj <jtf 
u^ Sj* J* (wa-iyydhu) they held dia- 
metrically opposed views or positions; 
ojJ\ J*\J»\ a. al-badan the extremities of 
the body, the limbs; *jU»VI J»[^\ finger- 
tips; <u*4i J)\J*\ Jc (a. qadamaihi) on tip- 
toe; oaII tJsi^UI a. al-madina the out- 
skirts of the city; eJlSUxi! <J»y»V' (m# 
*dqida) the contracting parties ; 9 Ijjjl J* I^Ll 
the contending parties; J»Jaj with, at, on 
the part or side of; J^L ^ on the part 
of; J>J? J I JaJ? ^ from one end to the 
other; {juj\ JsJ* v[>-' the right-wing 
parties; dj-UJ J*\J»\ v^W" jddaba atrdfa 
l-h. to talk, converse, have a conversation; 
l|i[^l ij* 4^ijJl £** (bara'ata) to be a 
highly efficient man, be highly qualified; 
^1 J»\Ja\ ^ to give a survey or outline 
of s.th., summarize, sum up s.th.; «uU ^a 
£\->- J* (l»y»l) iy» to tell s.o. an episode 
(episodes) of one's life; dolji-l Jjl^LI epi- 
sodic events, experiences at the margin 
of events; l^il^l j* ^jVi ^-iij {yanqum) 
(God) will reduce the country's bound- 
aries, i.e., will diminish its power 

jjii\ J*J? taraf al-gaur Trafalgar (cape, 
SW Spain) 



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^J* tarafl being at the outermost ex- 
tremity, standing out, projecting, pro- 
minent 

45^ farfa: <>p ^^ bi-f* *ainin and 
<>p 43 Ja J in the twinkling of an eye, 
instantly ; ,>p 4>J* — U (tarfata) not one 
moment 

43 J* turf a pi. JsJ* ft*ra/ novelty, 
rarity, curiosity, curio, rare object, 
choice item; exquisite present; master- 
piece, chef-d'oeuvre; hit, high light, 
piece de resistance 

*\jjk> tarfa? 2 (coll.; n. un. S) tamarisk 
{boU) 

CvJ&tyrij curious, strange, odd : novel, 
exquisite, singular, rare, uncommon 

thji* tarlfa pi. Jm\Js> taraif 2 rare, 
exquisite thing; uncommon object or 
piece (e.g., of art); pL Cn*i\J» curiosities, 
oddities, uncommon qualities 

«IJ» tardfa novelty, uncommonneas, 
peculiarity, oddness, strangeness, curi- 
osity, originality; unusual new manner 

J>J*\ atrap more curious or peculiar 

oj^kl utrufa {Syr,) rare, exquisite work 
of art | \j*£ "*3jjb\ {si'rlya) a masterpiece 
of poetry 

(Jijk. mitraf, mutraf shawl 

C>J&> tatarruf excess, excessiveness, 
immoderation, extravagance; extremism, 
extreme standpoint or position, radical 
attitude, radicalism 

J»jLL« tarif newly acquired 

otjku mutatarrif utmost, outmost, 
farthest outward, located at the outer- 
most point; extreme, extremistic ; radical; 
an extremist, a radical | "**J*>z* <^rr (jiha) 
outlying district, outskirt(s) 

OjkL*. mustatraf considered as being 



unusual, exquisite, unique, prized as a 
valuable rarity 

3J& taraqa u {tarq) to knock, rap, bang (a 
at, on, esp. at a door) ; to hammer, strike 
with a hammer, forge (a s.th., esp. 
metal); to come over s.o. (a), befall 
(^j s.o.; of a feeling); to come («, a to, 
upon; also of events); to reach (a s.th.), 
get to s.th. (a), get as far as s.th. (a); to 
come by night | *jM 3J& (udunahu) to 
strike s.o.'s ear, reach s.o.'s ear; 4Li 3}» 
{bi-bdlihi) to occur to s.o., come to 
s.o.'s mind; «uj*i (J 3J* (dihnihi) do.; 
<ur" 3J& (sam'ahu) and 4jmL~» 3J* to 
reach s.o.'s ear, come to s.o.'s knowl- 
edge or attention; Uj^L* 3J* to tread, 
travel, follow, take, or use a road; 3 J* 
\js.}~aj* to treat of a subject, discuss a 
topic; to broach a subject, touch on 
a theme II to hammer, strike with a 
hammer, forge, extend (a s.th., esp. 
metal) IV to bow one's head in silence | 
<u-Ij (3^1 (ra'safiu) or <*-ly to bow 
one's head; J>j^\ J I <u«^ 3J*\ (bi-jis* 
mikl, ard) to bend one's body toward the 
ground, bow down deeply V to seek to 
gain access (Jf to); to penetrate (Jl s.th. 
or into s.th.) ; to get ( Jl to), reach ( Jl s.th.), 
arrive (Jl at); to find access (Jl to); to 
win influence (Jl over); (in a speech, and 
the like) to touch (Jl on a subject), go 
into s.th. (Jl), treat of s.th. (Jl) | 3j^i V 
^iJU Ol (sakkun) it is not open to doubt, 
it admits of no doubt 

~&J& tarqa (n. vie.) pi. taraqdt knock, 
rap(ping), bang(ing) (e.g., at a door); 
blow; one time ( — "*j*), friij* tarqatain 
twice 

"tljfi turqa pi. turuqdt way, road; passage, 
passageway, alleyway; corridor 

3lJ* tarlq m. and f., pi. 3 J* turuq, 
£j\ijk> turuqdt way; road; highway; trail, 
track, path; method ] j^l 3iJ* P- al~ 



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654 



jaww air route; j>*J\ &J? t, al-bahr sea 
route; tS ^j 01J& (ra'isi) main road; Jjji» 
pU (dmm) public road, highway, thor- 
oughfare; "<z*jf 3iJ* Cumiimiya) do,; ^ 
&J& by way of, via; by means of, 
through; jl\ Jj^L ^ (t. il-jaww) by air; 
,jlj* Jr* by means of, through; ^-U 
J^Ul wanderer, wayfarer; Jj^I aWU 
pi. (i^kil plkS quttd* al-t. highwayman, 
waylayer, brigand; ^^i 4*3 to commit 
highway robbery; <vuj* J j5~ to have 
sense, be sensible or normal; J I <uj^ <j 
on his way to . . .; Sj^JI Jjj^ £. al-'auda 
the way back 

iij^ tariqa pi. <j£^ paraiq 2 , 3 J* 
turuq manner, mode, means; way, 
method, procedure; system; creed, faith, 
religion; (pi. -at, 3 J* turuq) religious 
brotherhood, dervish order | <^ij^ 
Jl e »oVI directions for use; ii-**JI 3 J? t. al- 
baht research methods; oL-JI 3 J* t. as- 
sa'dda paths to happiness 

j^k turuql pi. -un adherent of a 
religious brotherhood 

3 Jo* mttraq and **Ja* mitraqa pi. 3j LU. 
matdriq 2 hammer 

Jl^ki mitrdq versatile, many-sided, of 
varied skills or talents 

ialjLI itrdqa (n. vie.) a bowing of the 
head 

JiJazJ istitrdq transit permission, free 
passage or entry 

JjU* tdriq pi. Jl^k furrdg knocking, 
rapping, banging, striking, beating; noc- 
turnal visitor 

iSjU* tariqa pi. Jjjl_jl» tawdriq 2 mis- 
fortune, disaster, calamity 

JjljUl at-tawariq the Tuareg (Berber 
tribe) 

JjJ** viatruq much-frequented, much- 
traveled, well-trodden {road, trail, path) | 



3jJoa ?_y*y> a much-discussed, fre- 
quently treated subject; asjJ** jc& (nub 
ta) an oft-told, well-beloved joke 



(5jit* mutriq 
bowed head 



and ^Tjl 3Jk* with 



*ij? tarqa'a (eg.) to crack (intr., also trans.: 
<_-> or * s.th., e.g., a whip); to crack, 
crunch (a s.th.) 

4jSjb tarqa r a (eg.) crack, smack 

i.jlL tdrima pi. -at kioak, booth, cabin, 
stall 

VlA turumba pi. -at pump 

(jj? and ^J?) j J? taruwa u y 4^* tariya a 
{oj\Je> tardwa) to be or become fresh, 
succulent, moist, tender, soft, mild II to 
make fresh, succulent, moist, tender, 
soft, mild (a s.th.); to moisten, wet 
(a s.th.); to perfume, scent {a s.th.) IV to 
praise (highly), extol, laud ( s.o.), lavish 
praise (* on s.o.) 

^J* parly fresh, succulent, new; 
moist; young and delicate (e.g., plant, 
girl) ; tender, soft, mild 

lj\J* tardwa freshness, succulence, 
moistness; tenderness, softness, mild- 
ness I jU:l ij\Jt, t. al-kulq gentleness; 
softness of character 

<lj*\ itriya vermicelli 

*\J*\ itrd' (high) commendation, praise, 
laudation, extolment 

•*\jj» tirwdda 2 (from Fr. Troade) Troy 

^ jli* tdzaj look up alphabetically 

jJ> (Turk, tozluk) tuzluq pi. jJI> tazdlif 
gaiter{s), legging(s) 

«Jll> tdza look up alphabetically 



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ij^W (It. dozzina) pi. ojljU tazdzin 2 dozen 

C— i» tosi, iisf pi. Oj-J? tusut = c-U? 

cJLk ta&, tist pi. C^JLk £u£ut large metal basin 
or tub (for washing clothes or kneading 
dough) 



tasqand 2 Tashkent (capital of Uzbek 
S.S.R.) 

jLaJ* taslaqa (eg.) to do inaccurately, perform 
sloppily, bungle, botch, scamp (a a job, 
work) 

UJLiU taslaqa inaccurate, sloppy, or 
slipshod work 

*aL» faHma a (ta'm) to eat (a s.th.); to taste 
(a s.th.); to relish, enjoy, savor (a s.th.} 
II to graft, engraft (a s.th.); to inoculate, 
vaccinate ((-» e s.o. with); to inlay (<-> a 
s.th. with, e.g., wood with ivory) IV to 
feed, give to eat (a * s.o. s.th.), nourish 
(a e s.o. with), serve food or drink (a) 
to s.o. (*) ; to have s.o. (») taste, relish or 
enjoy (a s.th.) | 9j>- & <w*U (ju f ) to ap- 
pease s.o.'s hunger V to taste (a s.th.); 
(eg.) to be inoculated or vaccinated X to 
taste (a s.th.); to ask for food 

**k ta'm pi. c^*L» fu'um taste, flavor, 
savor; pleasing flavor, relish 

Aj**L» ta'mlya (eg.) a dish made of broad 
beans pounded to a paste, mixed with 
garlic, parsley, leeks, etc., and fried as 
croquettes in boiling oil 

**1? tu'm graft, cion; bait, lure, decoy; 
(pi. p*L tu'um) vaccine | ~*UI 4tj>- jur' at 
at-t. oral vaccination (med.) 

**L» ta'im tasty, savory, delicious 

<u*k fa'ma pi. **t» tuam food; bait; 
quarry, catch, bag | a\jd\ 2**L» <gy**\ 
a?baka tu'mata n-nirdn to be destroyed 



by fire; v^"' r?^ *-**k (li-madafi'i 
l-harb) cannon fodder 

pU* ta'dm pi. 4**ki at'ima food, 
nourishment, nutriment, fare, diet; meal, 
repast | pUUI je- Vjr^' (adraba) to go on 
a hunger strike 

**k. mat' am pi. ^lk* matd r im 2 eating 
house, restaurant; dining room; mess, 
messhall (on a ship) ; food | u**iJl **^» w. 
as-Sa'b and < _ ? *^ ~*k« soup kitchen 

-jJaJ tafim inoculation, vaccination; 
grafting (ktf.); rejuvenation, regeneration 
(by taking in new elements) ; inlay work | 
iJ^iJl ^L5 Z. al-qarniya transplantation 
of the cornea (med.); x^U ol^i $ahadat 
t. inoculation certificate 

aIa!»1 jfom feeding 

C^j^U. mafum tasted; already known 

l y&> ta'ana u a (ta'n) to thrust, pierce, 
transfix (^ a, * s.o., s.th. with); to stab 
(o s.o.); to defame, discredit, hurt (with 
words; Jp or j s.o., s.th.), speak 
evil (Jp or J of); to contest, challenge, 
impeach (C- j a judgment), appeal 
(£>- J against a judgment); to refute, 
disprove (j s.th.); to penetrate, enter 
(J s.th. or into s.th.) | i yJ\ J t y^ (sinn) 
to be advanced in years, be old; j^ 
Jy J (qaul) to refute a (theological) doc- 
trine VI to thrust each other; to attack 
each other, battle one another 

j»U ta'n pi. bjAfi tu'un piercing, trans- 
fixion; attack, accusation; criticism; de- 
famation; appeal ( j against; jur.); chal- 
lenge, contestation, impeachment ( j of ; 
jur.) 

<A> fa'na (n. vie.) pi. ta'anat stab, 
thrust; attack; defamation, vilification 

jj*U» td'un pi. ,> p L*k tawd'ln 2 plague, 
pestilence | J^-iJ! jj^LUI (dummalt) bu- 
bonic plague; (jj^JI u^lUJI [baqari) and 



t 



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*-iUJ o^U» t. al-mdsiya rinderpest, cattle 
plague, steppe murrain 

^Usu mata'in 2 (pi.) invectives, abuses 
(J against s.o.) 

^U* td F in and j-Jl J jplk (si?m) 
aged, old, advanced in years | i^LL» ilL-j 
lampoon 

Uj«l*» mafun plague-infected, plague- 
Btricken 

x jUi* an Iraqi weight equaling 2000 kg, in 
Basra 1537 kg 

2 *\j&> tugrd' 2 pi. -o£ tughra, caligraphically 
intricate signature of the Ottoman 
Sultan, interwoven with his father's 
name and his own honorific, customarily 
used on written decrees, state documents 
and coins 

t^jib tugrd = *\ja* tugrd' 2 

pUk tagam common people, populace; low- 
ly, insignificant 

<*aL tugma, tagma pi. -at band, troop, 
group 

(j& and j jb) Uk taga u and ( yL toga a (tagy) 
and tagiya a (^jb lagan, oLil» tugyan) to 
exceed proper bounds, overstep the 
bounds, be excessive; to be rough, 
tumultuous, rage (sea); to overflow, 
leave its banks (river) ; to flood, overflow, 
inundate, deluge (Jp s.th.); to overcome, 
seize, grip, befall (J* s.o.); to be ty- 
rannical or cruel (Jp against s.o.), 
tyrannize, oppress, terrorize (Jp s.o.), 
ride roughshod (Jp over s.o.); — ^ 
taga a to predominate, prevail, pre- 
ponderate (Jp in, at), dominate, out- 
weigh, outbalance (Jp s.th.), be pre- 
ponderant (Jp over, in comparison with 
s.th.) IV to mislead into wantonness, lead 



to immoderateness, recklessness; to make 
(4 s.o.) tyrannical, cruel 

jljiL tugwdn flood, inundation, del- 
uge 

uLiL tugyan flood, inundation, deluge; 
tyranny, oppression, suppression, re- 
pression, terrorization 

jU» fagin pi. 5UL \ugah tyrant, oppres- 
sor, despot 

ijpU* tagiya tyrant, oppressor, despot; 
bully, brute, gorilla 

o>p11# tdgut pi. C~j-\J& tawdgit 2 an idol, a false 
god; seducer, tempter (to error), Satan 

<_il» II to make deficient or scanty (a s.th.); 
to be niggardly, stingy ( Jp toward s.o.), 
stint ( Jp s.o.) 

^Jt-ik taflf deficient; small, little, slight, 
trivial, trifling, insignificant, inconsider- 
able 

i- ' a-a l aj tatfif stinting, scrimping, nig- 
gardliness, stinginess, parsimony 

yU tafi'a a (»jHh tufu') to go out, die down, 
be extinguished (fire, light); to be out, 
have gone out (fire, lamp) IV to put 
out, extinguish, smother, stifle (a a fire), 
turn off", switch off (a light); to quench 
(a fire, thirst), slake (a thirst, also lime) | 
J**JI J <LJ i*i. 3j^\j 4*ji SjJU- liU (jad* 
wata yaumihl wa-ahraqa fahmata lailihi 
fi l-'amal) to work day and night 
VII = * i Jb tafi'a 

□ SjUU taffdya pi. -at, also Jjj*- aA& 
fire extinguisher 

stik. mitfa'a pi. jlk* matdfi' 2 fire- 
fighting equipment, fire extinguisher, fire 
engine | "jliail JU-j the fire department, 
the firemen 

»Utl »t/d' putting out, quenching, 



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extinguishing, extinction, fire fighting | 
Jj^l »UU Jlfjf ;aAaz *, al-harlq fire- 
fighting equipment; »UWV' JUj the fire 
department, the firemen; »UJ»Vi oil/ 
"amaliyat al-i. fire- fighting operations 

jUl»l #/£'* fireman 

yiiUI itfa'iya fire department 

lik. mutfa extinguished, gone out, 
out; mat, dull, flat, lusterless 

£& /a/aAa a ((a/A, ^il» /tt/«A) to flow over, 
run over, overflow (<^> with, also, e.g., 
the heart with generosity, etc.); to 
cause to overflow <lj e.g., the milk) II to 
fill to overflowing, fill to the brim (a a 
el); to overfill (* s.th.) IV = II 



£&> tajh superabundance, repletion; 
skin eruption, rash, exanthema (med.) 

4*ut tafka pi. -at skin eruption, rash, 
exanthema (med.) 

(^ik tajhl eruptive, exanthematic 
{med.) 

^jjb tujuh superabundance, repletion 

3»-l& tufdha skimmings, foam, froth 

oUil* {afhan 2 , f. ^-it tafka flowing 
over, running over, brimful, replete, 
overfull, filled to overflowing 

i»»ik. mitfaha skimmer, skimming 
ladle 

^iLL fafih flowing over, running over, 
brimful, replete, overfull, filled to over- 
flowing 

!A taf ara * (P*M *o jump, leap, bounce; to 
gush forth, spout | l^\j*- £jj& she be- 
came happily excited, she trembled with 

joy 

ijb tafra jump, leap, bounce, bound ; 
impulsive motion, impetuosity; upswing, 
rise, upturn, successful step; tafratan 



(also 3 A*- 1 j »jih) with a single jump, in 
one leap 

Ol_^iL tafran pauper, have-not 

2 D^«i> tajar {— J&) crupper (of the saddle) 

(^jtiU tafasa i (taf&) to run away, flee, escape 
II to ban, expel (* s.o.); to fire, throw out 
(o s.o.) 

J& tafiqa a (tafaq) to start immediately ( j 
with an action); {with foil, imperf.:) do.; 
to do s.th. at once or straightway; to do 
s.th. suddenly 

JiL tafala u (Jjil* tuful) to rise (sun) II to 
intrude, obtrude, impose o.s. (J* upon) 
V do.; to sponge (J* on s.o., <j-U*U J* at 
s.o.'s table), live at other people's ex- 
pense; to live as a parasite (J*, on; also 
biol.) ; to come uninvited, disturb, intrude ; 
to be obtrusive 

Ji!» tafl tender, soft; potter's clay, 
argil 

1UL tafia potter's clay, argil 

JiU tafli clayey ; clay (in compounds) | 
JiL ^ijh (tub) clay bricks 

Ji]» tifi pi. JUU atfal infant, baby, 
child; boy 

iUW tifla little girl; girl 

Jit tifli child (adj.), baby (adj.), 
children's, of or pertaining to childhood 
or infancy; infantile, childlike, childish | 

JiUI v UJi (tibb) pediatrics 

Jil» tafal infancy, babyhood, early 
childhood; childhood, childhood stage 

JUU pufdl potter's clay; argil; clay, 
loam 

<JUJ* tafala infancy, babyhood, early 
childhood; childhood, childhood stage; 



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658 



initial stage, beginnings, dawn, early 
period 

"4yb tujula infancy, babyhood, early 
childhood; childhood, childhood stage; 
children 

y_jii> tujuliya infancy, babyhood, 
early childhood; childhood, childhood 
stage 

J^il* tujull child (adj.), baby (adj.), 
children's, of or pertaining to childhood 
or infancy; infantile, childlike, childish 

J-ik tufaill uninvited guest, intruder, 
obtruder, sponger, hanger-on, parasite, 
sycophant; sycophantic, parasitic; pi. 
tiiULtU parasites (med., biol.) | oLLiiall ^ 
Him at-t. parasitology 

JikJ tatafful parasitism, parasitic life 

Jiku mutataffil parasitic(al) ; paravsite, 
sponger, uninvited guest 

(yb) UU tafa u (y&> tafw, tufuw) to float (on 
the surface of a fluid), drift; to emerge, 
rise to the surface; to overflow (J* s.th.) [ 
«kJI J I 4j Uk ($t#) to bring s.th. to the 
surface 

yliU tufdwa anything drifting or 
floating, driftage, floatage, flotsam; halo 
(around the sun or moon) 

Jslk tdfin floating, drifting; superficial 

ILill* tafiya floating iceberg 

p !uL& paffaya see •£> 

jt \aqqa u ($aqq) to crack, pop; to clack, 
smack, flap; to burst, explode 

tJ Jb II to introduce into one of the orders 
of the ministry (Chr.) V to perform a 
rite, follow a ritual 



^jJb tags weather; climate; 



(pi. 



Lyjjh $uqu$) rite, ritual; religious custom; 
order of the ministry, clerical rank (Ckr.\ 

lS ^ taqsi liturgical; liturgist {Chr.); 
oL-JiiaJl at-faqsiyat the liturgical books 
(Chr.) 

jkai* taqtaqa to rattle (e.g., gunfire, motor, 
car) ; to creak (floor) ; to crackle, make a 
crackling sound 

5.ftk& taqtaqa rattle; crackle, crackling 
sound 

4i^& taqtuqa pi. J^kUk taqdilq 2 (eg.) 
low round wooden table; ashtray; short 
popular song 

~& II to harness, bridle (a a horse) 

*& taqm pi. fyb tuqum t i-jlk tuqiima, 
~JiU atqum a number of complementary 
objects or things; series; suit (of clothes); 
set (of tools, and the like); harness (of 
a horse); service (e.g., of china, etc.) | 
jL^I *Jal» denture, set of teeth; J& 
^LiJI tea service; «>$iJi p-iL t. al-qahm 
coffee service 

JLL taqim = taqm ; crew (of a ship) | 
<JU— *yi ili» denture, set of teeth 

Jk falla u (tall) to bespray, besprinkle, be- 
drizzlc, bedew (a s.th,, esp. the sky — 
the earth); — talla u to emerge, rise, 
loom up, come into view, appear, show 
IV to look down (Jp upon), tower (J* 
above, over a town, etc.), rise (J* above), 
command a view of s.th. (J*), overlook, 
survey (Jp s.th.); to command, dominate, 
overtop (Jp s.th., e.g., the surrounding 
area); (of a room, window, etc.) to open 
(Jp upon, to, toward), give (Jp on), face 
( Jp toward) ; to look out, peek out, peep 
out (> of s.th., Jp onto s.th.); to appear, 
show 

JJ» fall pi. J^i* tilal dew; fine rain, 
drizzle 



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JJLU £aZa£ pi. (J^l a#aZ, JJLJ» fufr/Z, used 
chiefly in the pi.: remains, ruins (of 
houses); remains, or traces, of an 
abandoned encampment 

Jjik* maflul: JjiL*» /o (dam) unavenged 
blood 

t-il? talaba u (talab, ^-ik* maplab) to look, 
search (a, a for s.o., for s.th.); to set 
out (a for a place), get on one's way (a 
to), go to see (a, o s.o., s.th.); to request 
(a s.th.), apply (a for); to seek, try to 
obtain, claim (y a s.th. from), ask, beg 
(a j>* s.o. for); to demand, exact, require 
(a Jl of s.o. s.th.); to want, wish (^ a 
s.th. from; Jl s.o. Ol to do s.th.); to 
call (Jl upon s.o.), appeal (Jt to s.o.), 
invite, request, entreat, beseech (Jl 



s.o.); to order, demand (j 



}.th. 



from), call (a for s.th., j* from), call in 
{a s.th., (j- from); to be after s.o. or 
s.th. (a, *); to study III to demand back, 
reclaim (oj or a c from s.o. s.th,), call 
for the return or restitution of s.th. (<_-» 
or a), demand, claim (<-j or a » from 
s.o. s.th.); to demand, claim (^ s.th.) 
V to require, necessitate, make necessary 
or requisite (a s.th.) "VH pass, of I 

*_il* talab search, quest, pursuit; — • 
(pi. -at) demand, claim, call (for), in- 
vitation (to), solicitation, wish, desire, 
request, entreaty; application, petition; 
order, commission; demand (com.); study 
| 4Ji» c-d at s.o.'s disposal; •.-JLUJl x* and 
i^iLJI (^jJ on demand, by request, if 
desired, on application; O «-«lL)1 L*J- 
li-kini t-t. at sight (com.); tJLUjj o*j^ 
('or^) supply and demand; LJ1 lJU» t. 
al- r ilm quest of knowledge, craving for 
knowledge, studiousness ; iJiiJI *A* «_-~Li* 
/. r adam at4iqa motion of "no confi- 
dence" (pari.); oUUI J~-»>j filling, carry- 
ing out or execution of orders (com.); 
AfU-^ji Ja u-ikll (muntajatihim) the 
demand for their products; u-JJaJl *ui* ax-Sl 



(iStadda) there was a big demand for it 
(a product, an article) 

UJ* palba litany, prayer (Chr.) 

<Ji«> faliba, tiJha desire, wish, request, 
demand; application 

4-J^ talabiya pi. -at order, commission 
(com.) 

i_j^A1» tallab exacting, persistently claim- 
ing or demanding 

<_JLk* matlab search, quest, pursuit; 
— (pi. t_Jlk* matalib*) demand, call (for); 
request, wish; claim; problem, issue; pl.- 
uJlk. (claims of the government =) 
taxes 

SJlk* mutdlaba demand; call, appeal 
(with genit. or <-> for); claim (with 
genit. or <_-> to) 

i_JU* tdlib pi. v^ tuUSb, 4-U* $alaba 
seeker, pursuer; claimer, claimant; appli- 
cant, petitioner; candidate; student, 
scholar, also U\ ^J\^ t. aVilm; (high 
school) student; cadet (mil.) | \j£- t ^U" 
p. bahriya naval cadet; a^^- wJU* £. har* 
blya cadet, officer candidate (mil.); <->'$* 
oU-U-l petitioners; ^IjjJl <-JU» $• a&- 
zawdj suitor 

^J U» talibl student's, student- (in 
compounds), of or pertaining to studies 
or students 

ti>U» tullahl students', student (in com- 
pounds) | *~f& Cj\i}j^\ (idrabat) student 
strikes 

^^jlk. matlub wanted (in classified ads) ; 
required (J for); requirement; due, owed 
(money) ; unknown (of a quantity; math.); 
(pi. v^^ 4 -* inatalib 2 ) wish, desire; pi. 
objik. liabilities, debts; pi. 4-JUa* 
claims 

<_JUsw mutalib claimer, claimant; — 
mutalab one of whom s.th. or s.o. (<~>) 



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is demanded, one accountable (<-* for), 
held answerable (^ for) 

oUiku mutapallabdt requirements 

^Ji» palaha u (£>& paldh) to be or become 
bad, evil, wicked, vicious, depraved 

£& path (coll. ; n. un. S) pi. ^1U JitfciA 
a variety of acacia (Acacia gummifera); 
banana tree; banana 

V»^» palkiya pi. ^^ paldhiy sheet of 
paper 

4»JU» JaftAa (*y.) ream of paper 

pi, pdlih bad, evil, wicked, vicious, 
depraved, villainous 

1 Lr ik palasa i (pah) to efface, obliterate, blot 
out (a s.th., esp. writing) 

(j-ik pals effacement, obliteration 

^^it ^7s effaced, obliterated, blotted 
out (inscription); illegible 

<-*^U talldsa pi. -of erasing rag, wiping 
rag 

a (-r iLI atlas* satin; (pi. ^JLLI ct^iV) at i a9( 
volume of geographical maps; ,jJLVl, 
^rU^i JL>- Atlas Mountains 

{S JL\ atfcwfi Atlantic (adj.); ^JIUVI the 
Atlantic | ^-ltVI i_iU- hilf al-a. and 
^JLUNI JU-I the Atlantic Pact, NATO 
Pact 

^LiU talasdna (eg.) coping (arch.) 

2 JLii» pailasdn pi. <J\J? taydlisa look up 
alphabetically 

jf-ik pilasm, pillasm pi. -a£, —■:>&. tald&im 2 
talisman, a seal, or the like, inscribed 
with mysterious words or characters; 
charm, magical combination of words; 
pi. f'dL cryptic characters 



ilk-lt look up alphabetically 

£& pala'a u (j^lL *«?«', ^L. mapla') to rise, 
ascend, come up (esp. of celestial bodies); 
to come into view, appear, show, become 
visible; to erupt (tooth), come up, 
sprout, break forth (plant); to go out, 
get out, come out, emerge (^ from); to 
come suddenly (J* upon s.o. or s.th.), 
overtake (J* s.o., s.th.); ^ Up ^ to 
take or bring to s.o. s.th. ; — pala'a a u 
({jU* pulu*) and pali'a a to mount, 
ascend, climb, scale (a s.th.); to get (* 
on top of s.th., aboard s.th., into an 
automobile, on a train, etc.), board (* 
a train, etc.) Jjl^JI 4-1* ^U* J (nahdr) the 
day will not again break over him, i.e., 
he will no longer be alive in the morning 
III to read, peruse (a s.th.); to study (* 
s.th.); to look (a at s.th.), inspect, view 
(a s.th.) ; to acquaint (» s.o., ^ with), make 
clear, elucidate, explain, expound, dis- 
close (<-> t> to s.o. s.th.), give an insight (<-* * 
to s.o. into), let s.o. («) in on s.th. (<y);to 
appear, show up, emerge (« before s.o.), 
to confront (» s.o.); to shine (a on s.th.; 
of the sun) | ... JU* (imp.) see ...! 
(Tun., Alg.) IV to erupt (tooth), come 
up, sprout, break forth (plant); to ac- 
quaint (Jp » s.o. with); to inform (• s.o., 
> or Jp of or about), apprise, notify 
(jp or Jp » s.o. of), let s.o. ( c ) know (J* 
s.th. or about s.th,), tell ( Jp * s.o. about); 
to demonstrate, point out, disclose, 
reveal, show (Jp * to s.o. s.th.); to give 
an insight ( Jp « to s.o. into), let s.o. (•) 
in on s.th. (Jp) V to have an eye on 
s.th. (Jl), wait, look out (Jl for); to 
watch (Jl for); to strive, be out (Jl for), 
be bent (Jl on), aspire, reach up (Jl for 
s.th.); to look (Jl at s.o.), regard (Jl s.o.); 
(eg.) to look attentively or closely, gaze, 
stare (J at) | JpVI Jl ^JLLj (a'la) to strive 
for higher things, strive upward VIII to 
look; to see, behold, view (Jp s.th.); 
to study, come to know (Jp s.th.), be- 



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come acquainted (Jp with), become 
aware or cognizant (Jp of), obtain 
information (Jp about), be informed 
(Jp of); to inspect, examine (Jp s.th.), 
look into s.th. (Jp); to know (Jp s.th. 
or of s.th.), be aware, be cognizant (Jp 
of); to be (well) informed (Jp about), 
have (inside) information (Jp of), be 
(thoroughly) acquainted (Jp with), be 
privy (Jp to), be in on s.th. (J*); to 
find out, discover, detect (Jp s.th.) 
X to seek to discover, explore, scout, 
reconnoiter (a s.th.); to inquire (a 
about s.th.); to arouse curiosity ( e in 
s.o.) | 4j1j 4*iiaiwl (rayahu) to consult 
s.o., ask s.o.'s advice or opinion; JLL^J 
ojvi- (kabarahu) to seek information 
about s.o. or s.th. 

«ik JaZ f (also coll.) spadix or inflo- 
rescence of the palm tree; pollen 

4«dl» \aVa look(s), appearance, aspect, 
outward appearance, guise 

4*Lt \ulcCa inquisitive, nosy, curious 

£)U» £aZZa r striving, aspiring | f- *>U» 
A^Vlj UUill {tanaydy anjvd) efficient, 
energetic, vigorous; o^ll Jl f *>^ (to r ar* 
rw/) curious, eager for news 

f-jlL fatJiT rising, going up, ascending, 
ascension; rise (esp. of celestial bodies); 
appearance; climbing, ascent (of a 
mountain) 

4*J1> tali a pi. aj^AU fatiPi'* front row, 
foremost rank, vanguard; avant-garde; 
pi. harbingers, precursors, presages, por- 
tents, first indications, symptoms; be- 
ginnings; 4*ikli the younger generation, 
youth | 4*JiaJl j in front, at the head, 
in the lead 

^yuil* taWl avant-gardistic 

jo"^ talaH'i avant-gardistic 

*ik» matla* pi. J Ik. matdli' 2 rise, 



time of rising (of celestial bodies) ; point 
of ascent; starting point, point of de- 
parture; break (e.g., of day), dawn 
(e.g., of an era); onset, outset, start, 
beginning; introduction, preface, proem; 
opening verses (of a poem); prelude; 
lookout; ladder, steps, stairs | ^Jlk. j 
olxJLJl [m. as-sittindt) at the beginning 
of the sixties 

LJLk. mut&Wa reading, perusal, stud- 
y; (pi. ~dt) (official) announcement | 
iJUail 4pU reading room, study hall 

*LL? tatallu* striving, aspiration, en- 
deavor, aim; inquisitiveness, curiosity; 
pi. oUUij expectations, endeavors, aspira- 
tions 

£AUI ittiW study, examination, insight, 
inspection; perusal; (pi. -at) information, 
intelligence, knowledge; notice, cogni- 
zance; acquaintance, conversance, famili- 
arity 

p^Lx*-i istitW study, research, investi- 
gation, probing; scouting, reconnoitering, 
reconnaissance; (journalistic) research or 
investigation, determining the facts of a 
case; exploration; suspense (in antics 
pation of s.th.) | pMai-Vl »_-*- hubb al-ist. 
inquisitiveness, curiosity; f-pAJai-lM J L»- 
(hubban) out of curiosity; gj*? f^kL*i 
(jawwi) aerial reconnaissance; v% 
9-">Ua^-VI reconnaissance plane 

(J c.'$\ai*>\ istitWl research-, study- (in 
compounds), explorational, exploratory, 
fact-finding; scout-, reconnaissance- (in 
compounds) j ILoUa^-l J I/ 1 1 intelligence 
work, spying activities; a-p^L^-I ^IjjU- 
(muhddatdt) exploratory talks 

«JIU tdW pi. *JIJ» tawdli' 2 rising, 
ascending (esp. a celestial body); star of 
destiny; ascendant, nativity | *JU«JI £«*• 
htcsn at-t. good fortune, lucky star, good 
luck; ^JIU !J— i- luckily for me, fortu- 
nately; JIUI *<£*> sayyi 3 at-t- ill-starred, 



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ill-fated, unfortunate, unlucky; hapless 
person; JUaJI *#* misfortune, bad luck; 
-uJLU *U- (tdlVuhu) he fell on evil days, 
he met with ill fortune; JUaJI JJ-I (jil) 
the rising generation 

!UJU» tali a outset, beginning, start 

Jlk« mutdli* reader 

Uku mutatalW curious, eager, waiting 
(Jl for) 

*lk» muttaW viewer, observer; in- 
formed (Jp about, of), acquainted, fa- 
miliar (Jp with), cognizant (Jp of), 
privy (Jp to) | Uk. jJLa. (masdar) a well- 
informed source 



jit taluqa u (i-hAt taldqa) to be cheerful, 
jovial, happy (face, countenance); — 
talaqat u, taluqat u (JbU* taldq) to be 
divorced, get a divorce (said of a woman) ; 
— pass, tuliqat (jit talq) to be in labor 
II to set loose, release, set free, let go (*, 
a s.o., s.th.); to leave, forsake (a, « s.o., 
s.th.); to repudiate, divorce (<&>-jj zau* 
jatahu one's wife); to grant a divorce 
decree ( Jp against a woman; said of the 
judge) | l4*Ju juilL (nafsahd) she dis- 
solved her marriage, got a divorce; cJilt 
<uU (tulliqat) she was granted a divorce 
from him {by judicial decree) IY to 
undo, loose, disengage (a s.th.); to free, 
set free (a, » s.o., s.th,, also chem.), 
release, set at liberty, let go, let off, set 
loose (a, « s.o., s.th.) ; to send out, dis- 
patch (a, * s.o., s.th.); to discharge (* 
a firearm), fire (a s.th., J* at), shoot 
(J* at); to utter, emit (a a sound); to 
let burst forth {a laughter); to repudiate, 
divorce (<c»-jj zaujatahu one's wife); to 
generalize (a s.th.); to apply (a s.th., e.g., 
an expression, a designation, Jp to) | jlLI 

. .. ~*l «uip (isma) to name or call s.th , 

designate s.th. as...; Jp jlk (yutlaqu) 
it has (absolute) validity for..., it 



applies to...; <-»jUJl Jp JJ-1 jitl (AoMa) 
to give free rein, impose no restraints, 
let things take their course; j- \jj>- jlU 
LjJLap (harbcm) to unleash a war; »ljjJI jlU 
-ok (dawau batnahu) the medicine 
loosened his bowels; J* ^U^l jit! 
(rasasa) to fire, shoot at; Jl «tJU-j jlLI 
4 Jl (rijlaiki, rlh) to run away head over 
heels, to beat it; £j\ <tJU jiU («dgfotA») 
to run away head over heels, dash off 
like the wind, to bolt; SjIjV! jlU to 
give a free hand (J to s.o. j in s.th. or 
to do s.th.); <tLy jit! to release s.o., 
set s.o. free, let s.o. go; «J^*I J^aJI jU»I 
(li-'abratihi) to let one's tears flow freely; 
4>.i^ (jJLLi (sardhahu) to set s.o. at 
liberty, free s.o., release s.o. (from jail 
or custody); Jp ^ IfJi jJLUI to shoot arrows 
at s.th.; a} jLJ! jit I to give free rein 
to s.o. or s.th., give vent to s.th.; jil»1 
iilt (talqatan) to fire a shot; <cJ- jiW (HA= 
yatahu) to let one's beard grow; «uU jlW 
UJLi U*>U»I tJ to indulge in defamatory 
remarks about s.o., backbite s.o.; jlLI 
l_j *^Za-JI (alsinatahum) to incite s.o., 
e.g., a crowd, the mob (to boisterous 
demonstrations, emotional outbursts, and 
the like) ; Jp <~Ju jiLI (nafsahu) to let o.s. 
go, give free rein to one's feelings in; 
l^f Jp u Jc}\ jil»l (nafsa, sajlyatihd) he 
gave free rein to his instincts; Jp jbJI jltl 
to open fire on, fire or shoot at; jbJI jiU 
j to set fire to, set s.th. on fire; o\jc}\ jil»l 
(nirdn) to fire shots; ^-> »Aj jit I (yadahu) 
to be openhanded with, bestow s.th. 
lavishly; (J) j oJU jlLI to give s.o. a 
free hand {in, to do s.th.), give s.o. 
unlimited authority for; .oUI j *_£»AjI ijUU 
(aidiyakum) they did as they pleased 
with the country, they dealt high, 
handedly with the country V to brighten- 
beam, be radiant (with joy) | lf$*-j jiW 
i*LJuLj (wajhuha bi-btisdma) her face broke 
into a radiant smile VII to be free, be 
loose, be set free (also chem.); to be 



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jit 



emitted, emanate; to race along, sweep 
along, dash along; to hurry, rush (Jl 
to); to be hurled off, be flung away; 
to be discharged, be fired (firearm); to 
explode, go off; to burst forth, burst out, 
ring out (shouts, voices); to take off, 
start off, decamp, depart (^ from); 
to start rolling, move off, pull out (train, 
vehicle) ; to start (sport) ; to get underway, 
pull out (^ from a place, people); to 
begin (j- with); to start {,y from s.th. 
as a point of origin) ; to go away, leave ; 
to go on, proceed on one's way; to go by, 
pass, elapse (hours, years); to brighten, 
beam (face); with cj: to utter s.th. 
(tongue); with foil, imperf.: to start 
immediately with an action, do s.th. at 
once or suddenly; to set out to do s.th.- 1 
tfj? jliail {yajri) he set out in a hurry; 
\*j~* jlkj! (musri'an) he went away 
quickly, rushed away, dashed off; jlkil 
J* 4jLJ (lisdnuhu) to utter words against; 
Htj J^ki' (wajhiihu) his face brightened, 
became cheerful; oL uLeVl j*jikJl he 
started (in his talk) from the conviction 
that ... X <cJaj jlku-1 (batnuhu) he had 
a bowel movement 

jlk talq talc (min.) ; labor pains, travail ; 
free, open, unconfined, unrestrained, un- 
impeded, uninhibited; free (^ from), 
rid (^ of) | Uil jU- talq (tilq, tulq) 
al-muhayya with a happy, cheerful face, 
bright-faced; 4>-jJl jlk talq (Ulq, tulq) 
al-wajh do.; OLJI jlL eloquent; *]^f\ J 
jUJI {kawa") outdoors, in the open, 
under the open sky; j»oJl jik t. al- 
yadain openhanded, liberal, generous 

jlL tilq permissible, admissible 

(jjil* talaq pi. Jj^lUI atlaq run, race, foot 
race; (pi. -at, J^ltl a/Zag) shot (with a 
firearm) | jlkJl *jj- rapid-fire (rifle, 
gun) 

jli» jU Zisarc taHg a facile, fluent 
tongue 



iXLL- foZga, talaqa pi. talaqdt shot | 
SjjIj <aU» do.; ^Uy «11» <. rasas shot; 
round of ammunition 

J^ toMf divorce, talak | ^AtJb J*>d» 
{taldta) definite divorce; ^~j J^M* 
(rafi) revocable (not definite) divorce; 
thAWl v b£~ bill of divorce; J^Wlj J*, to 
swear by all that's holy 

£*& faliq pi. »UiU tulaqa" z freed , 
released, free; freedman; set free (also, 
energy; phys.); nascent (chem.); »UUaJI 
name of those Meccans who remained 
heathen until the surrender of Mecca 

Is^ paldqa ease, relaxedness; un- 
restraint; cheerfulness | uUJll «^U» 
fluency, eloquence; 4>-j}\ «^Us f. al-wajh 
cheerfulness of the face, gaiety 

4iJi» taliqa repudiated or divorced 
woman, divorcee 

4*_ji!» taluqa pi. Jj^k tala'iq 2 stallion 

Jfc&l itlaq freeing, liberation; setting 
loose, releasing, release; dispatch (ing); 
application (Jp to); generalization; UtyW 
itldqan absolutely | J^!»VI J* absolutely, 
unrestrictedly, without exception, in any 
respect, under any circumstances; J^Ll 
J* (j^U-J! (*. ar -rasas) the firing at s.th., 
the shooting of s.o.; ^Ij-Jl J^l t. as-sarah 
release (of s.o.); (jljdi) jbJl Jb*W opening 
of fire, shelling, gunning, cannonade ; <J£j 
jUJl J^lUI wag/ *". an-n. cease fire; J^l 
f*&l release of films (for showing to the 
public) 

jlLS tatalluq radiant cheerfulness 

J^rUaJ! intildq outburst, outbreak, erup- 
tion, explosion, release (e.g., of forces, 
of energies); unrestraint, liberty; depar- 
ture (e.g., of a train, bus) | Jb\kJ^1 «LJiJ 
nuqtat al-int. starting point, point of 
departure 



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4*"idJl intildqa (n. vie.) start, outset 
(for development) 

jJU» fdliq (of a woman) repudiated, 
divorced | b*^J jJlk j> (taldtan) she is 
irrevocably divorced 

jil** mvjlaq free; unlimited, un- 
restricted, absolute; general; Ulk. mi*/* 
Za£<m absolutely, unrestrictedly, with- 
out exception, in any respect, under any 
circumstances | jlkil &-! oli JjAJl (duwal 
dot al-hukm) the authoritarian states; 
^1^1 jik* m. as-sarah free, at large, at 
liberty 

«j>iku mutatalUq cheerful, jovial, happy 
(face) 

jikl* muntalaq pi. -of starting point, 
point of departure (of s.th.) 

<JU« mitlama rolling pin 

<LJ]» pulumba pi. -<K pump 

^■■■♦l U talmasa to frown, scowl, glower, lower 

(jUdLI look up alphabetically 

(jU» and JL) JU /aZa i (taly) to paint, daub 
(uj a s.th. with); to coat, overlay, plate 
(v» a s.th. with) | u-jbUb a Jk (dahab) 
to gild s.th.; *b jr jSOb a J]* (kahrabd*) to 
galvanize, electroplate s.th.; »LuUj a JL 
(mi?wf ) to enamel s.th. VII <dU JkJ i 
iLi-l el* (^Jia) he wouldn't be deceived 
by this ruse, this trick couldn't fool him 

»^ tUa* coating, overlaying, plating; 
coat, covering (e.g., of sugar); (coat of) 
paint; make-up, face paint | >l>^SOl »^LJI 
(Jcahrabd 3 ) galvanization, electroplating; 
yUiVI »^U» t. al-azafir painting, lacquer- 
ing of fingernails; fingernail varnish, 
nail polish (cosm.) 

»^U talla pi. -un plater; electroplater 



JL tally coated, glazed, overlaid with 
a thin surface; smooth, elegant (speech); 
graceful, charming, attractive 

I jib talatoa, tilawa polish; splendor; 
elegance (of speech); beauty, grace, at- 
tractiveness 

uULJt at-talyan (also at-tulydn) and lyM 
at-taldyina (eg.) the Italians 

tiUL talydni (also tulydnl) Italian (adj. 
and n.) 

UL^ tulaitila 2 Toledo (city in Spain) 

Cr& II tatalyana to be Italianized, become 
Italian 

^iL talyana Italianization 

(4* tamma u {tamm, rj*b tumum) to over- 
flow, flood, inundate, deluge, engulf 
(a s.th.) VII pass, of I 

j*J* timm large quantity, huge amount; 
sea | fj\j pWI (rimm) tremendous riches 

iuLL \dmma pi. -at (overwhelming) 
calamity, disaster 

4LLL tumdta tomato 

jJ*U* tamdtim 2 (coll. ; n. un. 3) tomatoes 

uLL tam'ana and j-.U» tamana to calm, 
quiet, pacify, appease, assuage, soothe 
(a, » s.o., s.th.), set s.o.'s mind at rest; 
to fill s.o. (*) with confidence (Jl in), 
reassure (J! » s.o. of or with regard to) 
II jJtaS tatamana = j*L VI; IV oLLI 
itma'anna to remain quietly ( j in a 
place); to come to rest; to be or become 
still, quiet, calm, tranquil, at ease, 
composed, or reassured, feel assured, 
confident, or secure; to be sure, be 
certain (,> or Jl of s.th.); to have con- 
fidence, to trust (Jl in), rely, depend 



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Lr J* 



(Jl on, upon); to make sure (Jp of s.th.), 
reassure o.s. (Jp of or with regard to); 
to find reassurance (Jl in), derive con- 
fidence (Jl from); to ascertain (Jl a fact, 
jl Jl the fact that . . .) 

ijuLi* tuma'nina calm, repose, serenity, 
peace, peacefulness, tranquillity; re- 
assurance, peace of mind, composure, 
calmness, equanimity; trust, confidence 

olx!Ui»l itm%ndn calm, repose, serenity, 
peace, peacefulness, tranquillity; re- 
assurance, peace of mind, composure, 
calmness, equanimity; trust, confidence 

<j£*k. mutmaHnn (of land) low, low- 
lying; calm, quiet, at ease, composed, 
(re)assured, tranquil, serene, peaceable, 
peaceful, safe, secure; sure, certain; 
trusting, confident, of good hope 

~X tamata u and tamita a (tamt) to men- 
struate; — tamata u i (iamt) to deflower 
(U a girl) 



il^X> tamt menstruation; 
menstrual discharge 



menses, 



?**!» tamaha a (r-j^ tumuh) to turn, be 
directed (J! to, toward; of the eye, of 
glances); to aspire (Jl to, after), be bent 
(Jl on), strive, crave, long, yearn ( Jl for), 
covet (Jl s.th.); to take away, remove 
(u» s.th.) 

rjJ* tumuh striving, endeavor, aspi- 
ration, desire, craving, coveting, longing, 
yearning; ambition; high aspirations, 
loftiness of purpose 

7-j*k tamuh high -aiming, high- as pi ring, 
ambitious; craving, covetous, desirous, 
avid, eager 

£-LU tammdh high-aiming, high- aspir- 
ing, ambitious; craving, covetous, de- 
sirous, avid, eager 

£*k. matmah pi. *lk* matdmih 2 object 



of one's longing or striving, (aspired) 
goal, aim, ambition, burning desire 

*U» pdmih high-aiming, high- aspiring; 
longing, yearning, craving, covetous, 
avid, eager 

1 -r *L tamara u i (tamr) to bury, inter, cover 
with earth (a s.th., esp. a corpse); — 
tamata i to cover up (a a thing), fill up 
(a a well) 

j^e> timr pi. jl*i»! atmar old, tattered 
garment, rags, tatters 

jjff timirr fiery steed, race horse 

_ / *k* mitmar plumb line 

jUk. mitmar pi. juMu mafdmir 2 plumb 
line 

jj*Ll* matmur subterranean, under- 
ground | O Cj\jjJA\ ifi f ilm al-matmurdt 
paleontology 

IjjJb* matmura pi. >*lk. matdmir 2 , also 
-at subterranean storehouse for grain, 
underground granary, mattamore 

8 _ / J* II (eg.) to curry(comb), rub down (* 
a horse) 

jUU tumdr (eg.) currycomb 

3 jL.^ tumdr pi. j^\j& tawdmir 2 look up 
alphabetically 

,j~*i» tamasa u i (tarns, ^j^> tumus) to be 
effaced, be obliterated, be erased, be 
wiped out, be blotted out, be destroyed, 
be eradicated; to lose animation, be- 
come lusterless (eye, glance) ; — tamasa i 
(tarns) to efface, obliterate, erase, ex- 
punge, blot out, wipe out, destroy, erad- 
icate (Jp or a s.th.) VII to be effaced, 
be obliterated, be wiped out, be blotted 
out, become extinct 

u ~Jb tarns effacement, obliteration 



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^-IjUjl intimas incomprehensibleness, 
abstruseness 

cr — H» tamis extinct, dead; blurred, in- 
distinct; incomprehensible, abstruse, rec- 
ondite, obscure 

&Lk tumata tomato 

*Mj* tamatim 2 (coll.; n. un. S) tomatoes 

L?yaJe tumtumani barbarous, barbaric, un- 
educated (esp. speech, pronunciation) 

«U» tamVa a (tama f ) to covet, desire (^ 
or J s.th.), wish, crave, strive (<_j or J 
for), aspire (^ or j to, after); to expect 
(<-> s.th., ^ from); to hope ( j for); to be 
ambitious; — tamu r a u (itUi» tamd'a) 
to be covetous, avid, greedy, avaricious 
II to make (o s.o.) desirous (J of), fill 
(e s.o.) with greed (J for); to allure, 
tempt, entice (* s.o.); to give (« s.o.) hope 
(J of), hold out hopes (a to s.o., J of 
s.th.), embolden (« s.o.), encourage (J « 
s.o. to do s.th.) IV = II 

£♦!» tama c pi. 9-1*1*1 atma" greed, 
greediness, avidity, covetousness ; ambi- 
tious desire, ambition; object of desire 

f'UL tamma* avid, greedy, covetous, 
desirous; avaricious, grasping 

XsXJkPtamatiya avidity, greed; cupidity, 
avarice 

£*L* matma' pi. -^Lk- matdmi' 2 coveted 
object; covetousness, craving, desire; 
hope, expectation; pi. ambitious de- 
signs, ambitions, schemes, aspirations, 
desires | j <d £*k. V (matma'a) he has 
no desire for . . , 



matma'a lure, enticement, temp- 



tation 



^Uk* mitmd' filled with greed; obsessed 
by ambition, overambitious 



jJ* II to quiet, calm, appease, pacify, 
allay, assuage, soothe (a, » s.o., s.th.); 
see also ^ylk ta'mana under oLk VI to 
be low; to become low, sink, subside; 
to be depressed, sunken (ground); to 
stoop, be bent over; to bow; to calm 
down, abate; to be or become quiet, 
calm, still 

oU* toman calm, quiet, repose, peace, 
peacefulness, serenity, tranquillity; re- 
assurance, ease, calmness, peace of 
mind, composure, equanimity; trust, 
confidence 

tjjJaj tatmin pi. -at appeasement, molli- 
fication, calming, assuaging, soothing; 
reassurance 

j-LU iatdmun modest bearing, respect- 
ful attitude 

j^Uai- mutatamin low 

(j*U and ^*L) U» tamd u {jj? tumuw), ^ 
tamd i (tamy) to flow over 

L? J» tamy (eg.,syr.) alluvial mud, silt, 
alluvium 

1 Jh tunn pi. <jLLI atndn ton | J^~. jW (mu* 
sajjal) register ton 

2 J* tanna i (j^J* tanln) to sound, resound, 
peel, ring out; to toll (bell); to ring (door- 
bell, alarm clock); to bum, buzz (insects); 
to be ringing (ears) II to sound, resound; 
to toll; to hum 

jd* tanln ring(ing), peal, jingle, tinkle, 
tinkling {of a bell); buzz(ing), hum(ming), 
drone (of an insect); ringing (of the 
ears) 

oUU tanndn ringing, sounding, peal- 
ing, jingling, tinkling; resounding, re- 
verberating, echoing; humming, buzzing, 
droning; famous, renowned, celebrated; 



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grandiloquent ; high-sounding (words); 
buzzer (eL, tel.) 

^> II to remain, abide, stay to live, settle 
down (^ in, at a place) IV to be ex- 
cessive (J in), overdo, exaggerate (J 
s.th.); to brag; to speak in great detail, 
at great length ( j about) 

t_-xk tunub pi. i-jLLI atnab tent rope; 
sinew, tendon | 4>LUI jJ. (§adda) to stay, 
sojourn, reside; Jp duLkl c-^ to settle 
down, take up permanent residence in 
a place; J *uUUI <~>jj to take root, prevail 
(at a place) 

i_-»U»l if nab exaggeration; fussiness, 
circumstantiality, prolixity, lengthiness, 
verbosity 

j^> tunbur pi. ju Id* tandbir 2 a long-necked, 
stringed instrument resembling the man- 
dolin; a device used to raise water for 
irrigation, Archimedean screw; drum, 
cylinder (techn.) 

<jjj^S* tunburl player of the j^-d» 

V>j^ tanbusa pi. -at paddle box (of a paddle 
steamer) 

**J» tanja 2 Tangier 

(^J* tanjji from Tangier; native of 
Tangier, Tangerine 

Zj>dt> tanjara pi. j>-\^> tanajir 2 (copper) cas- 
serole, saucepan, skillet 

lkJ» tanta Tanta (city in N Egypt) 

jLuJ* tantana to ring, sound, peal, jingle, 
tinkle (bell); to hum, buzz, drone 
(insect); to clang, boom, roar, rumble; 
to blare out (uj s.th.) 

iJa^ tantana ring(ing), peal, jingle, 
tinkle, tinkling (of a bell); hum(ming), 



buzz(ing), drone (of an insect); clangor, 
boom, roar 

cjid» tunuf (tanaf,tunf) pi. J^/ttntZ/, «J»LW 
atndf top, summit, peak (of a mountain) ; 
ledge, molding, eaves 



tinjisa, fanfasa, tunfusa pi. ^U* tandfis 2 
velvet-like carpet, mockado carpet 

<d> a group of letters opening the 20th sura; 
Tdhd a Muslim masculine proper name 

j^ tahara, tahura u (tuhr, Sjl^L tahdra) to 
be clean, pure; — fafiarat, fahurat (of 
a woman) to be clean (as opposed to 
menstruating) II to clean, cleanse, de- 
terge, expurgate, purge, purify, chasten 
(a, * s.o., s.th.); to disinfect, sterilize 
(* s.th.); to dredge (a e.g., a canal); to 
circumcise (* s.o.) Ill to circumcise 
(e s.o.) V to clean o.s., cleanse o.s., 
perform an ablution 

j$a tuhr cleanness, purity; chastity 

jj^k> takur circumcision; cleansing, 
purging, detergent; clean, pure 

«jl$U tahdra cleanness, cleanliness, 
purity; cultic purity (1st Law); chastity; 
holiness, sanctity, saintliness; circum- 
cision | JjaJI Sj'^L t. ad-dail innocence; 
probity, uprightness, integrity, honesty 

j^x* mathar purgatory (Chr.) 

*j4±a mathara pl.y>lk. matdhir 2 wash- 
room, lavatory, toilet 

j^J«j tathir cleaning, cleansing, purging, 
expurgation, purification; disinfection; 
purgation, use of aperients; dredging; 
circumcision 

(^j^JaJ tathlrl cleaning, cleansing, de- 
tergent; aseptic, antiseptic (med.) 

ysLU tdhir pi. jL$LI athdr clean, pure; 
chaste, modest, virtuous | <.JUI ^U* t. 



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668 



ad-dimma upright, righteous, honest; 
JjJUl y>U» t. ad-dail innocent, pure, 
unblemished, blameless, upright, right- 
eous, honest 

j^i* mupahhir pi. -at a detergent (esp. 
antiseptic); an antiseptic, a disinfectant 

j$a* mupahkar pure, immaculate 

b\j£> tahran 2 Teheran (capital of Iran) 

J4U V to despise, detest, abhor, loathe 
(Cr- S.th.) 

a^U mutahham of perfect beauty (esp. as 
an epithet of noble horses) | (eg.) \^j 
i^k. (rahvba) festively adorned mount 
(decorated with colored saddle, tassels, 
etc.; horse, donkey, camel) 

(j£> and ^4^) l$i> pdha u and ^^Ioj yaphd 
(^ tahw, ^ puhiy, fahy, SjI^U takdya) 
to cook (a s.th.); to stew (a s.th.); to 
braise (a s.th.); to broil, fry (a s.th.); to 
bake (a s.th.) 

^^L puhan cooked dish, cooked meal 

SjL^U pihdya cook's trade 

^.fL. mathan kitchen 

»U» pdhin pi. »L$J» puhdh cook 

^yil^U tawa§i pi. 4J*IA tawaUya eunuch 

ijl^U tawwaya frying pan 

1 u r *li», 4jli» and 4*jU» pi. vl^ l°°k U P alpha- 
betically 

2 «_jjl» II to beatify (» s.o. ; Chr.) 

<J^> pubd blessedness, beatitude; Be- 
atitude (title of honor of a patriarch or 
bishop; Chr.) 

(jj^Je tubdwl blessed, divinely beati- 



fied (honorific attribute of a patriarch or 
bishop; Chr.) 

4jjLjL tubdvnya blessedness, state of 
beatitude (Chr.) 

i~*lj^ tapwib beatification (Chr.) 

3 ^k tub (coll. ; n. un. S) brick(s) | j*\ <^J» 
(ahmar) baked brick(s); 9ji* e-ijL (mw 
f array) hollow tile(s), air brick(s); J <-jJ* 
(nayy) unburned, sun-dried brick(s) 

<->I^U pawwdb brick burner, brick- 
maker, tilemaker 

a <^U fobji, (eg.) pobgl pi. -iya artillerist, 
artilleryman 

V£jl> tobjiya artillery 

<ijb tuba the fifth month of the Coptic 
calendar 

(^j*) ^U» \fity* « (taah) to get lost (wealth); 
to go astray, miss the target (e.g., arrow); 
to lose one's way, wander about aim- 
lessly; <o £-lL to carry or sweep s.o. or 
s.th. away II to cause s.th. (a) to get lost; 
to cause to embark on adventures, expose 
to peril (0 or «_j s.o.); to throw away, toss 
away, hurl away (^ s.th.); to sweep away 
(ty s.o.); to throw, cast, hurl, toss, fling 
( Jl <-> s.o. into); to carry away, transport 
(Jl <_-> s.o. to, into); to move, induce, 
tempt (s s.o., Jl to s.th., to do s.th.) | 
£jl^kli 4j £^*~J* fate dealt him severe 
blows IV to drop, discard (a, * s.o., s.th.), 
shed (a s.th.); to let s.th. (<_-») be swept 
away; to carry away, tear away, rip 
away (*_j s.th.); to chop off (a s.th., esp. 
the head) V to fall, drop, be thrown, be 
tossed; to stray, wander about; to sway, 
reel, stagger 

4l^L» taiua'ih 2 adversities, blows of 
fate 

±>-J** mvjpawwiha pi. -at adventure 



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o> 



$J* VII to rise in the air, soar up 

*j\* taud pi. s\J*\ atwdd (high, tower- 
ing) mountain 

allai* muntdd pi. -LkL« manafid 2 balloon, 
blimp; zeppelin, dirigible | x^ ^Lk^ 
(muqayyad) captive balloon, kite balloon ; 
O CjIj J[y* ^UaX. (Aawa'i) barrage balloon 

j jjL II to develop, further, advance, pro- 
mote (a s.th.) V to develop, evolve; to 
change; to race (motor) 

jj# faur pi. j\J»\ ahvar one time (= Fr. 
fois); state, condition; limit, bound; 
stage, degree; phase (also j>hys. y esp. el.) \ 
jji» Xo \jj* time and again, again and 
again; \jja — \jjb or ij^L — U->. some- 
times — sometimes, at times — at 
timey: ojjb ,y- ^j*- to lose one's self- 
control, become upset; *jj& j^ ^j^' 
(akrajahu) to upset, discompose, dis- 
concert s.o.; jl^tVl L-riJ- of odd behavior, 
eccentric 

jjb tur pi. j\Jh\ atwdr mountain | jjb 
»Lju- f. sina* and Lx- j^i* /. stna Mount 
Sinai 

^j^k purl wild 

jljL <a«?dr sidewalk 

O I j_jL turani wild; Turanian 

j^jJaJ tatwir development (of s.th.), pro- 
motion 

j^Lj tatawvmr pi. -a* development; 
evolution; pi. -af stages of development, 
evolutionary phases, developments | JjU 
j jkd\ developable, capable of development 
or evolution 

iSjj^aS tatawwurl evolutional, evolu- 
tionary | <jj^iaj <ij& (nazariya) theory 
of evolution, evolutionism 

a jlL» }dr (= jU»i itdr), SjlL (dra hoop, ring; 
tire; frame; wheel; tambourine 



3 jlU {/ar see J* I 

*ij j^ls» turiya look up alphabetically 

JUj^ turbid pi. -52, -JuJ^ t^rdbid 2 torpedo 

(jyj^l* turbln pi. -df turbine 

J-jj^U turbim turbine, turbo (in com- 
pounds) | ^~(jj* JJ>* (muwallid) turbo- 
generator (techn.) 

<j*jjjb toros, ,j*jjjb JUf jibdl t. Taurus 
Mountains 

*iJ> turiya (eg.) pi. □ ^ji> /awwrt hoe, 
mattock 

»jLW look up alphabetically 

jJj^i» (Turk, tozluk) gaiter (s), legging(s) 

tfj* II to adorn, decorate, deck out (a, 6 
s.o., s.th.) 

(j-U* fas pi. -di round, shallow drink- 
ing cup made of metal, drinking vessel; 
finger bowl 

l^Uf tdsa pi. -df round, shallow drink- 
ing cup made of metal, drinking vessel | 
jrw^Ji ^U, frying pan; O joL«J i-U» J. 
at-tasddum buffer (railroad) 

^-jjUs- \dwus pi. ,^-Jjl^U fawdtt>is 2 pea- 
cock 

jj^k. mutawwas ornate, ostentatious- 
ly made-up 

^i^ II to castrate, emasculate (o s.o.); {syr., 
leb.) to get on s.o.'s (o) nerves, unnerve 
(a s.o.); to deafen s.o. (e), make s.o.'s (o) 
head spin 

&>\j^ tawdsi pi. <L£l_jl» tawa&iya 
eunuch 

(£\>k) £U» /d'a u (tau*) to obey (J or » s.o.), 



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be obedient (J or 6 to s.o.) II to render 
obedient, bring into subjection, subdue, 
subject, subjugate {*> s.o.) | <J £~&Jb 
4-uiJ (nafsuhu) (lit. : his soul permitted 
him, made it easy or feasible for him, 
i.e.) he allowed himself to do s.th. (a), 
he had no qualms about doing s.th. 
(a), he did not hesitate to do s.th. (a) 

III to comply with or accede to s.o.'s 
(o) wishes (Jp or J in, with regard to), 
yield, submit, be obedient (o to s.o., 
J* or J in), obey (« s.o., Jp or j in); to 
be at s.o.'s (*) command (of a faculty, 
skill, etc.); to consent, assent (j to s.th.) 

IV to obey, follow (a, » s.o., s.th.), be 
obedient, submit, yield (a, » to s.o., to 
s.th.), comply (a, « with s.o.'s wishes, 
with s.th.), accede (a, o to s.o.'s wishes, 
to s.th.) V to do voluntarily (J or u or 
a s.th.), volunteer (J or u or * for, in, 
to do s.th.); to enlist, volunteer (mil.); 
to do, contribute or express (<_j s.th.) of 
one's own accord, without being asked | 
Ij^- P^*J (kairan) to perform a good 
deed voluntarily VII to obey, follow 
(J s.o,, s.th.), be obedient, submit, 
yield, accede (J to), comply <J with) 
X to be able (a to do s.th.), be in a 
position to do, to get, to carry out, or 
to take upon o.s. (a s.th.), be capable 
(a of s.th., ^1 of doing s.th.) | £^uj *V 
5"j^>- (hardkan) he is unable to move ; he 
can't make a move; jwJ( ^.ski^j V (saira) 
he cannot walk 

^J* tau f obedience; voluntariness, 
spontaneity (in connection with a legally 
relevant action, esp. a delict; Isl. Law); 
(for m. and f.) obedient, compliant, sub- 
missive; Ujl» tau"an voluntarily, of one's 
own free will, of one's own accord | U^L» 
^j^ j' (karhan) willingly or unwillingly, 
willy-nilly, whether I (you, etc.) will it 
or not; OLaJI 9j& tractable, docile, 
amenable; »0j fjb tau'a yadihl under 
s.o.'s thumb, at s.o.'s beck and call; 



LjAjI 9J& y> (tau f a aidina) he is at our 
beck and call, he is in our power; f £> 
t\j*\ tau'a amrika at your disposal 

L*>I» tau'lyan voluntarily, of one's 
own free will, of one's own accord 

^4* tayyi' obedient, compliant, sub- 
missive 

apII» ta'a obedience, compliance, sub- 
missiveness; (pi. -at) pious deed (hi 
Law) j SpLWI c^u bait at-L the husband's 
house to which a woman, in case of 
unlawful desertion, must return (Isl, 
Law); 4&\U\j £*-JI as-sam'u wa-t-ta'atu 
I hear and obey! at your service! very 
well! 4tUy Uc* sarrCan wa-td" atari do. 

V^y* tawd r iya obedience | <^\JU ^ 
voluntarily, of one's own free will, of 
one's own accord 

^\Jza mitwd T obedient, compliant 

gj& tatwl" diploma of the Great 
Mosque of Tunis 

Atjlit. mutdwa'a compliance, tractability 

itlLI itd' a obedience 

£_>kj iatawwu' voluntariness; volun- 
teering; voluntary service ( j in a branch 
of the armed forces) ; service as an 
unsalaried trainee, voluntary traineeship 

j^Jai tatawwu'i voluntary (e.g., action) 

UUai-l istitd'a ability, capability, fac- 
ulty; possibility 

«jU» td'i" obedient, compliant, sub- 
missive | UjlT j\ UJ11. willingly or un- 
willingly, whether I (you, etc.) will it or 
not 

£jk» mutawwa r pi. -un holder of the 
diploma issued by the Great Mosque of 
Tunis; — muttaivwi* volunteer (also 
mil.); unsalaried trainee 

jjtk. mutdwi* obedient, compliant, 



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submissive; yielding, pliable, pliant; 
9-jlUI the reflexive, frequently — the 
passive (gram.) | fjlk* ■k-**- mild steel 

■uk* mutl" obedient, compliant 

f-jku muiatawwi' pi. -ww, S volunteer 
(also m#.); unsalaried trainee 

9-lku** mustata possible, feasible | 
flkLlI jJs qadra l-m. as far as possible, 
as far as it is feasible; (jA* Jp) jJuu 
^IkUi do. 

{u>J?) J>tk tdfa u (tauf, <J*I^ fawaf, o'jj* 
fawafdn) to go about, walk about, ride 
about, travel about, move about, rove 
about, wander about, run around (a 
in s.th.), tour (a s.th.); to go, walk, 
ride, run { J>-, v around s.th.), circum- 
ambulate (<J^, v s -th.); to make the 
rounds, walk around (Jp among people); 
to circle, circuit, compass («J>»-, c<* s.th.); 
to roam, rove, range (c-» s.th.); to show 
around, guide (l-> s.o.); to familiarize 
o.s., acquaint o.s. (»_j with); to become 
acquainted (<-> with s.o., with s.th.), 
come to know (<_j s.o., s.th.); — (tauf) 
to appear to s.o. (v) m hi s sleep; to 
come (J* upon s.o.), afflict (J* s.o.); to 
overflow, leave its banks (river); to 
swim, float, drift | lf£J» <J\j Jilk (taifuhd) 
he saw her image, a picture of her, in his 
mind's eye; -oU jc Jslk (leh.) to flow 
from s.o.'s lips; *j*UaJb J»lk to peddle 
one's wares {street merchant) II to go 
about, walk about, stroll about, ride 
about, travel about (J in), tour (J s.th,); 
to go or walk around s.th. (cj), circle, cir- 
cumambulate (<-> s.th.); to show around, 
guide {lj or o s.o.); to let (^ s.th.) roam 
(a s.th.), let (cj s.th.) make the rounds 
(y in), let one's eyes (»_->) wander; to 
perform the circumambulation of the 
Kaaba (tawdf) IV to surround, en- 
compass, encircle, circumscribe (^ s.th.) 



V to move about, rove, roam, wander, 
walk about 

J»^k tauf round, circuit, beat; low 
wall, enclosure; (pi. Jsl^kl atwdf) patrol; 
raft made of inflated waterskins tied 
together; (eg.) flat slab of clay mixed 
with straw, used in Central Egypt for 
building huts 

ujljk tawdf round, circuit, beat; 
round trip, round-trip excursion; round- 
trip flight; circumambulation of the 
Kaaba (as part of the Islamic pilgrimage 
ceremonies) 

<J*i^ tawwaf ambulant, itinerant, 
migrant, roving, wandering; going the 
rounds, making the circuit, walking the 
beat; (pi. 3) mounted rural mail carrier 
(Eg.) | «LjWi oik* mohaitdt at-t. (Eg.) 
circuit stations which have the mail 
delivered by mounted rural mail carriers 

4i\jb tawwdfa pi. -at patrol boat) 
coastal patrol vessel (employed by the 
Egyptian Coast Guard) 

jUjk tufdn flood, inundation, deluge 

oik. matdf riding about, traveling, 
touring; round trip | .Jslkll <u (^^) J I 
J I to end with, wind up with, arrive 
eventually at; <J»lkil «"U- the end of the 
matter, the final issue, the upshot of it; 
Jilkii j^-1 j or (Jslkll SjLf- j (nihdyat 
al-m.) in the long run, finally 

Jjj^Lj tatwdf traveling, touring, wander- 
ing, itineration, roving life; cruise; drive 
or tour around a town 

iJJlk to" if ambulant, itinerant, migrant, 
roving, wandering ; one going the rounds 
or making the circuit or walking the 
beat; one performing the tawdf | <u <J»lk 
iJJlk he had a sudden impulse or urge; 
^UJI jJuJI j* ,Julk <uJU J»Lk (qadar) 
tragedy befell him, he met with a harsh 
fate 



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ou'UJI aj-ta'tf Taif (town in S Hejaz) 

itfll. pa'ifa pi. «Jw*I^U fawa'if 2 part, 
portion; number; troop, band, group; 
swarm, drove, bevy, covey; people; 
class; sect, denomination; confession, 
communion; party, faction; religious mi- 
nority | Q JL^L^Vl iiSM (ihsdstya) the 
impressionists; «Ju*yjl ii^JL. princelings, 
petty kings; j* UilL a certain number 
of . . . ; a certain amount of . . . 

jjU» £a'*/$ factional, sectarian, de- 
nominational, confessional | yjU, S^U- 
denominational politics 

ViJU* t&'ifiya sectarianism, deno mi- 
nationalism; confessionalism 

t^Li mutawwif pi. .«» pilgrims' guide 
in Mecca 

(J» JU? tdqa u (tauq) to be able, be in a 
position (a to do s.th.), be capable (a 
of, of doing s.th.); to be able to bear or 
stand (* s.th.), bear, stand, sustain, 
endure (a s.th.) II to put a collar or 
necklace (iy„ imxqan) around s.o.'s 
(e) neck; to hcop (a s.th., e.g., a barrel); 
to surround, clasp, enwrap, ring, en- 
compass ( v *, ♦ s.o., s.th. with), en- 
circle (a, « s.o., s.th.), form or throw a 
circle or cordon (a, « around s.o., 
around s.th.), enclose (a s.th.); to 
play {* about, e.g., a smile about the 
lips), flit (a across s.th.) | ^IjJb 4Jy 
(bi-dird'aiki) to take s.o. in one's arms, 
embrace, hug, clasp s.o.; v <u^ J^L 
('unuqahu) to present s.o. with, bestow 
upon s.o. s.th, IV = I (J*, * s.th., to 
do s.th., of s.th. or of doing s.th.); to 
master (a a method) | \j^ jLj 1 fcj m 
yutiq sabran he could not stand or bear 
it, he could not control himself; »^i 
JUaj V (yvtaqu) s.th. unbearable, s.th. 
intolerable 

3J* fauq ability, faculty, power, 



strength, potency, capability, aptitude, 
capacity; endurance; — (pi. J[^| 
ajwaq) necklace; neckband, ruff, collar; 
hoop, circle | :UJ J> (najdh) life 
buoy; 4*> ^ ojk\ a>->! (akrajahn 
l-huznu) grief drove him out of his 
mind; Jjtil J^U jS (t. at-mcCziq) to 
break the deadlock 

J> tauqi collar-like, loop-shaped, 
ring -shaped, annular 

JU» /ag pi. -a(, Oiy, ^gd» arch (arcA.); 
(pi. -af) stratum, layer 

<jU* /aga pi. -a* window 

5SU» M ? a pi. -at ability, faculty, 
capability, aptitude, capacity, power, 
strength, potency; energy (phys., etc.); 
capacity (of a technical apparatus); 
bunch, bouquet (of flowers) | 31UI j 
(with foil, masdar) it is possible to . . .; 
4JIWI jA** ?arfra t-f. as far as possible, in 
the best way possible; «cSLt jjtf l 
according to his capability; 3^>-.u 311, 
(muddakara) accumulated energy; po- 
tential (phys.); Sj jJiii aiUI (darriya) 
atomic energy, atomic power; <jU, 
*^-i^l (intdjlya) productive power, pro- 
duct ional capacity, output capacity; «ill, 
jrbJVI J^ do.; ajjI^ 4iLL (hardriya) heat 
energy; ILuJ SU, (dihnlya) mental energy 
or power; i^r SIL (samslya) solar 
energy; yLil Sit (is"d f lya) radiation 
energy (phys.) 

yU* pi. Jl>, jl> look up alphabeti- 
cally 

JjjU tatwlq pi. -a J encirclement, en- 
compassment, enclosure, surrounding, 
ringing 

*»U»1 i/aya ability, faculty, aptitude, 
power, capability, capacity 

JjLu mutaivwaq ringdove 



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JSlk. mutaq bearable, endurable, toler- 
able 

jfjb tokxyo Tokyo 

K'bJ*) <J^ A*&» w (fift) to be or become long; 
to last long; to lengthen, grow longer, 
extend, be protracted, become drawn 
out; to surpass, excel (Jp or o s.o.); to 
extend (Jl to); — (trans.) tola a to reach, 
catch (6 s.o.), get hold (a,* of s.o., of s.th.); 
to have power (a, t, over s.o., s.th.) | JU* 
J»- o*$ *> (zamanu) it took a long time 
before he . . .; i.1* J J^j this will 
(would) take me too long;^^ j\ uLjJi JU* 
(zamanu, qasura) sooner or later, before 
long; if AaL\ aj JJaj J (muqdmu) he 
hadn't been there very long when . . .; 
4-H tgJb JjU V (yodl) my hand caa't 
reach that far, i.e., I have no control over 
it, it isn't possible for me ; ^ju dW Ik ji 
(yadi) if I could get hold of you II to make 
long or longer, lengthen, elongate, stretch 
out, prolong, extend, protract (a s.th.) ; to 
be very elaborate, very detailed, very 
exhaustive, long-winded, prolix; to gr;mt 
a delay or respite (J to s.o.) | «db Jji* 
J* (balahu) to be patient with III to keep 
putting off (<J a s.o. in or with s.th.) ; to vie 
for power, greatness or stature, contend, 
compete (o with s.o.), rival, emulate 
(• s.o.) IV to make long or longer, 
lengthen, elongate, stretch out, extend, 
prolong, protract, draw out (a or ^ 
s.th.); to take too long, find no end; to 
be verbose, prolix | <u1p JiM to keep s.o. 
waiting a long time ; <uLJ JLUi (lisdnahu) 
to speak in a forward manner, be pert, 
saucy, insolent in speech ; aJI^^I J Ik I (na- 
zara) he kept staring at him; J»j»J\ JU»I 
he stayed a long time; f-j^ji! j JLL! to 
dwell, expatiate on the subject VI to be- 
come long, be lengthened, be extended, be 
prolonged; to stretch up, stretch o.s. ; to 
stretch (Jl for), crane one's neck (Jl at); 
to attack (Jp s.o.); to become insolent, 



get fresh (Jp with s.o.); to be insolent 
enough, have the cheek (J to do s.th.); 
to dare do s.th. (<_>), presume (<_-> s.th.), 
pretend (i~> to s.th.); to arrogate to o.s. 
{Jl a rank) j 4*Aj JjU*S (bi-ra'sihi) to 
bear one's head high (with pride) X to be 
or become long; to be or become over- 
bearing, presumptuous, display an ar- 
rogant behavior ( Jp toward) 

UU* tdlamd and UUaJ la-talama how 
often! often, frequently (with foil, verbal 
clause); as long as, while | jl UU? (anna) 
while, as, the more so as 

J Jk> taut might, power | JjJ-l i^L*. 
JjkJij (5. al-haul) the Almighty 

Jj^- tut pi. JljJ*1 atwal length; size, 
height, tallness | *UVI J^» /. ahandh 
long-suffering, longanimity, forbearance, 
patience; Ja^\ <}Jb \. an-nazar far- 
sightedness, hyperopia; uLjD! Ja>- katt 
at 4. geographical longitude, degree of 
longitude, meridian; JjUL and V^ 
lengthwise, longitudinally; J^L tula 
(prep.) during, throughout, . . . long, e.g., 
Soil *JiA Jjk (mudda) during this 
period, during all this time, jlfJI Jjk 
(nahar) all day (long); U J^ as long as; 
6jk> Jp (with foil, genit.) along, along- 
side of; Jjl* Jp (eg.) straight ahead; 
straightway, directly; at last, finally, 
after ail; l$-J>^j j^AJI 6J» J (wa- r ardiha) 
throughout the country, all over the 
country; dfljk J Ul (eg.) have mercy on 
me! pUi i}j& power; mastery, capability, 
ability; knowledge; generosity; J^l* 
(j-xJI t. an-nafas endurance, lasting power, 
stamina; jlJI J^U t. al-yad power 

J^L tull of length, linear, longitudinal | 
JjL- IzJ- (katt) geographical longitude, 
degree of longitude, meridian 

<Sj& tuwwal a long-legged waterfowl 

Jl_jk tawdla, tiwdla (prep.) during, 
throughout; along, alongside of 



I 



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Jj^k tawil pi. <jy* tiwdl long; large, 
big, tall; high; JjjWI name of a poeti- 
cal meter; ^J* tawilan long (adv.), 
a long time | J»-VI Jj^» t. al-ajal long- 
term, long-dated; SUVl Jj^Ip J. al-anah 
long-suffering forbearing, patient; Jj^L 
J-UI mighty, powerful; capable; knowl- 
edgeable; generous, openhanded; Jj^k 
rjj\ t. ar-ruh long-suffering, forbearing, 
patient; i»UaJl Jj^k tall; uUJI Jj^L inso- 
lent, impertinent, pert, saucy 

Jt^i* tuwal long 

4} \J& tuwdla pi. -a£ stable 

Sii* JiZata (prep.) during, throughout, 
. . . long 

<jV>k fulani measured lengthwise, 
longitudinal 

JjU atwal 2 , f. J^> fwZa longer, larger, 
bigger, taller; extremely tall, very long 

Jj^U tatwil lengthening, elongation, 
stretching, extension, prolongation, pro- 
traction ; elaborateness, exhaustiveness, 
prolixity, long-windedness 

SJtkl itdla lengthening, elongation, 
stretching, extension, prolongation, pro- 
traction; elaborateness, exhaustiveness, 
prolixity, long-windedness 

JjUJ tatawul insolence, cheek, arrogance 

ilLUi-1 istitdla overbearing attitude, 
haughtiness, presumptuousness, arro- 
gance 

JjLL tcCil long; huge, immense, ample, 
enormous (of funds); use, avail; might, 
power, force | iJ^Jl JJLU t. as-saula 
mighty, powerful, forceful; Jj11» Oj* 
and («ui) izJ- J!U» V (taila) of no use, of 
no avail, useless, unavailing, futile ; j* j 
JjLL> do.; JjLU jU U to accomplish noth- 
ing, be unsuccessful, fail 

SHU* ta'ila might, power, force; ven- i 



geance, revenge, retribution, retaliation | 
J^JUJI iUU» £,£• £j to be subject to 
punishment by law; O^il *L*U» cJ. (f, 
il-maut) under penalty of death 



J^k« mvfawwal elaborate, 
exhaustive, circumstantial; extended; 
comprehensive, thick (book) ; length; (pi. 
-at) thick, detailed handbook; pi. oVJ* 
large volumes; heavy tomes | Jjk. ^ 
(mu'jam) comprehensive, unabridged die- 
tionary 

Jjlk^ mutatawil long-extended, long, 
stretched, long-protacted, prolonged, 
lengthy; insolent, cheeky, arrogant 

J J*? ...* mustatil long, oblong, elon- 
gate(d), long-stretched; protracted, pro- 
longed, long drawn out; a rectangle, an 
oblong; a saucy, presumptuous person 

2 iJjU» look up alphabetically 

f j£y» Tulkarm (town in NW Jordan) 

j[*J* \umar pi. j»\J* tawamir 2 roll, scroll 

iijUi j# nahr at-tuna the Danube river 

~^jjj* (It. tonnellata) tonolata ton 

^^ /awo t (J* tayy) to fold, fold up, fold 
in, fold over, fold under, roll up (a 
s.th.); to shut, close (a a book); to 
keep secret, secrete, conceal, hide (* 
s.th.); to harbor, hold, contain (a s.th.); 
to swallow up, envelop, wrap up, enwrap 
(» s.o.; of the dark of night); to settle 
finally, bury (a the past), have done 
with s.th. in the past (a); to cross, 
traverse (a s.th., esp. a country); to 
cover quickly (a the way, the distance, 
Jl to); to spend, pass (a a period of 
time); to possess o.s., take possession 
(a of), appropriate (a s.th.); pass. <jj, 
Jp tuwiya 'ala (= to be folded around 



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or over, i.e.) to bear (within itself), 
harbor, contain, involve s.th. | ^jVl <jj^ 
U* (l-arda tayyan) to rush through a 
country; 4?Lj ,jJ^ (bisdtahu) to be 
finished, be done, come to an end, 
finish; <ui Lc kLJI gjb to settle an 
affair once and for all, wind up an 
affair; J* *&\j*- \sj* (jawdnihahu) to 
harbor s.th., conceal s.th. in one's 
heart; Jp (\j*j£) t^jS" ^^ (ka$hah , u, 
hashan) and Jp «jJU* iSjb (sadrahu) to 
harbor or lock (a secret) in one's bosom, 
keep s.th. secret, secrete, conceal, hide 
s.th. ; <c*Jl^> ^Jfi (safhatahu) to have done 
with s.th., be through with s.th., give 
up, abandon s.th.; Jl JjjlaJl <sj& to 
hurry or rush to; J>w-JI ^ uf*^' <£J^ 
«_Jl&! (l-mddiya tayya 8-sijilli) to break 
with the past, let bygones be bygones ; — 
iSji* tawiya a dsj* tawan) to be hungry, 
suffer hunger, starve IV = tawiya 
V to coil (snake) YII to be folded, be 
folded up, in, over, or under, be rolled 
up, be turned (over) (page, leaf), be 
shut (book, etc.); to go by, pass, elapse 
(time); to disappear, vanish; to be 
covered (distance); to be hidden, be 
concealed (c-j£ under), be enveloped, 
be wrapped (c^ in); to be absorbed, 
merged (j into s.th. else); to contain, 
comprise, encompass, comprehend, em- 
brace, involve, include (J* s.th.); to har- 
bor, nurse, bear (J* feelings, esp. hatred, 
love) | <l*a! Je- iSj^\ to withdraw within 
o.s, , be self-centered, be introverted 

J* tayy concealment, hiding; (pi. 
*\J*\ ativa*) fold, pleat | <uL fayyahu and 
I A* ^ {tayya) herein enclosed, herewith 
(in a letter); Li» tayyan do.; v^l ^ J 
(t. al-gaib) secretly, covertly; J» (j) C^ 
Jl^l (t. al-kitman) under the seal of 
secrecy; AJa\ j (with foil, genit.) inside, 
within, in, amid 

U» tayya pi. -at fold, pleat; folding, 
flexure {geoL) | 4jU1» <>j J*- and j *^» 



4jU* (damma) to involve, comprise, con- 
tain within itself (* s.th.) 

Va tlya intention, design | (^_**i) ^-L. 
«cJaJ he went to his destination; he left 
in order to do what he had in mind; he 
went his way 

t£jU tawan hunger; mat | (j^laji J* 
on an empty stomach, without having 
eaten 

4j^l* tawiya pi. UI^U tawayd fold, 
pleat; innermost thoughts, real convic- 
tion, true mind; intention, design; con- 
science | ^j^UI JL- guileless, artless; j 
IjI_>I* (with foil, genit.) inside, within, in, 
amid; ,j~iJI Ul^W t. n-nafs innermost 
recesses of the soul 

ajI^L* tawwdya pi. -at frying pan 

^jL* matwan pi. jlk. matawin pocket 
knife, penknife; pi. folds, pleats | ^jlk* j 
(with foil, genit.) inside, within, in, 
amid; <*jjlk* J inwardly, at heart, in his 
bosom 

t\jk* mitwah pocket knife, penknife 

»l_jkil intiwd* introversion (psych.) \ 
ir Jti\ > ^IjUVl (nafs) do. 

u'^aJi intiwal introverted (psych.) 

jU» tdwin starved | jkJl ^jli* /. l-batn 
starved, lean, emaciated 

t^jk. matwiy folded up, infolded, rolled 
up, etc. ; introverted, restrained, contain- 
ed (behavior); Jp <JL^ bearing (within 
itself), harboring, containing, involving 
s.th. | Jp ^UaJI (jjk* harboring s.th. in 
one's bosom 

_jkw. muntawin introverted (psych.) \ 
<~j£ Jp jh^> introverted, self-absorbed; 
low-spirited, depressed 



^ and aJs see under ^^ 



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H^J*) cjIL fdba i (tib, Z~L> tlba) to be good, 
pleasant, agreeable; to be or become 
delightful, delicious; to please (J s.o.), 
be to s.o.'s (J) liking; to be or become 
ripe, to ripen; to regain health, recover, 
recuperate, convalesce | £JlJ c*>lU 
{lailatukum) may your night be pleasant ! 
good night! *~Ju CoLU (nafsuhu) he was 
gay, cheerful, cheery, in good spirits, 
he felt happy; ^ LM ^^ {nafsan) to 
give up s.th. gladly, renounce s.th. 
willingly; 4JI ^J} c-jU* (nafsuhu) he had 
a liking for it, it was to his taste II to 
make (a s.th.) good, pleasant, agreeable, 
delightful, delicious, or sweet, to sweeten 
(a s.th.); to scent, perfume (a, s.o., 
s.th.); to spice, season (a food), mull 
(a wine); to sanitate, improve (a air, 
drinking water); to heal, cure (o s.o.); 
to massage (» s.o.) | »^U ^S to mollify, 
soothe, placate, conciliate s.o., set s.o.'s 
mind at rest; »\J 41 1 ^i, (tardhu) 
may God make his earth light (a eulogy 
added after mentioning the name of a 
pious deceased) III to joke, jest, banter, 
make fun (•.with s.o.) IV to make (a 
s.th.) good, pleasant, agreeable, delight- 
ful, delicious, or sweet, to sweeten (a 
s.th.) V to perfume o.s. X «_jlk^l and 
«--;U--l irtatyaba to find or deem (a s.th.) 
good, pleasant, agreeable, delightful, 
delicious, sweet; to like (a s.th.), be 
fond (a of) 

«-J» tib goodness; flavor, delicious or 
delicate taste; (pi. ^jj, tuyub) scent, per- 
fume J J^aJI <_J* t. al-irq noble birth, 
noble descent; t^JaJI jj*» jauz at-t. nut- 
meg 

u-J* fayyib good; pleasant, agreeable; 
delicious; gay; well-disposed, friendly, 
kindly; well, in good health | jU*l ^J, 
t. al-fculq good-natured, genial ; J'M ^J* 
t. ad-dikr of blessed memory (of s.o. de- 
ceased); 4*\J\ ^J* sweet-smelling, fra- 
grant, sweet-scented; JyJI *_*!» t, al-irq 



highborn, of noble descent; ^JUJI ^J, 
t. al-qalb good-natured, kindhearted; 
lT^I v^ P- an-nafs gay, cheerful, cheery, 
in high spirits 

ii»U* tayyibdt nice, pleasant things; 
gustatory delights, pleasures of the table 

y» tlba goodness; good nature, 
geniality | >U y, & gladly, most 
willingly, with pleasure 

d>J* tuba blessedness, beatitude; Beat- 
itude (title of honor of a patriarch; Chr.) 

vLJ» taydby fiydb (eg.) north wind 
^U* fayydb pi. -un masseur 

^-W atyab 2 better; — pi. ^Jl\ afdyib* 
the best parts (of s.th.); pleasures, 
comforts, amenities ; delicacies, dainties | 
<^^--* <-r^' a - tamtmniyati my best wishes 

t-jQa* mapdyib 2 comforts, amenities 
(e.g., of life) 

iJk* mutdyaba pi. -at banter, joke, 
jest, teasing remark 

u-jlt td'ib unobjectionable (J for; hi 
Law) 

v^** mutayyab bouquet, bunch (of 
flowers) 

2 i~L> tlba 2 Thebes 

(^J*) C IL tdha i (taih) to get lost II to cause 
s.th. (a) to get lost 

(yJ») jLU lata i (jlj4, tayardn) to fly; to 
fly away, fly off, take to the wing; to 
go by plane, travel by air (Jl to); to 
hasten, hurry, rush, fly (Jf to); to be 
in a state of commotion, be jubilant, 
exult, rejoice; v jU, to snatch away, 
carry away, carry off (s.o., s.th.) | ^Li: jU, 
Jl (bi-kaydlihi) to let one's imagination 
wander to; ^LJI J <i^, <J jU, (sit) his 
fame spread among people, he became 



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well-known; *J\U jli» (ta'iruhu) to become 
angry, blow one's top; <ii* jli» ( r aqluhu) 
to lose one's mind, go crazy; oijj jlk 
UUi (**-jj) (fu'dduku, ruhuhu sa* a? an) his 
mind became confused, he became all 
mixed up; U-y jU» (farahan) to be beside 
o.s. with joy, be overjoyed; U^i jtk (Jaw* 
gan) to be ecstatic with anticipation, be 
overjoyed; 4JL) jU» (bi-lubbihi) to drive s.o. 
out of his mind; *jIj-«j jU* (bi-sawabihi) 
do.; to make s.o. unconscious II to make 
or let fly (a, s.o., s.th.), fly, send up 
(a s.th., e.g., a balloon, a kite); to pass on 
promptly, dispatch posthaste, forward 
without delay, rush, shoot (Jf a s.th. 
to, esp. a report, a message); to knock 
out (a s.th., e.g., an eye, a tooth) | jb 
*J\j (ra'sahu) to chop off s.o.'s head, 
behead s.o. IV to make or let fly (a, « 
s.o., s.th.), to fly (a s.th.); to blow away 
(a s.th.; of the -wind); to make (a s.th.) 
disappear at once, dispel (a s.th.) V to 
see an evil omen (,y or ^ in) VI to 
be scattered, be dispersed, scatter, 
disperse, spread, diffuse; to be exuded, 
rise (fragrance); to fly apart, fly about, 
fly in all directions (esp. sparks); to 
vanish, disappear, be dispelled X to 
make fly, cause to fly (a s.th.); to knock 
(a s.th.) out of s.o.'s hand; to alarm 
or upset seriously (0 s.o.), agitate, excite 
{a, » s.o., B.th.); = VI; pass. j^J\ ustu* 
fira to be terrified | *JUt j*k--J ("aqluhu) to 
go out of one's mind (with astonishment 
or fright) 

jbtair (coll. and n. un.) pi. jjA> tuyur, 
jLLI atydr birds, bird; augury, omen; 
jyX> poultry; fowl | *»-jU- jj^> predatory 
birds, birds of prey; jjS»i\ k r ilm at-t. 
ornithology; j^LJI ^jjj J* jtT (ka*an* 
na t faira) motionless or silent with awe 

3jrti» taira commotion, agitation (of 
anger, wrath); flight; female bird 



Sj4» tira, tiyara evil omen, portent, 
foreboding 

jLU tayydr flying; evanescent, fleeting; 
volatile (liquid) ; floating, wafting, hover- 
ing; (pi. -Un) flier, aviator, pilot; (after 
a military rank) in the air force (e.g., 
j Li? <_*Jij captain in the air force) j 
SjLL c>ji j volatile oils; Jj! jLU (avowal) 
first lieutenant in the air force (formerly, 
Eg.); uL? jLL» (banin) second lieutenant in 
the air force (formerly, Eg.); JicL*. jLL 
(musd'id) copilot 

»jU* tayyara pi. -at aviatrix, woman 
pilot; airplane, aircraft; kite (toy) | SjLU 
^-^U j (riyddiya) sport plane; Sil.tf «jU* 
(qadddfa) bomber; SJL SjU* seaplane 

b\jb tayaran flying, flight; aviation, 
aeronautics | J \J^i b\ jb (bahlawani) stunt 
flying; ^^> o\jb (sird'l) glider flying, 
gliding; OjjJall J^jla^- airlines; jlj^kJI ^"it- 
air force; Ol^JaJI j jj minister of aviation 

jlk. matdr pi. -ai airfield, airport | 
O fk jU«* aircraft carrier 

•j Ik. matdra airfield, airport 

_^kt matlr airfield, airport 

j4J tatayyur pessimism 

j-*lk fa'iV flying; flyer, aviator, pilot; 
(pi. -at, jio pair) bird; omen, presage | 
jTUJl o^L- graveness, sedateness; _/lW) Jp 
o^JLl (maimun) good luck! Godspeed! 
(said to s.o. setting out on a journey); 
•JU* jU» (ta'iruhu) to become angry, blow 
one's top; S/LL1I — S/UJI S^jl, see 2 S/" 
(under j^) 

•j?U» td'ira pi. -af airplane, aircraft | 
SyliJI ^ Jp (matni t-t.) aboard the air- 
plane; by (air)plane (e.g., traveling); 
\j& Sylk (bahrlya) seaplane; O *yU» 
ajjj^ (daurlya) (short-range) reconnais- 
sance plane, observation plane; «ufti^J SjTlk 
(sird'iya) sailplane, glider; S^jUall iJW? 



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t. al-mutdrada fighter, pursuit plane, 
interceptor; \^ iJW* (*amvdiya) heli- 
copter; JkiJl SjTU» light bomber, combat 
plane; iUUll lj\^ t. al-muqdtala do.; 
O ^UxJVI SjTlt or O S-^Uiil S y U 
dive bomber; SJL S^'lt seaplane; SjfU» 
4jUj (naffdta) jet plane; JiJI S_/ U* f. an- 
naql transport (plane); JjjSLIa «/lU £. 
helikoptar helicopter; c*\J\U\ U.U- and 
Oi/UJl SJiU aircraft carrier 

jrjku mutatayyir pessimist 

jfJat»« mustatlr imminent, impending, 
threatening (of disaster); scattered, dis- 
persed; spread out, spread all over, 
scattered about; widespread; pessimist 

(lt^*) J"^> ffi a * {tais, uUjlL tayamn) to be 
inconstant, changeable, fickle, light- 
headed, thoughtless, heedless, frivolous, 
reckless, undecided, confused, helpless, 
aimless, desultory; to miss the mark (of 
an arrow, also ^yjl j^); to stray (^ 
from the target), miss (jp a spot, e.g., 
said of the hand) | <u^ J,\b (sahmuhu) 
to be on the WTong track, bark up the 
wrong tree, be unsuccessful, fail; J.^ 
Ai\j^a (sawdbiihu) to lose one's head; ^IL 
<*-b j «**Lo (dimdguhu) his wits left him, 
his mind went fuzzy 

L rii» Jatf inconstancy, fickleness; reck- 
lessness, heedlessness, rashness; thought- 
lessness; lightheadedness, levity, frivolity 

uLLJ* tayamn inconstancy, fickleness; 
recklessness, heedlessness, rashness ; 
thoughtlessness; lightheadedness, levity, 
frivolity 

^iU* tiydsa inconstancy, fickleness; 
recklessness, heedlessness, rashness; 
thoughtlessness; lightheadedness, levity, 
frivolity 

,jijli» td'is inconstant, changeable, 
fickle; lightheaded, frivolous; thought- 
less, heedless, reckless; undecided, con- [ 



fused, perplexed, helpless; aimless, des- 
ultory, purposeless; out of control (car) 

*jU tayyi" see fj± 

(^J*) J»U> fdfa i (taij) to appear to s.o. (^) 
in his sleep (of a specter) 

JaJ* taif pi. J»U»I apydf, ^>jA» fuyuf 
fantasy, phantasm; vision, apparition; 
phantom, specter, ghost; spectrum 
(phys.) | ^^[f JaJ? (radyawl) radio spec- 
trum (phys.) 

JJ» taifl spectral, spectroscopic 

oU« mitydf spectroscope (phys.) | 
(<£J„ jr**) jj~<** uJLk. (musawwir) spectro- 
graph (phys.) 

iU» see J^!* 

OULL tailasdn pi. 4~JU* taydlisa a shawl-like 
garment worn over head and shoulders 

(>1» II to daub or coat with clay (a s.th.) 

(>1» /in pi. uLU atyan clay, potter's 
clay, argil; soil; mud, slime; pi. jU»l {eg.) 
farm lands, fields, estates | jji-'l ^JJ| 
(kazafl) kaolin, porcelain clay; ^Ui ilj 
<L zada 2-^rca billatan, lb ^Ul j jlj 
to make things worse, aggravate or 
complicate the situation 

fcJ» tina clay, potter's clay, argil; 
(eg.) a piece or plot of ground; stuff, ma- 
terial, substance (of which s.th. is made); 
specific character, disposition, constitu- 
tion, nature | SJb-l^ i-L ^ made of the 
same clay, out of the same mold 

JJ» tint made of clay; argillaceous, 
clayey 

uU» tayydn mortar carrier, hod 
carrier 

Ojb tayyun Linula viscosa (hot.) 



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»lt za' name of the letter J» 

jSk ziV wet nurse 

^k zo6i/ pi, »LU zi&<f gazelle (Gazella dorcas) J 
^ ^1 abu z. Abu Dhabi, name of an 
emirate on the Persian Gulf 

JLjfc za&j/a pi. zabaydt female gazelle 

jb zirr sharp-edged stone, flint 

olj^ zaribdUy zirbdn pi. ^j'jk zamfcln 2 , ti^ 
zardbiy polecat, fitchew 

J»^b zarufa u {zarf, K\Ji> zardfa) to be 
charming, chic, nice, elegant, neat; to 
be witty, full of esprit II to adorn, em- 
bellish, polish (a, » s.o., s.th.), impart 
charm (a, * to s.o., to s.th.); to put (a 
s.th.) into an envelope, cover or wrap, 
to envelop, wrap up, cover {a s.th.) V to 
affect charm or elegance, display affect - 
ednesy; to show o.s. elegant, witty, full 
of esprit VI — V; X to deem or find 
{a, a s.o., s.th.) elegant, charming, adroit, 
witty, etc, 

J*Je> zarf elegance, gracefulness, grace, 
charm; cleverness, resourcefulness; wit- 
tiness, esprit; — (pi. J*j^ zuruf) vessel, 
receptacle, container; covering, wrap, 
cover; (letter) envelope; capsule, case; 
[gram.) adverb denoting place or time; 
pi. djj? circumstances, conditions | J*^ 
or J»^ J within, in a (given) period of; 
<ui£ «J>jjt (mukajfifa) and tja-i^dl J*j J& 
extenuating circumstances; oOJL. JfijJ^ 
(mvJsaddida) aggravating circumstances; 

(jjjLJI ,_ £ bi-hasabi z-z. according to 

circumstances, depending on the circum- 



stances; ji^aj&\ Js^iJl IJLa j within this 
short interval 

JJ^ zarfi adverbial | S-ijk *^i (bay 
yina) or J^ JJ.> circumstantial evidence 

iju^ zarif pi. *\ij& zurafd' 2 , f. (JJl^U 
zard'if 2 elegant, graceful, charming; 
full of esprit, witty; wit, wag, witty fellow 

4i\Jt> zardfa elegance, gracefulness, 
grace, charm; esprit, wittiness 

J>J*\ azraf 2 more elegant; more bril- 
liant, wittier 

Jujeo tazrlf wittiness, brilliant and 
witty manner 

^J£ tazarruf gracefulness, grace, 
elegance, charm, wittiness, esprit 

Jsj^k. mazruf pi, .JujUi. mazarif 2 
envelope 

J*J&* mutazarrif el6gant, dandy, fop 

^iJkL~* mustazraf elegant | i_ibu*l 
liJLkL*** luxury articles, fancy goods 

jjr za'ana a (za e n) to move away, leave, 
depart 

f yii za r n departure, start, journey, 
trek (esp. of a caravan) 

i^iJ za'ina pi. ,y& zu'un, 0UU1 afdn 
camel-borne sedan chair for women; a 
woman in such a sedan 

dj*te> za'un pi. j»fe zu'un camel bearing 
a litter or a load 

jell? zd'in ephemeral, transient, tran- 
sitory 

y& zafira a (zafar) to be successful, 



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680 



succeed, be victorious, be triumphant; 
to gain a victory ( ( l* or <~> over), 
conquer, vanquish, defeat, overcome, 
surmount, overwhelm (Jc or u s.o., 
s.th.), get the better ( J* or ^ of s.o., of 
s.th.); to seize ( Jp or v s.o., s.th.), take 
possession (J* or ^ of s.o., of s.th.); to 
get, obtain, attain, achieve, gain, win 
(J* or u s.th.) II to grant victory 
(J* or u o to s.o. over), make (» s.o.) 
triumph, render (« s.o.) victorious (Jp 
or lj over) IV = II; VI to ally, enter 
into an alliance or confederacy, join 
forces ( Jt against) 

j& zufuty zufr, zifr pi. jt&J azfar, jfe\ 
azdfir* , j^LUI azafir 2 nail, fingernail; 
toenail; claw, talon | ojlikt 3^*J (Jtj, or) ,y 
from (the days of) his earliest youth, 
since his earliest youth or adolescence; 
j&}\ ^0 youthful, of tender age 

j&> zafar victory, triumph [ j& j 
triumphantly 

J&> zafir victorious, successful, tri- 
umphant; (pi. Ol^ik) young man, youth 

(hij.) 

j^ili! uzfur pi. j*&>\ azdfir 2 nail, 
fingernail, toenail; claw, talon 

jilU zafir victorious, triumphant; suc- 
cessful; victor, conqueror 

j&a muzaffar victorious, successful, 
triumphant 

JU zalla (1st pers. perf, zaliltu) a {zall, Jjit 
zulul) to remain (ace: s.th.; j in a place. 
in a situation); to persist; (with foil, 
imperf. or participle:) to keep doing s.th, 
do s.th. constantly or continuously, per- 
sist in s.th. | l^uL JUj (yatba'uhd) he keep? 
following her; c^J\ 1 jSLj Jt {yaskunu 
l-baita) he continued to live in the house; 
buL* Jt he remained silent, persisted in 
his silence; LiSlj Jk he kept standing 



there; aJU- Jp Jk he remained as he 
was; <&ja J* JU [mauqifihi) he persisted 
in his standpoint, stood his ground, main- 
tained his point of view II to shade, 
overshadow (a, » s.o., s.th.), cast a 
shadow (a, » over s.o., over s.th.); to 
screen, shelter, protect (a, » s.o., s.th.); 
to preserve, guard, maintain, keep up 
(a s.th.) IV = II; V to be shaded ( v by), 
sit in the shadow (u> of) X = V; to 
protect o.s. from the sun (l-» by or 
through s.th.), hide in the shadow ( v 
of s.th.), seek the shadow ( v of s.th.); 
to place o.s, under the protection or 
patronage of s.o. {*J), seek shelter or ref- 
uge with s.o. (v), be under the patronage 
or protection of s.o. (<j) 

JU zill pi. J^U zilal, J^ili znlul, ibfcfcl 
azlal shadow, shade, umbra; shelter, 
protection, patronage; shading, hue; 
slightest indication, semblance, trace, 
glimpse (of s.th.); tangent {geom.) | Jli j 
(with foil, genit.) under the protection 
or patronage of, under the auspices of: 
under the sovereignty of; JU c^ under 
the protection or patronage of, under 
the auspices of; JUJi JJi? insufferable, 
repugnant (of a person); Jlill ^Jui*. 
likable, nice (of a person); <dk JiiL-l 
(istatqala) to dislike s.o., find s.o. in- 
sufferable, unbearable, a bore; JJiiJI «& 
his unlikable nature; (^^ii or) ^AZ 
ilk taqallasa zilluhu his prestige or au- 
thority faded, diminished; it decreased, 
diminished, dwindled away, waned; lj\}j 
Jk wizdrat z. shadow cabinet (poL) 

ilk zulla pi. Jit zulal awning, marquee, 
canopy, sheltering hut or tent, shelter; 
shack, shanty; kiosk, stall; beach chair 

J-iU zalil shady, shaded, umbrageous 

*ili* mizaUa, mazalla pi. -af, J Ik* ma* 
zall 2 umbrella; parasol, sunshade; lamp 
shade; awning, canvas roof; shelter, pro- 
tection (provided by s.o. or s.th.) | jl* 



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u* 



iUiil '«£ a/-m. Feast of Tabernacles, | 
Sukkoth (Jud.); SJlj Silk* (wdqiya) para- j 
chute; aWjIa *lt« do.; iliill t5-^=r ?'«wdi i 
aJ-m. pi. (Sltil) o^kLl js^>- paratrooper; : 
Jp aMI A* (madda) to extend protection 
to... 

J!** mizalll pi. -tin parachutist; para- 
trooper; pi. paratroops, airborne troops 

Jit. muzallil shady, shadowy, um- 
brageous, shading, causing shadow 

J!i» muzill shady, shadowy, umbra- 
geous, shading, causing shadow 

^11? zalcfa a (zaV) to limp, walk with a limp, 
walk lamely 

Jit z&W lame 

Jilt zilf pi. Jjjit zuZit/, J»^tl azja/ cloven hoof 

^ zalama i (zalm, zulm) to do wrong or 
evil; to wrong, treat unjustly, ill-treat, 
oppress, beset, harm, suppress, tyr- 
annize (0 s.o.), commit outrage (a 
upon s.o.); to act the tyrant, act ty- 
rannically (» toward or against s.o.); — 
zaliTm a and IV to be or grow dark, 
dusky, gloomy, murky, tenebrous, dark- 
en, darkle V to complain (j- of, about) ; 
to lodge a complaint VII and VIII it I 
izzcdama to suffer injustice, be wronged 

j& zuhn wrong; iniquity; injustice, 
inequity, unfairness; oppression, re- 
pression, suppression, tyranny; Lit 
zulman unjustly, wrongfully 

*Jt zulma pi. -a(, zulumat, zulamdt, 
)}* zulam darkness, duskiness, gloom, 
murkiness | £>LltJI j£> bahr az-z. the 
Atlantic Ocean 

♦Lit mlma 3 * darkness | »Ut UJ (laila) 
pitch-dark night 

f^t zalam darkness, duskiness, gloom, 
murkiness 



j»"^t zallam evildoer, villain, malefactor, 
rogue, scoundrel, tyrant, oppressor 

JUi zalim pi. a Lit zilmdn -male 
ostrich 

li^t zuldma pi. -at misdeed, wrong, 
iniquity, injustice, outrage 

it I azlam 2 darker, duskier, gloomier, 
murkier; a viler, more infamous, more 
heinous villain 

Uii* mazlima pi. JUl* mazalim* mis- 
deed, wrong, iniquity, act of injustice, 
outrage 

Wtl izldm darkness, gloom 

ltj> tazallum pi. -at complaint 

jilt zalim pi. -un, **$> zullam, <*it 
zalama unjust, unfair, iniquitous, tyran- 
nical, oppressing; tyrant, oppressor; of- 
fender, transgressor, sinner 

p_jik. mazlum wronged, ill-treated, un- 
justly treated, tyrannized 

It* muzlim dark, dusky, gloomy, 
tenebrous, murky 

^*t zamia a (Lt zama', »Lt zama, S»Lt 
zamaa) to thirst, be thirsty II to make 
(» s.o.) thirst 

»*t zim\ Lt zama' and »Lt zamd* 
thirst 

jUt zartCdv?j f. jLt ?am'a thirsty 

[/It zami' thirsty 

j,t zanna (1st pers. perf. zanantu) u (zann) 
to think, believe, assume, presume, 
suppose (a s.th.); to hold, think, deem, 
consider (a or * * s.o. to be s.o. or s.th.; 
a a s.th. to be s.th.); to suspect (<_-» or 
» s.o.) j J*jij 4it to think s.o. capable 
of doing s.th., believe of s.o. that he 
would do s.th.; j£^ 1-u-l ^\ N (ahadan 
yunkiru) I don't think that anyone can 



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deny; JiJU: dBil V {tukalifunl) I don't 
believe that you can contradict me; ^U 
Jp SjAJaJi aJ (qudrata) he considered him 
capable of ... ; j>iaJI <u ^ (?«««»«) and 
\jj& aj $* to think ill of s.o., have a low 
opinion of s.o.; to mistrust s.o. or s.th.; 
aj jfc to think (a s.th. negative) about 
s.o., Jsi^-VI *u jb {israfa) to think that 
s.o. exaggerates, *LaJ! aj ^ (frabafa) to 
suspect s.o. of stupidity IV to suspect 
(a s.o.) V to surmise, form conjectures 

jk zann opinion, assumption, belief, 
supposition; pi. Oj& zunun negative sup- 
positions, doubts; suspicion, distrust, mis- 
giving; bad opinion; see also J& zanna | 
J&}\ j— p- husnaz-z, good opinion; $i\ *j~> 
8u* az-z, low opinion, distrust; ^1 uJUl j 
or jUJI jf\ j most probably, most 
likely; o\ $b\ jf\ it is very likely 
that ...; 01 4u Lk (zannan) since he 
believed that . . .; u-» dkb L. (zanmtfca) 
what is one to think of ... ; <u <d? l y M >. 
{hasuna zannuhu) to have a good opinion 
of s.o., think well of s.o.; ^ $A\ <y*~\ 
(aksana z-zanna) do.; U» aj »U to have 
a low opinion of s.o., think ill of s.o.; 
^ jliJI »U1 (asa'or) do. 

Ji zanm resting on mere assumption, 
presumptive, supposed, hypothetical 

cU zinna pi, j^k ztnaft suspicion, 
misgiving; distrust (<_* of s.o.); bad opin- 
ion (<-» of s.o. or s.th.) 

(jet zamn suspicious, suspect(ed); 
unreliable, untrustworthy (Jp with re- 
gard to) ; a suspect 

bj& zanun suspicious, distrustful; zu* 
nun see $> zann 

lit* mazinna pi. olia* mazdnn 2 time 
or place where one expects s.th.; (with 
foil, genit. or suffix) place where s.th. 
or s.o. is presumably to be found, its 
most likely location, the most likely 
place for it (or him) to be; suspicion, mis- 



giving | 4jUi, J ai~«UI I looked for 
him where I expected to find him, 
where he presumably was; ajUl. ^ J in 
places where he couldn't possibly be 

0J&* maznun supposed, presumed, 
assumed; suspicious, suspect(ed) 

VjrJ* zunbvb pi. t-ijUJ» zandbib 2 shinbone 

^ zahara a (jj^> zuhur) to be or become 
visible, perceptible, distinct, manifest, 
clear, apparent, evident, obvious (J 
to s.o.), come to light, appear, manifest 
itself, come into view, show, emerge, 
crop up; to appear, seem (J to s.o.); to 
break out (disease); to come out; to 
enter, appear (on the stage; theat.); to 
appear, be published (book, periodical); 
to arise, result (^ from); to ascend, 
climb, mount (a s.th.); to gain the 
upperhand, to triumph (Jp over), get 
the better (J* of), overcome, over- 
whelm, conquer, vanquish (J* s.o.); to 
get (Jp s.th.) into one's power; to gain 
or have knowledge (Jp of), come to 
know (Jp s.th.), become acquainted 
(Jp with); to know (Jp s.th.); to learn, 
receive information (Jp about); to be 
cognizant (Jp of); to learn (Jp s.th.) 
II to endorse (a a bill of exchange) HI to 
help, assist, aid, support (* s.o.) IV to 
make visible, make apparent, show, 
demonstrate, present, produce, bring to 
light, expose, disclose, divulge, reveal, 
manifest, announce, proclaim, make 
known, expound, set forth (a s.th,); to 
develop (a film; phot.); to grant victory 
(Jp » to s.o. over), render victorious 
(Jp o s.o. over); to acquaint (Jp » s.o. 
with s.th.), initiate ( Jp « s.o, into s.th.), 
give knowledge or information (Jp « to 
s.o. about), inform, enlighten (Jp a s.o. 
about), explain (Jp a to s.o. s.th.); to 
let (* s.o.) in on s.th. ( Jp), make (• s.o.) 
realize (Jp s.th.); to show, reveal (Jp » 



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to s.o. s.th.); to articulate fully VI to 
manifest, display, show outwardly, ex- 
hibit, parade (^ s.th.); to feign, affect, 
pretend, simulate (i^» s.th.), act as if, 
make out as if (<-?); to demonstrate, 
make a public demonstration; to help 
one another, make common cause (J* 
against) X to show, demonstrate, expose 
{* s.th.); to memorize, learn by heart 
(a s.th.); to know by heart (a s.th.); to 
seek help, assistance, or support (^ 
with), appeal for help, for assistance 
((-> to s.o.); to overcome, surmount, 
conquer, vanquish (J* s.o., s.th.), have 
or gain the upperhand ( Jp over), get the 
better (J* of) 

j& zahr cast iron | JU-U-I j£> and Aj-U- 
j#& see^j 

j^e zahr pi. jj4^ zuhur, j$>\ azhur 
back; rear, rear part, rear side, reverse; 
flyleaf; deck (of a steamer) ; upper part, 
top, surface; ofj^t zuhurat (as agenit.; 
eg.) pro tempore, provisional, temporary | 
j^ai\ iUL- silstlat az~z. spine, ver- 
tebral column; j^J [#& zahran li-batnin 
upside down, topsy-turvy; t-Js* Jp [^ 
('aqib) from the ground up, radically, 
entirely, completely; l^-jJI j£u bi-z t al- 
gaib behind s.o.'s back, insidiously, 
treacherously; secretly, stealthily, clan- 
destinely; A^l ,>j in their midst, a- 
mong them; U^^l <ju j- from our 
midst, from among us; j& Jp on (e.g., 
on the ground, on the water, etc.), j$> Jp 
•/J-Ul on board the steamer; *_JJiJl j$> ^ 
(z. al-qalb), <_JU j£> ^ (z. qalbin) or jp 
«-J«Il jji {z. al-gaib) by heart; {JJ*z~* 
d\jj^ (mustakdam) temporary employee ; 
•j|ki <**ij *Ui see xt sadda 

j^ zuhr pi. jlflil azhdr noon, midday; 
(f.) midday prayer (Jsl. Law) | j^kJI 4*j in 
the afternoon, p.m.; ^^Jijl JJ in the 
forenoon, a.m.; ^1 j& JJJ yesterday 



morning; l^fc \ Y SpUI at twelve noon; 
^j^U JiLi recently, a short time ago 

i£j$> zihri: iij^ {**-J&) ••*** to pay no 
attention to s.th., not to care about 
s.th., disregard s.th. 

j^ zahir helper, assistant, aid, sup- 
porter; partisan, backer; back (in soccer) ; 
(pi. Jlfi zahcCir 2 ; mor,) decree, edict, 
ordinance 

j>$k zuhur appearance; entry, appear- 
ance on the stage (theat.); visibility, 
conspicuousness; pomp, splendor, show, 
ostentation, window-dressing | jj^\ <_-*- 
hubb az-z. ostentatiousness, love of 
pomp; j>giiJi *V> f ld az-z, Epiphany 
(Chr.); jj^\ j Tju to become visible, 
come into view 

(jl_^kJI az-zahran Dhahran (town in 
extensive o* 3gion of E Saudi Arabia) 

rf^W* o°. baina zahranaihim in their 
midst, among them 

»jU^ zihara outside, right side (of a 
garment); blanket (e.g., of a mule) 

*jy^ zahira noon, midday, midday 
heat 

j^m\ azhar 2 more distinct, more mani- 
fest, clearer 

jjk* rnazhar pi. ^Ui* mazdhir 2 (external) 
appearance, external make-up, guise; 
outward bearing, comportment, conduct, 
behavior; exterior, look(s), sight, view; 
semblance, aspect; bearer or object 
of a phenomenon, object in which s.th. 
manifests itself; phenomenon; symptom 
(med.); pi. manifestations, expressions | 
SLi-l ^Ui* m. al-hayah manifestations of 
life (bioL); j$L\ J externally, in outward 
appearance, outwardly 

j^ai tazhir endorsement, transfer by 
endorsement (of a bill of exchange ; fin.) 



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jlfk zihdr pre-Islamic form of divorce, 
consisting in the words of repudiation: 
you are to me like my mother's back 
bj\ j^laS** Jp cJl anti 'alayya ka-zahri 
umml) 

«yblli« muzdhara assistance, support, 
backing; (pi. -at) (public) demonstration, 
rally 

jL^I izh&r presentation, exposition, 
demonstration, exhibition, disclosure, ex- 
posure, revelation, announcement, dec- 
laration, manifestation, display; develop- 
ing (phot.) 

^Uij tazdhur dissimulation, feigning, 
pretending, pretension; hypocrisy, dis- 
semblance; (pi. -at) (public) demonstra- 
tion, rally 

Sj*UiJ tazahura (n. vie.) pi. -at (public) 
demonstration 

_^lk zahir (of God) mastering, knowing 
(J* s.th.); visible, perceptible, distinct, 
manifest, obvious, conspicuous, clear, 
patent, evident, apparent; external, 
exterior, outward; seeming, presumed, 
ostensible, alleged; outside, exterior, 
surface; outskirts, periphery (of a city); 
(gram.) substantive; (pi. j*\J& zawdhir 2 ) 
external sense, literal meaning (specif., 
of Koran and Prophetic Tradition); I^Ui 
zdhiran externally, outwardly; seemingly, 



presumedly, ostensibly, allegedly | jt& 
Jlilil z. al-lafz the literal meaning of an 
expression; ui ^*UiJl it seems, it appears 
that . . . j j*UiJl «_«->■ hasaba z-z. in outward 
appearance, externally, outwardly; j 
^ItJl apparently, obviously, evidently; j 
ytUiJI and j* VI y& J (z. al-amr) seen 
outwardly, externally; outwardly; ^ 
jAlkJl from outside 

t$^U» zdhirl outer, outside, external, 
exterior, outward; superficial; apparent, 
seeming (in contrast with j~a»- real); 
Zahiritic, interpreting the Koran accord- 
ing to its literal meaning; U^*Ui (adv.) 
seen from the outside, externally 

Zjt>\& zdhira pi. y>1^ zawahir 2 phe- 
nomenon; outward sign or token, external 
symptom or indication | SLU jh\J* z, 
al-hayah biological phenomena (biol); 
iji-l y>\_^\ Ac- 'ilm «?-?• al-jawmya 
meteorology;^!^ I Jw (zaivdhira) to keep 
up appearances 

O ji^lt zahir ail phenomenological | 
O 4-jly>UiJi 4iJLi)l (falsafa) phenomenol- 
ogy (philos.) 

j$l* muzahhir endorser (of a bill of 
exchange; fin.) 

^Iku mutazahir pi. -tin demonstrator 
#lb zd' name of the letter J» 



f abbreviation of i-U No. (e.g., of a magazine) 
and ijf column (in newspapers) 

^p 'abba u ('abb) to drink in large draughts, 
gulp down (a s.th.); to pour down, toss 
down (a a drink); to lap up, drink avidly 
(a s.th.) 



u--c e ubb, f ibb breast pocket 

^1*p r ubdb (also f.) ocean waves, billows, 
floods 

V_**d ya'bub torrential river 
Lp 'aba* a a with negation; u U L not to 



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-Up 



care about, not to give a hoot for, pay 
no attention to, attach no importance 
to, not to insist on | <u Lu V (yu'ba'u) un- 
important, insignificant; *dU j& indif- 
ferent, unconcerned II to prepare, 
arrange (a s.th.); to array, set up (a 
s.th.); to mobilize, call up (L%- jaimn 
an army); to fill, pack (^ a s.th. with); 
to load, charge (^ a s.th. with); to park- 
age (j a s.th. in bags, sacks or boxes); 
to draw off, decant (J a s.th. into), bottle 
(a s.th.); to load (a goods, for transport) 

>t_-p 'i6' pi. »LpI a r ba y load, burden 
( Jp on), encumbrance ( Jp to) | oLJVI »^p 
"i. al-itbdt burden of proof (jur.); ^^i or 
l^JT »LpVIj pli to take all burdens upon 
o.s., carry all burdens 

»Lp f abc? pi. ILp! a'&i'a aba, cloak- 
like woolen wrap (occasionally striped) 

S.Lfr *a&a'a pi. -ai aba, a cloak-like, 
woolen wrap (occasionally striped) 

iljjJ ta'bi'a mobilization; drafting, 
conscription; alerting (of military forces, 
etc.); filling, drawing off, bottling; load- 
ing (of goods) 

dip f dbi see under verb I 

-f f abita a ( e abat) to fool around, indulge 
in horseplay, commit a folly; to play, 
joke, jest (lj with); to toy, play a friv- 
olous game (c-> with), mock (^ s.o,, 
s.th.); to play (absent-mindedly), fidget, 
fuss, dawdle, fiddle (^ with s.th., e.g., 
while talking); to handle, manipulate 
(v s.th.), tinker (^ with); to abuse 
(c-> s.th.); to commit an offense («_» 
against), violate (^ s.th.), infringe, en- 
croach («_-> upon); to impair, injure (^ 
s.th.) Ill to amuse o.s., make fun, play 
around, banter, dally ( e with s.o.), tease 
(» s.o.), play a trick, prank or joke ( 
on s.o.) 



<i~p "abat (frivolous) play; pastime, 
amusement; joke, jest; nonsense; li-p 
'abatan in vain, futilely, to no avail, 
uselessly, fruitlessly | o\ £«jjl j* it is 
foolish and useless to ... ; f-Ua^-l U-p Jyjj 
«u^ jl {istata'a, yujibahu) but he 
couldn't give him an answer 

itjU* mu'dbata pi, -a( teasing, joke or 
prank played on s.o.; funmaking, jest- 
ing, banter, raillery 

djU 'a&tf joking, jocular; mocking, 
scornful; frivolous; wanton; a gay blade, 
wag 

-Up 'ahada w (SiLp 'ibdda, S^^p < ubuda, ajo^-p 
'ubudiya) to serve, worship (♦ a god), 
adore, venerate (* s.o., a god or human 
being), idolize, deify (« s.o.) II to enslave, 
enthrall, subjugate, subject (o s.o.); to 
make passable for traffic (a a road) 
V to devote o.s. to the service of 
God; to show (divine) veneration (J for 
s.o.), deify, worship (J s.o.) X to enslave, 
enthrall, subjugate (a s.o.) 

-Up *abd pi. JUjp f abid t uI-Lp f ubdan, 
r ibdan slave, serf; bondsman, servant; — 
(pi. jLp Hbad) servant (of God), human 
being, man; jLJI humanity, mankind | 
4i OoJl — I (form of modesty); -L*JI 
-iJI do. 



,jj^\ *Up, cSjVa-p 'abdaUawi {eg.) a 
variety of melon 

S -up 'abda pi. -at woman slave, slave 
girl, bondwoman 

.sLp 'abbdd: i<r *JL)l jLp and j^AJl SjLp 
'a. as-sams sunflower (Helianthus an- 
nuus L.) 

uIjLp 'abbdddn 2 , 'abdddn 2 Abadan 
(island and town in W Iran) 

oLp r ibdda worship, adoration, ven- 
eration; devotional service, divine serv- 



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686 



ice (Chr.); pi. -at acts of devotion, re- 
ligious observances (Isl. Law) 

Sj^p r ubuda humble veneration, hom- 
age, adoration, worship; slavery, serf- 
dom; servitude, bondage 

iji^-c r ubudiya humble veneration, 
homage, adoration, worship ; slavery, serf- 
dom; servitude, bondage 

jl** mefbad pi, 4jU» ma'dbid 2 place of 
worship; house of God, temple 

Xj-aJ ta'bid enslavement, enthrallment, 
subjugation, subjection; paving, con- 
struction, opening (of a road for traffic) | 
J^JI JU*J t. at-turuq road construction 

jl*j ta'abbud piety, devout ness, de- 
votion, worship; hagiolatry, worship or 
cult of saints (Chr.) 

(^JUJ ta'abbvdi pertaining to divine 
worship or the relation of man to God 

jL*=-l isti'bad enslavement, enthrall- 
ment, subjugation 

JbU 'abid pi. -un, jLc r ubbad, IX^ 
'abada worshiper, adorer 

j>^. ma bud worshiped, adored; deity, 
godhead; idol 

o^-*- ma'buda ladylove, adored 
woman 

JUw mu'cfbbad levelled, graded, paved, 
passable for traffic (road) 

jL*i. muta r abbid pious, devout; pious 
worshiper (Chr.) 

j^p f abara u ( r abr, jys- r ubur) to cross, tra- 
verse (a s.th.); to ford (a s.th.), wade 
(a through s.th.); to swim (a s.th. or 
across s.th.); to pass (a over s.th.); to 
ferry (a a river, and the like); a *j j^. to 
carry s.o. across or over s.th.; J I *j yf 
to make s.o. cross over or go forward, 
lead s.o. to (e.g., to a new life); to pass, 



elapse (time), fade, dwindle; to pass 
away, die, depart; — r abira a ("abar) 
to shed tears II to interpret (a a dream); 
to explain, illustrate, expound (a s.th.); 
to state clearly, declare, assert, utter, 
express, voice (j* s.th.), give expression 
(^ to a feeling); to designate (y ^ 
s.th. with or by); to determine the 
weight of a coin (a), weigh (a a coin) 
VIII to be taught a lesson, be warned; 
to learn a lesson, take warning, to 
learn, take an example (^ from); to con- 
sider, weigh, take into account or consider- 
ation (a s.th.), allow, make allowances 
(a for s.th.); to acknowledge a quality 
(a) in s.o. (J); to deem, regard, take 
(a a, o s.o., s.th. as), look (a a, « at 
s.th. as); to esteem, honor, revere, value, 
respect, hold in esteem (» s.o.), have 
regard (a for s.o.) X to shed tears, weep 

jx- "abr crossing, traversing, transit; 
passage; fording; 'abra (prep.) across, 
over; through, throughout; by way of, 
by means of | o-dl j& across or through 
the town; >\j»*Jh j& (sahra?) across or 
through the desert; jU*Jl jf overseas; 
«jjbJI j& throughout history; jj-*a*!l j* 
through the centuries 

jj~p r ubur crossing, traversing, transit; 
passage; fording 

j^e- *abir fragrance, scent, perfume, 
aroma; bouquet (of wine) 

<_$^ e ibri Hebrew, Hebraic; (pi. -un) 
a Hebrew; ^>*Jl or 4jjvS\ Hebrew, the 
Hebrew language 

lj*> c abra pi. r abarat> j& r ibar tear 

Ij*. *ibra pi. js- f ibar admonition, 
monition, warning; (warning or de- 
terring) example, lesson; advice, rule, 
precept (to be followed); consideration 
befitting s.th.; that which has to be 
considered, be taken into consideration 
or account, that which is of conse- 



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quence, of importance, s.th. decisive 
or consequential | Zjvi\ t)ey> mautin 
aVi. the salient point, the crucial point; 
*j »j& *^ ( T ibrata) it deserves no attention, 
it is of no consequence; joru S/jJI the 
crucial factor(s) is (are)..., decisive is 
(are)...; jl lj& V {li-man) it is of no 
consequence if s.o. . . . 

IjLe- "ibdra pi. -at explanation, inter- 
pretation; (verbal) expression, utterance; 
phrase; clause; way of expressing one- 
self; term [math.) | ^^-! *jL*j (ukra) in 
other words, expressed otherwise; SjUp 
SjL*i 'ibaratan fa- f ibaratan sentence by 
sentence, word by word; ^ SjLp consist- 
ing in; tantamount to, equivalent to, 
meaning . . . 

jlj^p Hbranl Hebrew, Hebraic; a 
Hebrew; Jl^yJl or HJljvJl Hebrew, the 
Hebrew language 

j\*a ma'bar pi. j\** ma'abir 2 crossing 
point, crossing, traverse, passage(way); 
ford; pass, pass road, defile; means, way, 
medium (J to s.th.) 

s*a mfbar pi. j\»* ma'abir 2 medium 
for crossing, ferry, ferryboat; bridge 

j^*j tcfbir interpretation (of a dream) ; 
assertion, declaration, expression, utter- 
ance (jp of a feeling); (pi. -at) expression 
(in general, also artistic); (pi. ^Uj 
ta'dbir 2 ) (linguistic) expression, phrase, 
term | ^T j^cj (dkar) in other words, 
expressed otherwise 

tfj^ ta'birl expressional, expressive, 
emotive | O tSj^>\ <-o*^ (adab) expres- 
sionistic literature ; *ij\m oS^>- (harakdt) 
mimic gestures or art ; j jwcdl o**J^ ( ra 2?) 
interpretive dance, expressional dance; 
O tfjv ^ JjiJl (fann) expressionism 

O *d^v*J ta'blriya expressionism 

jUpI iHibar respect, regard, esteem; 
self-esteem, honor; (pi. -at) consideration, 



regard; reflection; contemplation; ap- 
proach, outlook, point of view, view | \j\~&\ 
uor J (iHibaran) with respect to, with 
regard to, in consideration of, con- 
sidering..., in view of (s.th.); ,y ljl-^1 
from, as of, beginning . . ., starting with . . ., 
effective from... (with foil, indication 
of time); *<^iJI j\~*\\ with respect to, 
with regard to, in consideration of, 
considering..., in view of (s.th.); jU^Lj 
b I bi- r tibari an considering (the fact) 
that..., with regard to the fact that..., 
in view of the fact that...; provided 
that..., with the proviso that...; *jU^Lj 
as, in terms of, in the capacity of, e.g., 
*\jjj\ aJ£\ ojL^L LfjU-'l jjj (aqdama I- 
wuzard'i) the Foreign Minister in his 
capacity of senior-ranking minister; 
jLx^Vl \Xft from this standpoint, from 
this viewpoint; ul jU^i Jc considering 
(the fact) that..., with regard to the 
fact that..., in view of the fact that...; 
on the assumption that...; jUpV IJU J* 
from this standpoint, from this view- 
point; jL»1 JT J in every respect ; IjU^I 
*ZJt*~ j\ (haqlqatan) from a subjective 
point of view or in reality; sjLxpi J j»\ 
(amrun) s.th. which one must take into 
consideration or pay attention to; *j 
jL^Vl radd al-i. rehabilitation 

^jL^I i'tibdri based on a subjective 
approach or outlook; relative | <~*£ 
iijUz*! (sakslya) legal person [jur.) 

j-Ip f dbir passing; crossing, traversing, 
etc. (see I); fleeting (smile); transient, 
transitory, ephemeral; bygone, past, 
elapsed (time); (pi. -un) passer-by | 
IwJJ j\& r a. al-muhit crossing the ocean; 
.U~>JlI £j\j\c ocean liners; J^a-JI _/U way- 
farer; passer-by, s.o. passing along in the 
street; >\j**~#!\ j-U 'a. as-sahrd' traverser 
of the Sahara; oljUJl ^U ^jjU> (qdrrdt) 
intercontinental ballistic missile, ICBM 

j*** mu r abbir interpreter (^of feelings) ; 



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688 



expressive, significant | j** ^j {raq?) 
interpretative dancing 

*jj* *abrud ihij.) musket, gun 

ij-xc- 'abasa i {*abs, <j*j^- r ubus) to frown, 
knit one's brows; to glower, lower, 
scowl, look sternly | 4^>-j J ^^c to 
give s.o. an angry look, scowl at s.o. 
II = I 

ifjf. r abit8 frowning, scowling; gloomy, 
dismal, melancholy; stern, austere; 
ominous 

^j^ f ubu8 gloominess, gloom, drear- 
iness; sternness, austerity, severity, 
gravity 

4**^ *vbusa frown, scowl; glower, 
gloomy look, a gloomy, morose, sullen or 
stern mien 

^Lt 'abbdsl Abbaside; (pi. -un) an 
Abbaside 

^-jU f dbis frowning, scowling; gloomy, 
morose, sullen; austere, stern, severe 

Ja-jP v abip pi. »lkp 'ubata* 2 stupid, imbecile, 
idiotic, silly, foolish 

U?Lipl i r tiba$an at random, haphazard- 
ly, arbitrarily 

J-p 'abiqa a ( r abaq) to cling (»_j to), linger 
(<-> on, of a scent) ; to be fragrant, exhale 
fragrance; to be filled, be redolent (^ 
with a scent, etc.) 

J-p 'abiq fragrant, redolent, exhaling 
fragrance 

<iLc 'abqa pressure (on the chest), 
feeling of suffocation 

JjU 'dbiq fragrant, redolent, exhaling 
fragrance 



jju* "abqar legendary place inhabited by 
jinn; fairyland, wonderland 

tjjji^ r abqari multicolored, colorful car- 
pet; ingenious, genial; (pi. -un, SjiL* 
r abaqira) ingenious person, genius 

aj Jksr 'abqariya ingenuity, genius 

jJLc- 'abdk camlet (woolen fabric) 

J-c r abl pi. JLp Hbdl plump, well rounded, 
chubby, fat (e.g., arms) 

JLp 'abdl (coll.; n. un. I) a variety of 
wild rose, eglantine 

Jypl a r bal granite 

j^ II = Lp II; to fill, pack (tj * s.th. with); 
to load, charge (<_-> * s.th. with) 

•j*e 'ubuwa pi. -at package, pack (of 
an article, of a commodity); container 
with its contents | SjL-U Sj*p explosive 
charge, blasting charge 



SjLp 



o»Ue r abd y a q. v. 



it 'ataba i u {*atb, <_~^ maHab) to blame, 
censure, reprove, scold (Jp s.o.); — u^ 
4jL> ' ataba babahu to cross the threshold 
of s.o. II to hesitate, be slow, be tardy 
III to blame, censure, reprove, scold 
(J* » s.o. for) 

<_^p 'atb censure, blame, rebuke, 
reproof, reprimand 

SLic- 'ataba pi. *_-=p < atab, <_jLpI a'tab 
doorstep, threshold; (door) lintel, also 
ULJI LiJI ifulya); step, stair | SJLJl t-dse^l 
(saniya) (formerly:) His Highness the 
Bey (Tun.); dllli ^UpV 4*»j rafa'ahv, 
U-a. il-malik to present s.th. (e.g., a 
gift) most obediently to the king 

^Up 'itdb censure, blame, rebuke, re- 
proof, reprimand 



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a verier- 



iJU* mu'dtaba censure, blame, rebuke, 
reproof, reprimand 

•^ r ahida u (jUp f atdd) to be ready, be 
prepared IV to prepare, ready, make 
ready {> s.th.) 

jb> r atdd pi. oxpf a'tud, SjupI a r fi^a 
equipment; (war) material, materiel, am- 
munition j <Jj>- *\z& (harbi) war material, 
materiel, ammunition 

-uxt 'a£«J ready, prepared; future, 
forthcoming; venerable; solemn; ac- 
customed, familiar, (person or thing) that 
one is used to, at home with | Sju 
solemn ceremonial; S-lsp JL 
able personality; JLaJl Jb>j}\ {watan) the 
dear old homeland 

□ j** wu' 'attar (< ^oo.) slovenly, sloppy; 
stupid; unfortunate 

J» r a*wga w (^sLp 'afczja) and r ataqa i 
( r atq, *itq) to grow old, age; to mature, 
mellow (wine); — r ataqa i to be eman- 
cipated, be free (slave) II to age, cellar 
(a wine) IV to free, set free, release, eman- 
cipate, manumit (« s.o., eso. a slave) VII 
to free o.s., rid o.s. (^ of) 

J^p r itq age (esp. of wine), oldness; 
great age, antiquity (of s.th.); liberty (as 
opposed to slavery); emancipation, free- 
ing, manumission (of a slave) 

J-^p f atiq old; ancient, antique; sea- 
soned, matured, mellowed, aged (wine) ; of 
ancient tradition, long-standing; anti- 
quated, outmoded, obsolete; free, eman- 
cipated (slave); noble | jljUl J^ old- 
fashioned 

«Up 'ataqa age (esp. of wine) 

JSUpI i'tdq freeing, liberation, manu- 
mission (of a slave) 

Jbul in'itdq self-liberation (j- from) 



JhU r dtiq pi. JjI^p r awatiq 2 shoulder | 
«ujLp Jp «-U-i (akadahu) to take s.th. 
upon o.s., take over, assume s.th ; 
<ujLp Jp »UII (cdqahu) to make s.th. in- 
cumbent on s.o.; -uJU Jp aJ j J m X\ Jil to 
place the responsibility on s.o.; ^Sj 
d"^i JjLp J* to be at s.o.'s expense, 
fall to s.o. 

Jx*» mifattaq mellowed, matured 
(wine); old, ancient 

jx** muHiq emancipator, liberator, 
manumitter (of slaves) 

dJb^ 'ataka i to attack 

ji^lp 'atih clear, pure, limpid (esp. wine) 

Jsp f atala u i ( f atl) to carry (a s.th.); to lift, 
raise (a loads) 

J Lip 'attal porter, carrier 

*$££> r atala pi. Jip 'afczZ crowbar 

*JUp 'ifaitt porter's or carrier's trade; 
porterage 

idxp 'ailata (leb.) track and field, athletics 

j!p T atama i { T atm} to hesitate II to darken, 
obscure, cloud, black out (a s.th.); to 
hesitate (esp. with neg.) | J, ol J!»j V 
jl J!p U, 6 1 I*j he does (did) not hesi- 
tate to do it, he does (did) it at once; 
it does not (did not) take long until . . ., 
before long . . ., presently ... IV to hesi- 
tate, waver 

Z& r utm (coll.; n. un. •) wild olive tree 

S^p 'atma dark, gloom, darkness 

**ip 'atama first third of the night 

i.lxp f atdma opacity, opaqueness; (pi. 
-at) darkness 

~Uj ta'tim darkening, obscuring, cloud- 
ing 



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690 



r* 



mu'tim dark 



<cp pass. e utiha { f uth, 'atah, «aUp r ataha) to 
be or become idiotic, imbecile, dim- 
witted, feeble-minded, demented, insane, 
mad, crazy 

4ip 'utk, e atah idiocy, imbecility, dim- 
wittedness, feeble- mindedness 

«*bp * aloha idiocy, imbecility, dim- 
wittedness, feeble -mindedness 

tj^A maHuh pi. aJU* ma'dtih 2 idiotic, 
insane, mad, crazy; idiot, lunatic, im- 
becile, demented person, insane person 

(y*. and Jp) Up r ata u (j& f utuw, Jp f utiy, Htiy) 
to be insolent, refractory, recalcitrant, 
unruly; to be violent, fierce, strong, wild, 
furious, raging (e.g., storms) V do. 

jz*. 'utuw presumption, haughtiness, 
insolence, impertinence, arrogance; re 
calcitrance, unruliness, wildness, ferocity 

Je r utiy presumption, haughtiness 
insolence, impertinence, arrogance; recal 
citrance, unruliness, wildness, ferocity 
Lip j+*i\ ^ ^L ( f umr) to attain great age 
to be far advanced in years 

JJp e atiy pi. #Up! cftc? haughty, im- 
pertinent, insolent; recalcitrant, re- 
fractory, unruly, intractable, wild 

olc r atin pi. l\& 'utdh presumptuous, 
impudent, impertinent, insolent, arro- 
gant ; violent, fierce, strong, wild, furious, 
raging (storm) 



t 'utt (coll.; n. un. I) pi. , 
worm, moth larva; moth 



'utat moth 



*t>jL*j* ma'tut moth-ridden, full of 
moths, moth-eaten 

j-* 'atara u i ( r atr, jds, r atir, jb* r itdr) to 
stumble, trip; «u j^ to trip s.o., make 
s.o. stumble, make s.o. fall, fell s.o., 



topple s.o.; — r atara u (jji* e tUur) to 
come (._> or J* across), hit, light, strike, 
stumble (^ or Jp upon), find, discover, 
detect ( v or Jp s.o., s.th.) II to cause 
(t> s.o.) to stumble, trip (« s.o.), make 
(o s.o.) fall, topple (* s.o.) IV = II; to 
acquaint (Jp « s.o. with s.th.); to lead 
(Jp a s.o. to s.th.) V to stumble, trip; 
to stutter, stammer, speak brokenly; to 
have trouble, be barely able ( j, ^ to do 
s.th.); to have difficulties (J, ^ with); 
to be congested, barely move, creep along 
(traffic) | ilSCill J>- j jtu (halli 1-muSkila) 
he had great difficulty in solving the 
problem; v-J&l J^ jL" (bi-hamli l-kutub) 
it was very hard for him to carry the 
books; 'LX I JbSL Jij (bi-adyali l-kaiba) 
to fail, meet with failure 

•j& 'atra pi. r atardt stumbling, trip- 
ping; false step, slip, fall | I4JI ij& r a. al- 
qalam pi. ^Vl oij^ slip of the pen; 
(-jLxJ! £>\j& e a. al-kuttdb lexical and gram- 
matical mistakes of authors; oJU ^*r 
hajar "a. stumbling block; J lj& C&j 
*L^- ( r atratan) to be a stumbling block for 
s.o., obstruct s.o.'s way 

jj± r utur discovery, detection ( Jp of) 

jrtic 'ityar dust, fine sand 

jjjU f dtur pi. jyljc 'awdtir 2 pitfall; 
difficulty 

jv&a mutcfattir stumbling, tripping; un- 
even, rugged (way) ; clumsy (style) ; speak- 
ing (a foreign language) brokenly; broken 
(of a foreign language) | Sj^z. &J» JjU 
to follow a thorny path, proceed along a 
way beset with stumbling blocks; jlc 
jj^\ barely passable (street) 

Jl^p 'utmdni Ottoman (adj. and n.) 

o^ip e utnun pi. (>jbp 'atdnln 2 beard 

(_jip and ^) lip r atd u {j& r utuw), Jc 'atdai 



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691 



{'utiy, 'itiy) to act wickedly, do harm, 
cause mischief 

nt *ajja i ( r ajj, £-j* 'afij) to cry, yell, roar; 
to cry out for help (Jl to); to rage, roar; 
to thunder, resound {<~> with); to swarm, 
teem (^ with) II to raise, swirl up (jLjJI 
al-gubara the dust; of the wind) 

mc *ajj crying, yelling; clamor, roar 

if 'ujja omelet 

pJE r ajlj crying, yelling; clamor, roar 

r-Lf r ajaj (swirling) dust; smoke 

ij-L£ e ajdja pi. -at cloud of dust; billow 
of smoke 

r-Lf 'ajjdj crying, yelling, clamoring, 



<_*£ V { r ajaba) no wonder! 



-I 



roaring, boisterous, 
(esp. sea) 



vociferous; raging 



uj£ 'ajtba a ( f ajab) to wonder, marvel, be 
astonished, be amazed (j* or J at, over) 
II to arouse admiration, astonishment 
(t in s.o.) IV to fill with admiration (o s.o.) ; 
to strike with astonishment, wonder, 
amaze {« s.o.); to please, delight (* s.o.), 
appeal (» to s.o.) ; — pass. xCjiha to admire 
(y s.o. , s,th.), have a high opinion (<~> 
of); to be proud (^ of), be vain (>_j about), 
glory (cj in) | <*— Jcj ^J^ I (u'jiba) to be 
conceited, be vain V to wonder, marvel, 
be astonished, be amazed (^ at, over) 
X = V 

^ *w?6 pride (^ of, in), vanity (t-> 
in), conceit | jljjl 4-***JI self-love, self- 
admiration; vanity, conceit 

»— <£ c a/a6 astonishment, amazement; 
(pi. *-*lf 1 a^'ob) wonder, marvel ; Lj£ 
'ajaban how strange! how odd! how 
astonishing! how remarkable! | J L^ 
(with foil, noun or suffix) how strange 
(astonishing, etc.) is (or are) . . .! dil Lj£ 
what a remarkable person you are! 
(.^.J U ?/a la-l-'ajab oh, how wonderful! 



amrun 'ajabun a wonderful, marvelous 
thing; i_-j£ Sj^j (tauratun r ajahun) an 
astonishing revolution; <_j1j£ *_-j£ (*tt;o6) 
most prodigious happening, wonder of 
wonders 

t^L^ 'ujab wonderful, wondrous, mar- 
velous, astonishing, amazing; see 'ajab 

<^~£ 'ajib wonderful, wondrous, mar- 
velous, admirable; astonishing, amazing, 
remarkable, strange, odd 

'<*JE 'ajiba pi. L-Jtf 'aj&'ib* wondrous 
thing, unheard-of thing, prodigy, marvel, 
miracle, wonder; pi. remarkable things, 
curiosities, oddities | jl ^Vl kJ$J? <> 
the remarkable thing about the matter 
is that . . . 

u-^f I a" jab 2 more wonderful, more 
marvelous; more astonishing, more re- 
markable 

*i>? ' u'fuba pi. u~»-Ui a r djib 2 won- 
drous thing; unheard-of thing, prodigy, 
marvel, miracle, wonder 

<-~>**Z ta'jib arousing of admiration (^ 
for s.th,), boosting (<y of s.th.), publicity 
(^ for s.th.) 

u-«Lf I Vjab admiration (<_-■ for); pleas- 
ure, satisfaction, delight (^in); acclaim; 
pride; self-complacency, conceit 

<_-*»*j ta'ajjub astonishment, amaze- 
ment J uj-jjJI X*^ "aldmat at-L exclama- 
tion point 

<_jL*»i-1 istijdb astonishment, amaze- 
ment 

(~^** mu r jib causing admiration, ad- 
mirable 

(_**»** mu'jab admirer (»_j of s.o., of 
s.th.); proud (^ of), vain (<~> about) | 
1 {bi-nafsihl) conceited, vain 

muta'ajjib amazed, astonished 



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692 



jfc 'ajar outgrowth, protuberance, ex- 
crescence, projection 

j£ *agr (eg.) green, unripe 

•A ' u ? ra P 1 * A ' u J ar knot » knob, 
hump, protuberance, excrescence | >jk 
*A J f ujaruhu wa-bujaruhu his (its) obvious 
and hidden shortcomings, all his (its) 
faults 

jj£ 'aggur (coll.; n. un. 5) a variety 
of green melon (eg.) 

«J»jjf II ta'ajrafa to be presumptuous, ar- 
rogant, haughty 

**A * a fraf a presumption, arrogance, 
haughtiness 

j£ 'ajaza i (*ajz) and 'ajiza a to be weak, 
lack strength, be incapable (<y of), be 
unable (^ to do s.th.) ; — * ajaza u (}j£ 
e ujuz) and 'ajuza u to age, grow old 
(woman) | jl ^ j£ L. ('ajaza, 'ajiza) 
not to fail to... II to weaken, debilitate, 
disable, incapacitate, hamstring, cripple, 
paralyze (• s.o.) IV to weaken, debilitate, 
disable, incapacitate, hamstring, cripple, 
paralyze (* s.o.); to be impossible (« for 
s.o.); to speak in an inimitable, or 
wonderful, manner | ^iilj v oJI ^ a ^£ I 
(dabb, ma$y) to paralyze s.o.'s every 
move; p+i}\ j* »^£ f (fahm) to make 
comprehension impossible for s.o. X to 
deem (» s.o.) incapable (^e of) 

>£ *ajz weakness, incapacity, dis- 
ability, failure, impotence (jc for, to do 
s.th.); invalidity; deficit 

A 'ajuz, r ajz pi. JL£ 1 a*jaz backside, 
rump, posteriors | JiJi jLf I a. an-nakl 
stumps of palm trees; jJU*Jl Jp j^JI ±j 
(sadr) to bring the rear to the fore, i.e., 
to reverse conditions, make up for a 
deficiency; OjJ( }£ 'a. al-bait second 
hemistich (of an Arabic verse) 



j^f *ujuz old age 

JA * a faz pi. >*U r ajaHz 2 f £ r ujuz 
old woman; old man; old, advanced in 
years 

"*jfi 'ajiza posteriors, buttocks (of a 
woman) 

jLf I Vjdz inimitability, wondrous na- 
ture (of the Koran) 

(Ajl*l i'jazi inimitable, matchless, un- 
heard-of 

J*-U *djiz pL^jc 'atvdjiz 2 weak, feeble, 
powerless, impotent; incapable (j* of), 
unable ( jc to do s.th.); — (pi. l_£ ' ajaza) 
physically weak; physically disabled; 
decrepit | S^JI <jUJ is'df aVa, care 
for the aged; S^^Jl £*u bait al- ajaza old 
folks' home, home for the aged 

>>« mu'jiz miracle (esp. one performed 
by a prophet) 

tj*** mu'jiza pi. -at miracle (esp. one 
performed by a prophet) 

£>uf 'aj'aja to bellow, bawl, roar 

<?*£ r aj e aja clamor, roar, bellowing 

^**\ a'jaf*, f. »Uf 'ajfd* 2 pi. J»U Hjdf 
slender, slim, svelte; lean, emaciated 

A r ajito a { f ajal, <L£ 'ajala) to hurry, 
hasten, speed, rush, be in a hurry; to 
rush, hasten, hurry, come quickly (Jl 
to) II to hurry, hasten, speed, rush, be 
in a hurry; to bring about quickly, 
hasten on (^ s.th.), bring or take quickly 
(J v s.th. to); to hurry, rush, urge, 
impel, drive (« s.o.), expedite, speed up, 
accelerate (a s.th.); to pay in advance; 
to pay spot cash (* J to s.o. for) III to 
hurry in order to catch up (a, » with 
s.o., with s.th.), rush, hurry (a, « after 
s.o,, after s.th.); to catch up (» with 
s.o.), overtake (* s.o.; esp. death), de- 



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scend swiftly (a, « upon); to anticipate, 
forestall (<-> « s.o. in or with) IV to hurry, 
rush, urge, impel, drive (• s.o.) | cJJ\ <tLf i 
jc (waqtu) the time was too short for 
him to... Y to hurry, hasten, speed, 
rush, be in a hurry; to seek to get ahead 
in a hurry; to hurry, rush, urge (Jf » 
s.o. to); to anticipate, forestall (a, » 
s.o., s.th.); to be ahead (a of s.th,), 
precede (a e.g., events); to receive at 
once, without delay (a a sum), receive 
spot cash | vl>^ <UuJ (jawdba) to 
demand a quick reply from s.o. X to 
hurry, hasten, rush, speed, be in a 
hurry; to wish to expedite (a s.th.); to 
hurry, rush, urge, impel, drive (« s.o.), 
expedite, speed up, accelerate (a s.th.) 

Jjf r ijl pi. J^f r ujul, iLf 'ijala calf | 
j*J\ J^ H. al-bahr sea calf, seal 

J^ 'ajal hurry, haste | J> Jp in a 
hurry, hurriedly, speedily, quickly, fast, 
rapidly 

J^ e ajil quick, fast, swift, speedy, 
rapid 

<Lf 'ajala hurry, haste; precipitance, 
precipitation 

*&£ * ajala pi. -at wheel; bicycle; two- 
wheeled cart; (leb.) car, vehicle | J^ Ujt 
'a. hand hand truck, cart; £JL~. '<!£ 
(musannana) cogwheel; O b^ ^ (say* 
yarn) motorcycle; oLiJi iU steering 
wheel; 4jjIJ£ <[£ (bukdrlya) and hj\j~A£ 
(nariya) motorcycle 

Jjjf *afil pi. JLf Hjdl quick, fast, 
swift, speedy, rapid 

Jjj£ *ajul pi. Jj£ r ujul quick, fast, 
swift, speedy, rapid; hasty, precipitate, 
rash 

iJL£ r ujdla work quickly thrown to- 
gether, hastily prepared work, rush job; 
O sketch (lit.); quickly compiled report 



r* 



o*^f r ajldn z , f. Jjf e ajld, pi. J If 'ajala, 
<JL£ e ijdl quick, fast, swift, speedy, hur- 
ried, rapid, hasty, cursory 

Jj£ I a'jal 2 , f. J^ r ujld, pi. J^ f ujl quick- 
er, faster; hastier; more cursory 

J~>*j ta r jil speeding-up, expediting, 
acceleration 

JUjoJ istVjdl hurry, haste; precip- 
itance, precipitation j JUo£~»VI *^j An- 
(wajhi l-ist.) expeditiously, speedily 

JU^c-1 isti'jdli speedy, expeditious; 
temporary, provisional 

J*-U r djil rapid, speedy; pressing, 
urgent (needs); immediate; pertaining to 
this world, worldly; temporal; ^U-U 
r djilan soon, presently, before long; at 
once, immediately, instantly | J»-U £>■ 
(hukm) summary judgment (jur.); ^C-U 
^U-T j\ sooner or later; J»-^'j Jr^l J 
now and in the future; 4l*.Tjl ^U-U J 
sooner or later; J>-UJ1 <-o>iJI j in the 
immediate future; <U-U CjUI^I (ijrd'dt) 
immediate measures 

iJUU f djila fast train, express train; 
4JU-UJI life in this world, temporal existence 

J^w mu'ajjal urgent, pressing; pre- 
mature I ^.^1 J***, m. ar-rasm prepaid, 
postpaid (mail item); J>-jJlI JUJL £>- 
(hukm, nafad) summary judgment, sen- 
tence by summary proceedings (jur,); 
■3^*%*. ^j to pay in advance 

J>«a1* muta'ajjxl hasty, rash, precip- 
itate 

J ;***=-«. musta'jil hurried, in a hurry 

J^r**. musta'jal expeditious, speedy; 
urgent, pressing; precipitate, premature | 
*i->*^-il j>*V ^ili magistrate of summary 
justice 

~£ "ajama u ( r ajm) to try, test, put to the 
test (« s.o.) I o^jp *£ ("udahu) to try, 



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694 



test s.o., put s.o. to the test IV to provide 
(a a letter) with a diacritical point (with 
diacritical points) VII to be obscure, in- 
comprehensible, unintelligible (J* to 
s.o.; language) X to become un-Arabic 

*jfi 'ajam (coll.) barbarians, non-Arabs; 
Persians ; ^*i\ or ****Jl ^ Persia 

+£ 'ajam (coll.; n. un. I) stone, kernel, 
pit, pip, seed (of fruit) 

-*j£ 'ajami pi. AJ? \ a'jdm barbarian, 
non-Arab; Persian (adj. and n.) 

<j£ c ujma barbarism, incorrectness (in 
speaking Arabic); un-Arabic way of ex- 
pression 

oLifc 'ajman 2 Ajman, name of an emir- 
ate on the Persian Gulf 

*\£ *ajmd' 2 pi. &\j\£ 'ajmawat (dumb) 
beast 

*j£l a' jam 2 , f. *\£ 'ajma'*, pi. -un, j%*-Ul 
cfdjim 2 speaking incorrect Arabic; dumb, 
speechless; barbarian, non-Arab, for- 
eigner, alien; a Persian 

-*£ I a'jami non- Arabic; non-Arab, 
foreigner, alien; a Persian 

*^*o mu'jam incomprehensible, un- 
intelligible, obscure (language, speech); 
dotted, provided with a diacritical point 
(letter); (pi. *?>U* mcfdjim 2 , mor. also -at) 
dictionary, lexicon | **»*ll ^jj>- the 
letters of the alphabet 

mu'jami lexicographic 



yf~ 'ajana i u {'ajn) to knead (a s.th.); to 
soak (a s.th.) | <JL~. J ^yfcj cJ [lutta, 
mas'ala) to bring up a problem time and 
again, harp on a question, discuss a 
question back and forth 

Jl£ *ijan perineum (anat.) 

jl£ 'ajjdn, f. S dough kneader 



(>j£ 'ajin dough, batter, paste; pastes 
(such as noodles, vermicelli, spaghetti, etc.) 

i~j£ 'ajina a piece of dough; dough; 
paste ; soft mass, soggy mixture ; pi. $\f 
'ajd'in 2 plastics 

J-jfc r ajin% doughy, doughlike, pasty, 
paste -like 

^>«jw mi'jan pi. J^"U* ma'djin 2 kneading 
trough; kneading machine 

Ojw ma'jun pi. t>r^* ma'djin 2 paste, 
cream (cosmef.); putty; electuary; majoon 
(confection made of hemp leaves, hen- 
bane, datura seeds, poppy seeds, honey 
and ghee, producing effects similar to 
those of hashish and opium) | Oj>*** 
OUu-V! tooth paste 

oLwm mu'ajjandt (pot) pies, pasties 

lj£ 'ajwa pressed dates | *j£ c *\j>\ a pastry 
made of rich dough with almonds and 
date paste (syr.) 



r adda u ('add) to count, number, reckon 
(a s.th., ,y » s.o. among); to enumerate 
(a s.th.); to compute, calculate (a s.th.): 
to regard (a a, « s.o., s.th. as), look (a *, » 
at s.o., at s.th. as), consider, think, 
deem (a a, s.o., s.th. to be s.th,); — 
pass. f udda to be considered, go (* 
as s.th.), pass (a for s.th.); to amount (o 
to) I *A* ^UiVl Ap (to count s.o.'s breath- 
ing — ) to watch closely over s.o., keep 
a sharp eye on s.o., watch s.o.'s every 
move; Jp * J*, to put down, or charge, 
s.th. to s.o.'s disadvantage; -l*j V (yu* 
f addu) numberless, countless, innumer- 
able; CjUUj -to (tu'addu) their number 
runs into the hundreds II to count off, 
enumerate (a s.th.) ; to wail, lament (wom- 
en for the deceased) ; to make numerous, 
multiply, compound (a s.th.) | oJLl aji» 
(mayyita) to enumerate the merits of a 
dead person, eulogize s.o. IV to prepare (0, 



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695 



JU- 



J * s.o., s.th. for); to ready, make ready, 
get ready (J a, » a.o., s.th. for) ; to prepare, 
finish, fit, fix up, adapt, adjust, dress, 
arrange, dispose, set up, make (J * 
s.th. for), draw up, draft, work out (a 
e.g., a report); to prepare (a one's 
lesson) | <J «JAp 4p1 ('uddatahu) to make 
one's preparations for, prepare o.s. for 
V to be or become numerous, be manifold, 
be multifarious, be multiple; to multiply, 
increase in number, proliferate, be com- 
pounded VIII to regard (a a, * s.o., s.th. 
as), look (a a, o at s.o., at s.th. as), 
consider, think, deem (a a, e s.o., s.th. 
to be s.th.); to reckon (cj with), rely (•_> 
upon.); to put down (a, <-> s.th., J to 
s.o.'s credit, Jp to s.o.'s disadvantage); 
to hold (<-> Jp against s.o. s.th.), take 
exception (<_j Jp to s.o. because of 
s.th.); to provide o.s., equip o.s. (^ 
with); (of a woman) to observe the iddat, 
or legally prescribed period of waiting, 
before contracting a new marriage | -£pl 
<u£j (bi-nafsihi) to have self-confidence, 
be self-confident ; <u J&u V (yu f taddu) s.th. 
that can be ignored, s.th. insignificant, 
negligible X to get ready, ready o.s.; to 
stand prepared, keep in readiness, stand 
by; to prepare o.s.; to be ready, willing, 
prepared (J for, to do s.th.) 

jp r add counting, count; enumeration, 
listing; computation, calculation | -Ap 
Jjbj (tandzuli) countdown; i-uij Iac (wa- 
naqdan) (to pay) the exact amount in cash 

Sj-Lc f addlya numeration; recitation, 
quotation, esp. of the sura ^ yd- sin (for 
fulfillment of a wish by God) 

lj£, r udda readiness, preparedness; — 
(pi. .sip f udad) equipment, outfit; 
implement, instrument, tool; gadget, 
device, appliance, contrivance; rigging, 
tackle, sails; harness (of a horse) | -U-l 
J <uAp jipI or (a f adda) to make one's prep- 
arations for, prepare o.s. for; * t5 iJI S-Lp JbU 



to make preparations ibr s.th.; ipUl Sjlp 
clockwork, watchwork 

SAp 'idda number; (attributively:) 
several, numerous, many, e.g., Sop JU-j 
('iddatun) many men, ol^ «0p 'idcUita 
marrdtin several times; iddat, legally 
prescribed period of waiting during 
which a woman may not remarry after 
being widowed or divorced (Isl. Law) 

jOp 'adad pi. .slop I a* dad number, 
numeral; figure, digit, cipher; quantity; 
number, issue (of a newspaper) | ^U- jjip 
(kd$s) special number, special issue (e.g., 
of a periodical) 

^Jp r adadi numerical, numeral, rel- 
ative to a number or numbers 

OjOp 'adid (with foil, genit.) counted 
among or with; numerous; frequent, fre- 
quently appearing; great number; large 
quantity | OjOp ^ap ('adad) enormous 
number, great multitude; iJli AjOp IJU 
this equals that 

il-Lp f adddd pi. -at counter, meter (for 
electricity, gas, etc.); measuring instru- 
ment | i$ S'b)\ :U taximeter; ^p^-JI jIap 
'a. as-sur r a speedometer 

jl-U. mi' dad pi. Jj.»U« rncfadid 2 abacus 

iljjj to," dad counting, count; enumera- 
tion, listing; computation, calculation | 
^pi^VI -iljjJ t. al-anjus census; jlSCJI ji-Uu 
t, as-stikkdn do. 

ii^p Hddd number, quantity | <J jIjip V 
{'iddda) innumerable, countless; Jap J 
among, e.g., ,aj!-Ip ,J ^a he is counted 
among them, he is one of them 

■al-lpi i'dad preparation; readying, ar- 
ranging, setting up, making, drawing up, 
drafting | 5*»W aW i, al-at f ima food 
preparation 

^IapI i'dddl preparatory | 4j.il Op I S-jX* 
(madrasa) lower grade secondary school, 



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696 



intermediate school; SjaIapI SiL^i (sahd- 
da) certificate from this school; lJu-s 
^itAti (§aff) a class of this school 

jJUJ ta'addud variety, diversity, multi- 
plicity, plurality, great number, multi- 
tude | i^JVI aJUj polytheism; oU-jjJI jJUj 
(. az-zaujat polygamy 

^IaxpI i'tiddd confidence, reliance, 
trust (uj in) | <.*,j:i jloicVi (bi-nafsihi) 
self-confidence, self-reliance 

jIjux^I isti'ddd readiness, wilhngness, 
preparedness; (pi, -at) inclination, tend- 
ency, disposition, propensity; pre- 
disposition (J for a disease), suscep- 
tibility (J to a disease); aptitude; — pi. 
oUjui*! abilities, qualifications; pro- 
visions, prerequisites (esp. for good .serv- 
ice, comfort); conveniences | J* jlT 
J .sl-Ui*-! to be prepared, be set for . . .; 
to be ready, willing, inclined, in a position 
to ...; tibj i^-Ui— I [wiratl) hereditary 
disposition 

(jilJUiwl istVdadl preparatory 

^.U* ma e dud countable, numerable, 
calculable; limited in number, jittle, 
few, a few, some 

o .U. mu'addida (hired) female mourner 

■U. mu'add destined, intended (J for); 
ready, prepared (J for, to do s.th.), 
willing (J to do s.th.) 

ol-U. mu r addat equipment, material, 
materiel, gear; appliances, devices, 
implements, gadgets | (lij$L~&) <z>j>~ ol-U* 
(harbiya, *askariya) war material; oIju* 
Jj jJ-I m. al-hariq fire-fighting equipment 

sAjc* muta'addid manifold, multiple, 
plural, numerous, varied, variegated, var- 
ious, diverse, different; multi-, many-, 
poly- (in compounds) | UiU-'l sJ*c» m. 
al-kalayd multicellular (biol.); ( j»-I^JI .Uaz* 
m. an-nawahi multifarious, variegated, 



varied, manifold; J>\J*y\ i*bcu multi- 
lateral; il»UIII iA«i* m. al-lugat multi- 
lingual, polyglot; Ol>J^I j-Uu multi- 
colored, polychromatic 



mustcfidd prepared, ready (J 
for) ; inclined, in a position (J to, to do 
s.th.); predisposed (j for), susceptible 
(J to, esp. to a disease) 

^Ap 'adas (coll.; n. un. 3) lentil(s) 

i-JLp 'adasa pi. -at lens; magnifying 
glass; object lens, objective 

^Ac *adasi lenticular 

Jj* 'adala i { r adl, aJ!-U- 'adala) to act justly, 
equitably, with fairness | ^-j J At to 
treat everyone with indiscriminate justice, 
not to discriminate between them; — 
r adala i to be equal (a, a to s.o., to s.th,), 
be equivalent (a to s.th.), be on a par 
(a, o with), be the equal (* of s.o.), 
equal, match (a, © s.o., s.th.), counter- 
balance, outweigh (a s.th.); to make 
equal, equalize, level (c-» * s.o. with 
another), place (* s.o.) on the same level 
or footing (<_j with another) ; — T adala i 
(Jj-U 'udill) to deviate, swerve, deflect, 
turn away (Jl ^ from — toward); to 
digress, depart, refrain, desist, abstain, 
avert o.s., turn away (^ from), leave 
off, relinquish, abandon, renounce, dis- 
claim, give up, forego, waive, drop (jc 
s.th.) | js- *j Jji*. to make s.o. desist, 
abstain or turn away from; J I o^^j Jap 
(bi-basarihl) to let one's eyes stray to 
or toward; — 'adula u (4JI-U 'addla) toh& 
just, fair, equitable II to straighten, 
make or put straight, set in order, 
array (a s.th.); to balance, right, rectify, 
put in order, straighten out, fix, settle, 
adjust (a s.th.); to make (a s.th.) just; 
to adapt (a s.th.); to change, alter, 
commute, amend, modify, improve (a 
s.th.); to modulate (a current, waves; 



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Jop 



el.) Ill to be equal (a, o to s.o., to s.th.), 
be equivalent (a to s.th.), be on a par 
(a, » with), be the equal {« of s.o.), 
equal, match (a, o s.o., s.th.), counter- 
balance, outweigh (a s.th.}; to equate, 
treat as equal (,jmj — j>j two persons 
or things) IV to straighten, make or 
put straight (a s.th.) V to be changed, 
be altered, be commuted, be modified, 
undergo modification, change or alter- 
ation VI to be in a state of equilibrium, 
be balanced; to be equal, be on a par; 
to offset one another, strike a balance; 
to play to a draw, play to a tie, make the 
score even (sport) VIII to straighten (up), 
tense; to draw o.s. up, sit straight, sit up; 
to be straight, even, balanced; to stand 
at attention (mil.); to be moderate, be 
temperate 

J.U 'adl straightness, straightforward- 
ness; justice, impartiality; fairness, eq- 
uitableness, probity, honesty, upright- 
ness; equitable composition, just compro- 
mise; — (pi. lJjAp f udul) just, equitable, 
fair, upright, honest; person of good 
reputation, person with an honorable 
record {1st. Law); juristic adjunct as- 
signed to a cadi (Magr.); ^Ac 'adlan 
equitably, fairly, justly | <J.uJi j j j min- 
ister of justice; ji^i J I lk^> jp JjuJI 
[§iga, ukra) transformation, making a 
word out of another having the same root, 
but according to a different pattern (wazn ; 
Arab grammarians) 

JjLfr 'adli forensic, legal, judicial, ju- 
ridical, juristic 

<Ji* *idl equal, tantamount, correspond- 
ing; — (pi. Jljud addl, JjAc r udul) either 
of the two balanced halves of a load 
carried by a beast of burden; sack, bag 

JjLfr r adcU balance (of 2 loads) | J-uJi c~u 
bait al- r a. {eg.) home of a married woman, 



carefree home life (in the husband's 
house) 

JjJUi c adil equal, like, tantamount, 
corresponding; (with foil, genit.) equal 
(to s.o.), on a par (with s.o.) ; (eg. ; pi. JJl Ap 
'adaHl) brother-in-law (husband of one's 
sister) 

<Jj-Ip *udul refraining, abstention, de- 
sistance (^ from), forgoing, renuncia- 
tion, resignation, abandonment, relin- 
quishment (^ of s.th.) 

«JIap r addla justice; fairness, impartial- 
ity; probity, integrity, honesty, equi- 
tableness; decency, proper conduct; hon- 
orable record (Isl. Law) | ILeLs*-! *JIjlp 
social justice 

aJap "adllya justice, administration of 
justice, jurisprudence | <J jl«J1 j jj min- 
ister of justice 

JapI a'dal 2 more regular, more uniform; 
more balanced; juster, fairer, more 
equitable; more upright, more honest, 
more righteous 

Jj-uJ ta'dil straightening, straighten- 
ing out, settling, setting right; — (pi. 
-at) change, alteration, commutation, 
amendment, modification; settlement, 
adjustment, regulation; improvement; 
reshuffle (of the cabinet); modulation 
(el.) | & j\j j Ji-^J (wizdri) cabinet reshuffle; 
tjlj JjJUJ self-adjustment, autoregulation 
(psijch.) 

iJiU* mu'ddala assimilation, approxi- 
mation, adjustment, equalization, level- 
ing, balancing, equilibration; balance, 
equilibrium; equality; equivalence; even- 
ness, proportion, proportionateness, pro- 
portionality; equation (math.) | ibl** 
IL-ljj (diraslya) make-up, completion 
study, make-up examination {at a univer- 
sity); IJUJI **-jAJl iJ.iL* (daraja) equation 
of the second degree (math.) 



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698 



JIApI i'dal change or elision of a weak 
radical (gram.) 

JiUJ ta r adul balance, equilibrium; 
equality; equivalence; evenness, pro- 
portion, proportionateness, proportion- 
ality; draw, tie (in sports); parity (of 
currencies) | ol^VI Jitw tie vote, equal 
number of votes 

JIaxpI i tidal straightness, erectness, 
tenseness; evenness, symmetry, pro- 
portion (e.g., of stature, of growth); 
moderateness, moderation, temperance, 
temperateness; equinox | JIa^p^I <l~e* 
samt al-i. equinoctial colure (astron.) 

JIjUpI i'tiddli equinoctial 

J^U *ddil just, fair, equitable; up- 
right, honest, straightforward, righteous 

dj*** ma'dul (gram.) transformed, 
changed (word, ^p from a different word 
having the same root but a different pat- 
tern; see also Jap r adl) 

J A** mu'addal pi. -at average; average 
amount or sum; rate | Sp^-JI J a** m. as- 
sur'a average speed; Js^oJi J-U* m. as- 
sarj rate of exchange (of a currency; fin.) ; 
*^iJl Ja** m. at-tadakkum inflation rate ; 
j*JI J A** m. an-numuw growth rate; 
Cj\Jj)\ J-U. m. al-wafayat mortality rate; 
J-Ujc as an average, on the average 

J^Im mu'ddil equal, of equal status, 
having equal rights; equalizer (techn.) \ 
iaJ^aJI JjU. m. ad-dagt pressure equalizer 

J-sLc^ muta*ddil balanced, neutral 

J ax*- mu'tadil straight, even, propor- 
tionate; balanced, equable; harmonious; 
erect, upright (person), standing or sit- 
ting up straight; standing to attention 
(mil.) i moderate, temperate; mild, clem- 
ent (weather); pi. JjJaxJJ the moderates 
(pol.) | *i^^K^ r\jj moderate winds; 
'a1xjX\ UkJJ (mintaqo) the Temperate Zone 



I*Ap r adima a ( r udm, *adam) to be deprived, 
be devoid, be in want, be deficient (> 
of s.th.); to lack, not to have (* s.th.); 
to lose, miss (a, » s.o., s.th.); — pass. 
r udima to be lacking, be missing, be 
absent, be nonexistent; to be lost, be 
gone, have disappeared; to disappear, 
vanish IV to cause {« s.o.) to miss or 
lack (a s.th.); to deprive (* t> s.o. of 
s.th.); to destroy, annihilate, wipe out 
(a, * s.o., s.th.); to execute (a s.o.); to be 
or become poor, be reduced to poverty, 
become impoverished VII — pass. I 

>»Ap 'adam non- being, nonexistence; 
nothing, nothingness, nihility ; lack, want, 
absence; loss, privation; (with foil, genit.) 
non-,un-,in-,dis-; (pi. plApl a'ddm) nonen- 
tity, nullity, banality, trifle j fl^Nl pJip 
inattention, indifference; ^Lai^-VI rAp 
noncompetency; ^j^J\ p4e non-being, 
nonexistence; »L>w-VI fAe- shamelessness ; 
J^A=JI *Ap 'a. at-tadakkul non-interven- 
tion; 1>**d\ /»Ap r a. as-sihha incorrect- 
ness; J**J1 Jp SjJLftJl aAp (qudra, 'arnal) 
incapacity for work; C^\J^^\ pAp dis- 
regard, indifference 

c^Ap f adami nihilist 

!L*Ap *adamiya non -being, nonexist- 
ence; nihilism 

r Ap 'adlm not having, lacking, want- 
ing; deprived (of); devoid (of), without, 
-less, in-, un- (with foil, genit.) | SLU f Ap 
r a, al-hayah inanimate, lifeless; j^S\ <Ap 
unequaled, incomparable, unique 

j*!ap1 i dam destruction, annihilation; 
execution | ^IapVIj S^J-1 (hukm) death 
sentence 

ILiIapI iddmlya headcloth without 
r iqdl (as a sign of mourning) 

flA»Jl irCiddm absence, lack, non* 
existence | 4-UVl pi A*! I unfitness, dis- 



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jJLp 



qualification; absolute legal incompetence 
(jur.) 

|oU T ddim pi. /oljp 'awddim 2 non- 
existent; missing, lacking; lost; no longer 
usable; uncollectable (debt); unrestor- 
able, irreclaimable; waste- (in com- 
pounds); exhaust (of a car, etc.; techn.); 
pi. waste, refuse, scraps | ioUl »LLI sew- 
age, sullage, waste water; a^LJI JUJI ex- 
haust gas; OUaS^I f±\je- cotton waste; 
/oIjaJI <j^-J1 unbubat al-a. exhaust pipe 
(automobile), aj>UJI jUJl l-jjJ I and IjyA* 
^UJI do. 

mAm ma'dum nonexistent, wanting, 
lacking, absent; missing; lost; gone, 
vanished 

l»JU* mu'dim poor, destitute; impov- 
erished 

Z)J& r adn Eden, Paradise; r adan 2 Aden (city 
in southern Arabia, capital of the People's 
Democratic Republic of Yemen) 

j.u. ma T din pi. j.sU. ma'ddin 2 mine; 
lode; metal; mineral; treasure- trove, 
bonanza (fig.); (place of) origin, source; 
essence, intrinsic nature (of s.th.) ; pi. 
CuU* mineral resources | 0:>UU ]p c ilm 
al-m. mineralogy; 4~Ju jJU* m. najsihl the 
essence of his soul, the core of his being; 
«u-u* ,j»-sJ to probe into s.o.'s very 
nature 

0-U* ma'dan {eg.; syr. ma'din) very 
good! bravo! well done! 

ti-U* ma'dinl metallic, mineral ; cA^J -uil 
mineralogy | Jjl*. »U mineral water 

^A*j ia'din mining of metals and 
minerals; mining, mining industry 

j^jAw to r dini mining (in compounds) 

o-u. mu'addin miner 



uUac r ad7idn 2 legendary ancestor of the North 
Arabs 

(jOp) Iap r add u ( r adw) to run, speed, gallop, 
dash, race; to pass (a, » or jt s.o., s.th.), 
go past s.o, or s.th. (a, * or j^e); to give 
up, abandon, leave (a, » or ^ s.o., 
s.th.); to pass over, bypass, omit (o 
s.o.), not to bother (<-> o s.o. with), 
exempt, except (^ * s.o. from); to cross, 
overstep, exceed, transcend (a s.th.), go 
beyond s.th. (a); to exceed the proper 
bounds; to infect (Jl s.o.); — u (jAp 
e adw, e uduiv, *iop t add\ jljJLp 'udwdn, 
e idwdn) to engage in aggressive, hostile 
action, commit an aggression, a hostile 
act (Jp against); to act unjustly (Jp 
toward), wrong (Jp s.o.); to assail, as- 
sault, attack, raid (Jp s.o., s.th.); — u 
(jJip e adw) to handicap, hamper, impede, 
obstruct ( jc «. s.o. in) ; to prevent, hinder 
(^ o s.o. from) | *jjb Iap {taurakii) to 
transcend one's bounds or limits; j-Uj V 
<*LuL jl not to fail to do s.th.; to do s.th. 
inevitably; . . . (JjSCj jl j-Uj V he or it is 
no more than, he or it is only or merely. . . 

II to cause to cross, overstep, exceed or 
transcend; to ferry (♦ s.o., over a river); 
{gram.) to make transitive (a a verb); to 
give up, abandon, leave (a, * or y^ s.o., 
s.th.); to cross (a s.th., e.g., a river) 

III to treat as an enemy (*> s.o.), show 
enmity (» toward s.o.), be at war, feud 
(» with s.o.); to fall out (a with s.o.), 
contract the enmity (» of s.o.); to act 
hostilely (« toward s.o.); to counteract, 
disobey (a, * s.o., s.th.), act in opposition 
(a, o to), contravene, infringe (a s.th.) 

IV to infect (» s.o., j* with a disease) 

V to cross, overstep (a s.th.); to traverse 
(a s.th.); to exceed, transcend, surpass 
(a s.th.), go beyond s.th. (a); to go 
beyond s.th. (a) and turn one's attention 
to s.th. else (Jl), not to be limited to 
s.th. (a) but also to comprise ( Jl s.th. 
else), extend beyond s.th. (a) to s.th. 



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700 



else (Jl); to overtake, pass, outstrip, 
outdistance, leave behind (a s.th.); to 
overcome, surmount (a s.th., e.g., a 
crisis); to pass on, shift, spread (Jl to); 
to transgress, infract, violate, break 
(a s.th., e.g., laws); to engage in brutal, 
hostile action, commit agression, a 
hostile act (Jp against); to act unjustly 
(Jp toward s.o.); to assail, assault, 
attack, raid (Jp s.o., s.th.); to infringe, 
encroach, make inroads (Jp upon); to be 
transitive (verb; gram.) | *->jjl\i <ulp ^-ul 
(darb) to come to blows with s.o., lay 
hands upon s.o. ; 4~Jcj ^JUj {bi-najsihi) to 
be in itself transitive, i.e., to govern the 
accusative without need of a preposition, 
(<y > J^) *y ^ t£-A*j to be transitive by means 
of <-> (Jp, tj-), i.e., to have prepositional 
government (verb; gram.) VI to harbor 
mutual enmity, be hostile to one another, 
be enemies VII to be infected {^> with 
a disease), catch an infection (j* by, 
from) VIII to cross, overstep (a s.th.); 
to exceed, transcend, surpass (a s.th,), 
go beyond s.th. (a) ; to act outrageously, 
brutally, unlawfully (Jp against); to 
commit excesses (Jp against); to engage 
in aggressive, brutal, hostile action (Jp 
against), commit an aggression, a hostile 
act (Jp against); to act unjustly (Jp 
toward); to violate (Jp a woman); to 
assail, assault, attack, raid (Jp s.o., 
s.th.), infringe, encroach, make inroads 
(Jp upon), make an attempt on s.o. 'a 
(Jp) life X to appeal for assistance (a 
to s.o. Jp against) ; to stir up, rouse, incite 
(Jp a s.o. against) 

Iap 'add, lip L or Iap \S fi-md 'add 
(with foil, ace.) except, save, with the 
exception of, excepting . . .; dlli Iap l^i 



jAp f adw running, run, race (also in 
sports) | jj j jAp (rifi) cross-country race 
(sport) 



SjAp 'udwa side, slope (of a valley), 
bank, embankment (of a river), shore 

jJU> 'aduw pi. *1apI a'dd\ ,jJ& 'idan, 
'udan, *1ap 'uddh, aUI a'ddin, f. SjAp 
'aduwa enemy j (All, AjaJ) jjaJ jAp (ladud y 
aladd 2 ) foe, archenemy; iJ *«M\ jAp 'a. a§- 
§ams albino 

ljj& 'adutm fem. of jAp 'aduto 

<jJ& T ad%y acting hostilely, aggressive 

*Iap 'add* enmity, hostility, antag- 
onism, animosity; aggression 

(jlAp 'add'i hostile, inimical, antag- 
onistic, aggressive 

»l Ap e adda pi. -wn runner, sprinter 
(sport) 

»Jap 'addd'a pi. -at runner, sprinter 
(fem.; sport) 

<^ApI a* da: »IapV1 eS-^ a - l-n'da the 
worst of enemies 

^jAp r adwd infection, contagion; — 
'udwa hostile action 

SjIap 'addwa pi. -at enmity, hostility, 
antagonism, animosity 

JjAp 'udawa 2 hindrance, handicap, 
impediment; inconvenience, nuisance, 
discomfiture | »IjAp ji rough, rugged, 
uneven; adverse, discomfiting, incon- 
venient; bad, poor (mount) 

jljAp 'udwan, 'idwan enmity, hostility; 
hostile action; aggression; military aggres- 



JIjAp r udwdnl hostile; aggressive | 
ij I jAp 5— L-- policy of aggression 

iJljAp 'udwdniya aggressiveness 

^A** ma'dan escape, way out, avoid- 
ance | <cp (jA** V (ma* da) inevitable, 
unavoidable, inescapable 



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J** 



li-W. ma'diya pi. jU. ma'ddin ferry, 
ferryboat 

&\A\ al-ma'ddi El Ma'adi, Maadi (city 
district of Cairo) 

SjJUj ta'diya ferrying, ferry service; 
conversion into the transitive form 
(gram.) 

OjJ tctaMin crossing, overstepping, ex- 
ceeding, transcending; overtaking, pass- 
ing (e.g., of an automobile); — {pi. 
CjL-Uj tetaddiydi) infraction, violation, 
breach (e.g., of laws), transgression, 
encroachment, inroad (Jp on), infringe- 
ment of the law; offense against law, 
tort, delict (IsL Law); attack, assault; 
aggression 

»l4=cl iHidc? pi. -at attack, assault, 
raid, inroad (J*, on); attempt (Jp on s.o.'s 
life); criminal attack (Jp on); violation, 
rape (J* of a woman) ; outrage ( Jp upon) ; 
aggression (Jp against; esp. pol.) | SoaU- 
•Ltp'ifl pjp (JSUjI) mu'ahadat (ittifdq) 
'adam al-i T t. pact of nonaggression 

iU 'adin pi. jl^p f awddin aggressive, 
attacking, assailing, raiding; (pi. Si Op 
'udah) enemy | ^y-Jh iS^y- beasts of 
prey, predatory animals 

Sjole r ddiya pi. -at, i\j£- f awddin 
wrong, offense, misdeed, outrage; ad- 
versity, misfortune, reverse; obstacle, 
impediment, obstruction; pi. vicissitudes | 
$\y- p^Jp oap (*adat) fate dealt them 
heavy blows, they fell on evil days; 0L0U 
oLJl f d. az-zaman the buffetin&s of fate 

Sj-U. mu r addiya, (eg.) ma'addlya pi. 
-at ferry, ferryboat 

alt* mu'adin hostile, inimical, antag- 
onistic; anti- (in compounds) | IL»LJJ aU. 
(savilya) anti-Semitic; UL-lJfl aU. (raV 
maliya) anti-capitalistic 



.u* mu'din contagious, infectious | ^1^1 
aj jla* contagious diseases 

4*cu muta'addin transitive (gram.); ag- 
gressor, assailant 

-*=*• muHadtn pi. -im assailant, as- 
sassin; aggressor (pol.) 

^Ap 'aduba u (*ij\* 'uduba) to be sweet, 
pleasant, agreeable; — 'adaba i to 
hinder, handicap, impede, obstruct (a 
s.o.) II to afflict, pain, torment, try, 
agonize, rack (e s.o.) ; to torture (* s.o.) ; to 
chastise, castigate (» s.o.) V to be pun- 
ished, suffer punishment; to feel pain, 
suffer; to torment o.s., be in agony, 
be harassed; to be tortured X to find (a 
s.th.) sweet, pleasant, or agreeable; to 
think (a s.th.) beautiful, nice 

<~> Ap f adb pi. (_j I Ip f iddb sweet ; pleasant, 
agreeable | 4jAp oL. fresh water; t->Ap 
*i-j a4- I entertaining, amusing, companion- 
able, personable 

c-^iop f addb pi. -a£, SjAp! a'diba pain, 
torment, suffering, agony, torture; pun- 
ishment, chastisement, castigation 

<>jAp 'uduba sweetness 

l-jApI a" dab 2 sweeter, more pleasant, 
more agreeable 

*_-jA*j ta'dlb affliction, tormenting, 
agonizing; torture, torturing; punish- 
ment, chastisement, castigation 

uiw mu f addab harassed, tormented 
(esp. by a cruel existence), miserable 

jAp *adura i ( r udr, «jJu. ma f dira) to excuse, 
absolve from guilt (a s.o.), forgive 
(i> or J • s -°- s.th.) | JjXu 1 he wouldn't 
let me give any excuses, he wouldn't 
take no for an answer, he kept insisting; 
— *adara i ( f adr) to circumcise (« s.o.) 
IV = I; to have an excuse | jAil j* jAp! 
(man andara) he who warns is excused 



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702 



V to be difficult, impossible, impracti- 
cable, unfeasible (Jp for) VIII to excuse 
o.s., apologize (J or J! to s.o., j* or jp for 
s.th.); to give or advance (<-* s.th.) as 
an excuse (jp or ,y for), plead s.th. (<_;) 
in defense of (^ or ,y) X to wish to be 
excused; to make an apology, excuse 
o.s., apologize 

jJLp 'udr pi. j\Xc\ a'ddr excuse | jX* y\ 
abu e u. (with foil, genit.) responsible for, 
answerable for; j^kdl i-i* jAp y\ j* 
(tataivwur) he is the originator of this 
development; UjAp «uju £h\ see ^j IV 

SjAp r udra virginity, virginhood; name 
of an Arab tribe | SjAp j^I — jXp j\ see 
above 

^jJp *udri belonging to the tribe of 
*ndra (see above) 

iSj^ iSjifi (hawd) platonic love 

jiJip r iddr pi. jAp "udur cheek; fluff, 
first growth of beard (on the cheeks); 
cheekpiece (of a horse's harness) | ^U- 
•j IJU to throw off all restraint, drop all 
pretenses of shame; j1JLJI ^JU- unrestrain- 
ed, wanton, uninhibited 

,1jOp 'adrti* 2 pi. iSj^ f addrd virgin; 
►IjJIaJI Virgo (sign of the zodiac; astron.); 
the sixth month of the solar year (Sawli 
Ar.; cf. J*- hamcU); the Virgin Mary 
{Ckr.) | *1jIp Ski {fatdh) maiden, virgin 

SjJUw ma dim pi. jibw vuCddir 1 excuse, 
forgiveness, pardon 

jlJU* mi'ddr pi. ^oU* ma'ddir 2 excuse, 
plea 

jJu: ta'addur difficulty, impossibility, 
impracticability, unfeasibility 

jlj^p! i'tiddr apology, excuse, plea 

jj\** ma'dur excused, justified, war- 
ranted; excusable 



jJUx. muta'addir difficult, impossible, 
impracticable, unfeasible 

3Xs> Hdq pi. JjlJUl a'dag bunch, cluster (of 
dates, of grapes) 

(J-Ip r atfaJa u {'adl) to blame, censure, reprove, 
rebuke, reproach (a s.o.) II = I 

JJIp r ad!Z blame, censure, reproof, 
reproach 

JjJLp f a^yi stern censurer, rebuker, 
severe critic 

(JiU 'arfiZ pi. Jl-ifr "uddal, f. -JSU 
'aitfa pi. J jlj» r awddil 2 censurer, reprover; 
moral critic, moralist 

(jAp and ^Ap) iJU 'arfa « and ^Ap 'adiya a 
to be healthy (country, city; due to its 
climate, air, etc.) 

jc *arra it to be a shame, be a disgrace (*, » 
for s.o., for s.th.); to bring shame or 
disgrace (*, * upon s.o., upon s.th.), 
disgrace, dishonor (a, o s.o., s.th.) 

S^p f urra scabies, mange; dung; a 
disgraceful, shameful thing 

jjt, r arar scabies, mange 

6j*+ ma'arra shame, disgrace, igno- 
miny; stain, blemish, stigma 

Jma mu'tarr miserable, wretched; scoun- 
drel, rogue 

j j* II to Arabicize, make Arabic (*, « s.o., 
s.th.); to translate into Arabic (a s.th.); 
to express, voice, state clearly, declare 
(jp s.th.); to give earnest money, give 
a handsel, make a down payment IV to 
Arabicize, make Arabic (*, » s.o., s.th.), 
give an Arabic form {* to s.th.); to make 
plain or clear, state clearly, declare (^ 
or * s.th.), express (unmistakably), utter, 
voice, proclaim, make known, manifest, 



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703 



cH^ 



give to understand (^ s.th., esp. a 
sentiment), give expression (^ to s.th., 
esp. to a sentiment); (gram.) to use 
desinential inflection, pronounce the 
i'rab V to assimilate o.s. to the Arabs, 
become an Arab, adopt the customs of 
the Arabs X = V 

t-yJI aVarab the Arabs; pi. c-»ly>l a r rab, 
cXijt. 'urban pure Arabs, Arabs of the 
desert, Bedouins | Jj~j <~>j> (ruhhal) 
nomadic Arabs; »L>^ «-j^ ("arba 2 ) pure- 
blooded Arabs ; true, genuine Arabs (of the 
past); ijjU ^j£r do.; SAjLJI ^>j^\ see JjU 

J^ f arabi Arab, Arabic, Arabian; truly 
Arabic; an Arab; ij^Ji the f Arabiya, 
the language of the ancient Arabs ; clas- 
sical, or literary, Arabic 

Z*jc r araba a swift river; (pi. -at) 
carriage, vehicle, wagon, cart; (railroad) 
car, coach; araba, coach j S^Vl <jj* f a. 
al-ujra cab, hack, hackney; J^V li^'a. 
al-akl dining car, diner; ^j \je> r a. rass 
water wagon, sprinkling wagon; <ij& 
Vj^' caD » hack, hackney; ( j>J^^ \y 'a. 
a&'Sahn wagon, lorry; freight car; Ijj* 
**!** (mafam) dining car, diner; hj* 
JUWVI baby carriage; J5JI Zijt f a. an- 
naql wagon, lorry, van; freight car; Sjj* 
pjjl r a. an-naum sleeping car, sleeper; hjc 
-b "a. yad handcart, pushcart; wheel- 
barrow; 5J L» j hjt. (eg.) T a. zibdla garbage 
truck; ^^ip ^u^c f a. r afs baggage car, 
(Brit.) luggage van; \Ji «j^ (qamariya) 
lunar vehicle; *J\jj^f JJaJ 4j_/i r a. naql 
kahrabaiya electric cart or truck, electric 
transporter 

XjjZ 'arabiya pi. -at carriage, vehicle; 
araba, coach; see Oj* 

j£j* 'arbajl pi. -iya coachman, cabman 

illi-^ 'arbakdna car shed, coach house 

^j* 'arrdb pi, -wti godfather, sponsor; 
translator (of a book) into Arabic 



aj I ^ 'arraba pi. -a( godmother, sponsor 

<jl_^l a'rabl pi. vb*' «*«*& an Arab of 
the desert, a Bedouin 

*iJj*- r uruba Arabism, Arabdom, the 
Arab idea, the Arab character 

^-ij>o ta'rib Arabicizing, Arabization; 
translation into Arabic ; adoption of for- 
eign words, incorporation of loanwords 
into Arabic 

<_-»ljpl i'rab manifestation, declaration, 
proclamation, pronouncement, utterance; 
expression (^ of a sentiment); desinen- 
tial inflection (gram.) 

SjjU v^ ano - *^w^ "tO* 9ee un der »-*^t 

Upw mu'arrib translator into Arabic 

^j** mu'arrab Arabicized; translated 
into Arabic; pi. CjIj^l. loan words ab- 
sorbed into Arabic 

i-yw mu'rab desinentialiy inflective 
(gram.) 

^yCj» muta'arrib Arabicized; natur- 
alized (Arabs) 

^jjtc^^ mu$ta r Hb pi. -un Arabist 

*j\j£j£- see above under ^j* 

Jbyi 'arbada to be quarrelsome, be conten- 
tious, pick quarrels; to be noisy, boister- 
ous, raise a din, kick up a racket 

Zjjjo 'arbada quarrelsomeness, con- 
tentiousness ; noise, racket, rumpus, roar- 
ing (e.g., of drunks) 

JLj^fp Hrbld quarrelsome, contentious; 
noisy, boisterous, riotous; disturber of the 
peace 

Jnj*u> mu'arbid quarrelsome, conten- 
tious; noisy, boisterous, riotous 

^jt> 'arbasa to upset, disturb, confuse (»s.o.) 



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704 



^ j* r arbana to give earnest money, give a 
handsel, make a down payment (* to s.o.) 

djij* 'urbun, *arabun pi. {/^j* 'arabin 2 
handsel, earnest money, down payment j 
pledge, pawn, gage 

£^* * a/raja u {^jy- r uruj) to ascend, mount, 
rise; — 'arija a {'araj) to be lame, walk 
lamely, limp, hobble II to turn off the 
main street (Jl toward); to turn (J* to, 
toward); to stop, halt, stop over (J* in, 
at); to turn {& off s.th.), swerve (^ 
from); to lame, cripple, paralyze (» 
s.o.); to zigzag, make zigzag (a s.th.) 

IV to lame, cripple, paralyze (o s.o,) 

V to zigzag, follow a zigzag course VII to 
incline, lean, bend, curve; to be or 
become crooked, curved, bent, sinuous, 
winding 

£j* r araj lameness; limping gait 

"k^js. 'araja (n. vie.) pi. -at limping step 

£jt\ a* rap, f, ►U^p r arjd' 2 , pi, _,* 
*urj, OU/ 'urjdn lame, limping; — jack 
(in a deck of cards) 

^jm tna'raj pi. £jU* ma'drif place 
of ascent; (route of) ascent 

^j»* mi* raj pi. ^jU* ma'drif* ladder, 
stairs 

^j»* mi'rdj pi. £jL» mcCarif ladder, 
stairs; g\j*L\ the midnight journey to 
the seven heavens (made by Mohammed 
on the 27th of Rajab, from Jerusalem) | 
jtIjaII *U lailat al-m, the night of Mo- 
hammed's ascension to the seven heavens 

£jlo ta'drif (pi.) curves, curvatures, 
bends, turns, twists, windings, sinuos- 
ities; wavy lines, serpentines 

£jm2 ta'arruj zigzag (course) | ^ JU 
sibdq t. slalom (skiing) 

£_j*z* muta'arrij winding, twisting, 
tortuous, sinuous; zigzag 



£^. mun'arij crooked, curved, bent, 
winding, twisting, tortuous, sinuous 

£j*L* mun'araj pi. -at bend, turn, curve, 
twist, angle (of roads, etc.) 

bjrj* 'urjun, 'arjun pi. ^1^ 'ardjin* date 
palm branch with date cluster 

J!jj* 'irzdl hut or shack of the rural warden 
(usually in a tree or on top of a roof) 

^j* II (nejd.) to marry (^ • s.o. to) IV to 
arrange a wedding feast 

&jP *uri, 'urua pi. ^1^1 a 'rds, C*L^ 
'urusdt marriage; wedding, wedding 
feast 

(_rv* Hra pi. ^\je.\ a'rds husband; 
wife | ^j* j ,\ ibn Hrs pi. ^^ ob bandt 
f irs weasel (zooL) 

~***js. 'irsa weasel 

o"Jj* *o>tus pi. ifj* r urus bridegroom; 
f. (pi. ^Jlj* r ardHs 2 ) bride; doll; oL,^JI 
al- f arusdn bride and groom, the new- 
lyweds | JJI ^Jl^ < a . an-nil lotus 

*"jj* 'arusa pi. ^j* f ard*is 2 bride; 
doll, baby doll | £jjj\ i~jj* 'a. cU-burgu* 
metal tubes ornamenting the veil of 
Muslim women; ^-Jl^JI ^» masrah al-a. 
puppet theater, marionette stage 

u-tj* 'arls bridegroom; newly married 
man 

crlj* e irris lair of a lion, lion's den 

J>j* f ara$a i u to erect a trellis (a for grape- 
vines), train on a trellis or espalier, to 
trellis, to espalier (a vines) II to roof 
over (a s.th.) 

J>je 'ars pi. Ji Jj£i r uru3, ^ll^l a'raS 
throne; tribe (magr.) 

^j* *ari§ pi. ^y. r urus, J£\j* 
'ard'is 2 arbor, bower; hut made of 



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705 



0*J* 



twigs; booth, shack, shanty; trellis (for 
grapevines); shaft, carriage pole 

J-ljth El Arish (town in JST Egypt, on 
Mediterranean) 

"^•iyo ta'risa pi. ^ij jbJ ta'ariP trellis, 
lattice-work; arbor, bower; pergola 

j*jp 'arisa a ( f aras) to be lively, gay, merry 

l^tjc f arsa pi. 'arasdt, ^I^pI aVas 
vacant lot; courtyard, court of a house 

^yj** mu'arrag pimp, procurer; cuckold 

1 i y> J c 'aruda u to be or become wide, broad, 
to widen, broaden; — f arada % { r ard) 
to become visible, appear (J to s.o.); to 
get in s.o.'s (J) way; to happen (J to 
8.O.), befall (J s.o.); to occur (J to s.o.), 
come to s.o.'s (J) mind; to turn (J to 
s.o., to s.th.); to take care (J of), concern 
o.a. (J with), turn one's attention, put 
one's mind, apply o.s., attend (J to), go 
in (J for), go into s.th. (J), enter, embark 
(J upon), take up, treat (J s.th.), deal 
(J with); to show, demonstrate, present, 
set forth, display, exhibit, lay open, 
submit, turn in (Jp a s.th. to s.o.), lay, 
put (Jp a s.th. before s.o.); to show 
(* e.g., a film), stage (a e.g., a play); to 
offer, suggest, propose (Jp a s.th. to 
s.o.); to subject (Jp a s.th. to a critical 
examination, and the like); to inspect 
(a s.th.); to review (a troops), pass in 
review (a s.th., also before one's mental 
eye); pass. r urida to be or go mad, 
insane j ^jIp <d ^j* an obstacle arose 
in his path; JL»\j- <J ^j^ a thought 
occured to him, he had an idea II to 
make wide or broad, widen, broaden, 
extend (a s.th.); to expose (J a, & s.o., 
s.th, to s.th., esp. to risk or danger; J a 
s.th. to the sun); to run s.o. {<_-») down, 
put in a bad light, expose (v s.o.); to 
intimate, insinuate (Jor u s.th.), allude 
(J or lj to), hint (J or ^ at) [ j^J 



to hold s.th. against the light III to offer 
resistance (*, o to s.o,, to s.th.), resist (a, » 
s.o., s.th.), work against s.o. or s.th. (a, *); 
to contradict, oppose (a, e s.o., s.th.), raise 
objections j protest, remonstrate (a, & 
against s.o., against s.th.); to be against 
s.o. or s.th. (a, *); to avoid, shun (a, » s.o., 
s.th.); to compare (<-* a s.th. with) IV to 
be disinclined, be averse (jp to); to 
turn away, avert o.s. (jp from), avoid, 
shun (jp s.o., s.th.), shirk ( jp s.th.), give 
up, abandon, relinquish, discard, re- 
nounce, disclaim ( jc s.th.) ; not to mention 
(jc s.th.); J( jp ^jA to turn away from 
s.th. and to s.th. else V to resist, oppose 
(J s.o., s.th.), stand up (J against), raise 
objections, object (J to); to face (J s.th., 
e.g., a problem) ; to interfere (J with), med- 
dle (J in); to put one's mind, turn one's 
attention (J to), go into s.th. (J, e.g., 
a topic), deal (J, also Jf, with a ques- 
tion); to undertake (J s.th.), embark 
(<J upon s.th.) ; to expose o.s., be exposed, 
be subjected (J to s.th.); to run the risk 
(J of), risk (J doing or being s.th.); 
to dare, venture, risk (J s.th.) VI to 
oppose one another; to be contradic- 
tory, conflict, be incompatible (** with) 
VIII to present o.s. (* to s.o.); to lie across 
or in the way (as an obstacle); to be in- 
serted {a in a sentence, as a paranthesis) ; 
to be cut in, be blended in, be faded in 
(a in a movie sequence, in a context); 
to interfere; to cut in (a on a conver- 
sation); to raise an objection, make ob- 
jections, object (J* to), veto (Jp s.th.), 
remonstrate, protest (Jp against); to 
resist, oppose (Jp s.o., s.th.); to stand 
up (J or a, a against s.o., against s.th.), 
stand in, or obstruct, the way of s.o. 
or s.th. (J or a, e); to hinder, impede, 
obstruct (<J s.o.); to happen (* to s.o.), 
befall (» s.o.) | 4JL- q*J^\ to block 
s.o.'s way X to ask to be shown (0 s.o., 
a s.th.); to review ^a troops); to inspect 
(a the guard of honor) ; to make a tour on 



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o*j* 



706 



foot, looking around and gathering im- 
pressions; to go through, scan, leaf 
through critically (* a book, written 
material); to pass in review (a s.th., esp. 
in one's imagination, before one's mental 
eye), call up, conjure up, call to one's 
mind, picture to o.s., visualize (a s.th.); 
to weigh, consider, examine (a s.th.); 
to proceed ruthlessly; to massacre with- 
out much ado {> the enemy) 

^jc. r ard pi. ^sjj* 'urud breadth; 
width; presentation, demonstration, stag- 
ing, show(ing), performance; display, 
exposition, exhibition; submission, filing 
(e.g., of an application); presentation (of 
a defendant, J* before the public pro- 
secutor, etc.); public presentation, sub- 
mission (of a report); proposition, pro- 
posal; offer, tender; offer of goods, offered 
goods; parade; review (mil.); survey (e.g., 
of facts, opinions on a subject) | ^^i U 
across, crosswise, in breadth; i_ r iLJij ^j^ 
(talab) supply and demand; •IjJVI^j* 
'a. al-azya fashion show; JU- ^y f #. 
hot or JU^j* pi. £jVI**0* 'arduhalat 
application, petition, memorial; ^jJl 
JjJI (iabaqi) exhibitionism; ^^Sw> ^jc- 
(askarl) military parade; ,j*jA\ JUr 
jahaz aVa. projector (for slides, films) ; i*>- 
^^J1 (U-J- 5 ) £ a # (darajat) al-a. degree 
of latitude ; ^*j& iiti subbak al- r a. show 
window; j^yJI fji yaum al-a. the Day 
of Judgment, Doomsday; dL^ j {eg.) 
have mercy on me ! for God's sake ! 

Xjfj- e arda (n. vie.) public performance, 
presentation, showing; — (eg., for S^JjU) 
crossbar of the goal (soccer) 

^jt 'ardi cross- (in compounds), 
transverse, horizontal; (eg., from l^>jfi 
for i^jlc) hitting the crossbar (soccer) | 
^jt ia^ (katt) latitudinal degree, geo- 
graphical latitude; -w*/ 1 - *J? (kura) ball 
against the crossbar (soccer) 

^j. f ird pi. ^j^ a'rdd honor, 



good repute; dignity | dlJjt- j Ul I rely 
on your generosity, have mercy upon 
me! (^'y^ ii^A to violate the honor 
(esp. of women) 

^j* r urd wide flat surface (in the 
middle of the road, of the sea or a river) ; 
broadside (e.g., of a sword); great masa 
(of people) | 3iJ^ ^j* roadway, pave- 
ment (of a street, as opposed to the side- 
walk); Jj^i ,j*o* j on the open street; 
j*J\ -j* j* j Cm. al-bahr) at sea, on the 
high seas; ULLi u^j* *j (v^) JN not to 
give a hoot for s.th. ; to disdain, despise, 
reject s.th.; to throw s.th. overboard, 
jettison s.th, ; ^jo jp <lJI J& ('an f urdin) 
he looked askance at him, he gave him a 
slanting glance (contemptuously); j 
,^-UI o^J' am i^ t ne crowd of people; 
jj-LJl u^js- j»y he belongs to the com- 
mon people 

Jl^p 'ardani transversal, transverse, 
latitudinal; measured crosswise 

^j* e arad pi. <jj>\j*\ a'rdd accident 
(philos.); contingent, nonessential char- 
acteristic; s.th. nonessential, a con- 
tingent, s.th. accidental; symptom, mani- 
festation of disease; sign, peculiarity; 
U*yt 'aradem, j^j^h incidentally, by 
chance 

^j* f aradi accidental (philos.), non- 
essential, unessential; incidental, ac- 
cidental, contingent, fortuitous, casual; 
£j{~J>j& 'aradiydt unessential incidents, 
unessentials ; accidentals | \rJ>j£- <*JLL^ 
venial sin (Chr.) 

U>j£ f urda target; (object of) intention, 
intent, design; object (J of); exposed, 
subject(ed), liable (J to s.th.); (with 
foil, genit.) suitable for, fitting for, 
appropriate for 

^jj^'arud prosody ; (pi. ^^j jUI a* and?) 
last foot of the first hemistich | ^j^JI ic 
Him al-a. metrics, prosody 



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707 



U*J* 



iS^Jj^ ^w&dl prosodic(al), metrical 

^j* 'arid pi. ^j* 'trad broad; wide; 
extensive; extended | "*J*ijC- S-Ljul (ibti- 
sdma) a broad smile, grin; *HI ^^ 
far-famed, famous 

4**lje 'arlda pi. ^yuSj* 'araid 2 petition, 
application, memorial | fl^VI 4-^jy 1 'a. 
al-iUihdm and j-j^jJI *-^j^ *a. ad-da* tod 
bill of indictment (?w.) 

^^ ma* rid pi. ^jU* ma* arid 1 place 
where s.th. is exhibited or displayed; 
showroom, stage; exposition, exhibition; 
show; fair (com.); {with foil, genit.) time, 
occasion for s.th. | ^j** J (with foil. 
genit.) in the form of . . . , in . . . manner; 
on the occasion of, at the occurrence or 
appearance of; ... ^j** J uVl L-J 
(lasnd) with foil, verbal noun: this is 
not the place for us to . . . ; <jJ>j»* J L^-J 
j* f$&\ let us not speak of . . . now, this is 
not the place to speak of . . . ; ^j** J 
iIj.U-1 in the course of the conversation; 
•kJ^ u'J** m - al-azya? fashion show; 
jp'jj u**-^ (^ra e i) agricultural exhibi- 
tion; iJiv^JI ^^ m - a^-§uhuf press 
review 

^^ mi'rad wedding gown 

(j^l^. mi'rad: <u*^T ^'j*-* j *JU (rrc. 
kaldmihi) to mention casually, say among 
other things 

,^-aj^ ta*n# intimation, allusion, hint, 
indication 

<Jj[*+ mu'arada opposition (esp. pot.); 
resistance, contradiction, remonstrance, 
objection, exception, protest; O resist- 
ance {el.) 

j^tjtl Vrad shunning, avoidance, eva- 
sion; reluctance; a turning away (^c 
from), disinclination | ^\j*\ j reluc- 
tantly 



^jaj tafarrud pi. -at objection 



jj-tfjLj ta f dru4 conflict, clash, antag- 
onism, contradiction, contrariety 

^Ij^l i'tirad pi. -<K resistance, oppo- 
sition, objection, exception, counter- 
argument, counterassertion, counterblast, 
riposte, rebuttal, rejoinder, expostu- 
lation, remonstrance, protest; (right of) 
veto (I si. Law); insertion; parenthesis; 
fade-in; interference | u *\j&')}\ Jp- haqq 
al-Vt, (right of) veto {pol.) 

iS J\j^\ iHiradi parenthetical; cut-in, 
blended in (picture in movies); inserted 

U *\ J *CL*'\ isti f rad survey; critical exam- 
ination, inspection; parade; review; re- 
vue, musical show | JL^VI <j*\j*^ *■ al- 
cCmml activity report 

iS *\j*z~>\ isti'radi revue-, show- (in 
compounds), revue-like | ~a t J>\j*c**\ <3ji 
{Jirqa) show troupe; revue troupe; 
tS ^\j>a^\ ii TV variety show; JUp i-i 
(S J>\ J fC^\ (ginefi) do.; hit parade (in TV) 

^jU "arid pi. -un exhibitor (e.g., at 
a fair); demonstrator; bidder (at an 
auction); submitter of an offer (in public 
tender invitations); — (pi. ^jl^e *awa* 
rid 2 ) obstacle, impediment, obstruction; 
temporary disturbance, anomalous con- 
dition (physically); attack, fit, spell; 
s.th. accidental, s.th. nonessential, an 
accident; side of the face; — il)U?jUl 
the cheeks | <>^jUi JaJ^- h. al- aridain 
having a sparse beard; <_>>oU Jel highest 
bidder (at an auction); Jj^I 
in the middle of the road 



o*J^ 



a^jU "dridapi. -at woman demonstrator, 
woman exhibitor; — (pi. ^J\je- t awdrid 2 ) 
side of the face; doorpost, jamb; cross- 
beam, transom; joist, girder; crossbar of 
the goal (soccer); purlin; O anode (el.) | 
<w?jUI 3y quwwat al- r d, eloquence; 
»Lj^l l^jU mannequin, fashion model 



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o*j? 



708 



^jU e aridi accidental, casual, occa- 
sional 

o^jj** ma'ru4 pi- o^t-^** ma' arid 2 
exposition, report; memorial, petition, 
application; — pi. -at propositions, 
proposals, offers, tenders; exhibits, ex- 
hibited articles 

^jU. mu'arid adversary, opponent, 
antagonist, opposer; contradicter; oppo- 
sitional, opposition (in compounds; pol.) 

^J^* mu'tarid running or lying 
across, transversal, transverse; ad- 
versary, opponent, antagonist, opposer; 
contradicter; resistance {el.) \ U>j** U> 
{jumla) parenthetical clause, parentho- 



od-*** 



J*>- (katt) crossline, trans- 



verse line; dash 

2 iS*J a ' ur & (from Turk, ordu) military en- 
campment, army camp 

jf^jc 'afar juniper (hot.) 

ij^fir 'arafa i (o^. ma'rifa, &\tj* Hrfdn) 
to know (a, » s.o., s.th.); to get to know, 
come to know (« s.o.); to recognize, 
perceive (a, e s.o., s.th.); to be cogni- 
zant, be aware (a of s.th.), be acquaint- 
ed (a with s.th.); to discover, experi- 
ence, find out (a s.th.); to recognize, 
acknowledge (^ s.th., * s.th. as being 
right; a a s.th. as); to concede, ac- 
knowledge (J a s.th. to s.o.), allow 
(J a for s.th. in s.o.); to approve (a of); 
to distinguish, differentiate (j* a, » s.o., 
s.th. from); pass, "urifa to be known 
(e-» as, by the name of) | 4SjA\ j>- J»^ 
(haqqa l-m.) to know for sure, be sure 
(of), be positive (about); J-*i*l <d cJj^ 
she was grateful to him, she appreciated 
his service, she gratefully acknowledged 
his service II to announce (a » to s.o. 
s.th.), inform, advise, apprise (a » s.o. 
of), acquaint (a « s.o. with s.th.); to 



introduce (Jl or <_j » s.o. to s.o. else), 
present (^ or Jl «, Jl <-> s.o. to s.o. else); 
to have (* s.o.) meet ( Jl or t-» s.o. else); to 
define (a s.th.); to determine, specify, 
characterize, explain (a s.th.); (gram.) to 
make definite (a a noun) ; (Chr.) to confess 
(o a penitent), hear the confession (* 
of s.o.) V to become acquainted (^ or 
Jl, also J* with s.o.), meet (<_j or Jl s.o.), 
make the acquaintance of s.o. (^ or Jl); 
to make o.s. known, disclose one's iden- 
tity, reveal o.s. (Jl to s.o.); to acquaint 
o.s., familiarize o.s., make o.s. familiar 
(J* or Jl with), inform o.s. (J* or Jl about), 
get to know (J* or Jl s.th.); to recognize 
(Jp s.o.); to sound, explore (a s.th.); 
to trace, discover, uncover (a s.th.); 
(gram.) to be or become definite (noun) 
VI to become acquainted with one an- 
other, become mutually acquainted, get 
to know each other; to become ac- 
quainted (<-> with); to come to know 
(a s.th.), learn (a about) VIII to confess, 
admit, acknowledge, own, avow (a s.th.); 
to recognize (<-> s.o., s.th., a state, pol.), 
grant recognition (»_-> to s.o., to s.th.); 
to concede, acknowledge (J uj s.th. to 
s.o.); to make a confession, to confess 
(Chr.) | J^*i-Lj tJij*l to be grateful X to 
discern, recognize (a s.th.) 



Js^ T arf fragrance, 
aroma 



perfume, scent, 



ijije- f urf beneficence, kindness ; — - (pi. 
Jsl^pl a'raf) custom, usage, practice, con- 
vention, tradition, habit; legal practice; 
custom, customary law (jur.); crest, comb 
(of a rooster), mane (of a horse) | tij* J 
as was his wont, according to his habit; 
in his opinion; ^L-Jjs^Ji (siyasl) pro- 
tocol 

jijP 'urfi traditional, conventional, 
usual, common, customary, habitual; 
pertaining to secular legal practice (as 
opposed to sar'i); private, unofficial (as 



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i_*jC> 



opposed to rasmi) | jj*JI jp-i (hukm) 
martial law; 4*ij*fl fl£>-^1 do.; ij^p i^ 
(m«AA»ma) court-martial; j,^ ^ijj (za= 
mw/) civil marriage (in contrast with a 
wedding concluded according to Islamic 
law) 

<Juj£ *arif pi. »U^ f urafd' 2 knowing 
(y s.th.), cognizant, aware (l-» of s.th.); 
expert, authority, specialist; teaching 
assistant, monitor (an older pupil as- 
sisting the teacher of a Koran school); 
sergeant (Ir.; miL); corporal (Eg,, Syr., 
etc.; mil.); (pi. uLi^ Hrfdri) teacher, esp. 
a teacher and precentor of congregational 
singing (Copt.-Chr.) j Jjl tJu^ {awwal) 
lance sergeant (Leb.), S^SUl cJuy^ "a. i'dsa 
staff sergeant, first sergeant {Ir.), (J ~mj 
Mj* sergeant major (Ir.), »Ju^ c-iU cor- 
poral (Ir.), Cuj* J^j private first class, 
lance corporal [Eg., Syr.; mil.) 

J»ly; 'arrdj diviner, fortuneteller 

is\j» 'arrdfa pi. -at (woman) fortuneteller 

Xj\je *irafa fortuneteller's trade; for- 
tunetelling, divination 

Cj\sj£- 'arafdt Arafat, name of a moun- 
tain and adjacent plain, located four 
hours' distance east of Mecca, where the 
Mecca pilgrims spend the 9th day of 
Zu'lhijja 

oMjc 'irfdn cognition, knowledge, per- 
ception; recognition, acknowledgment | 
J^J-I jli^c gratitude, thankfulness; uU/i 
J— «*j1JI H, al-jadl do. 

J*jc>\ a'raf 2 knowing better (c-» s.th.), 
more cognizant, more knowledgeable 
(^ of), better acquainted, more con- 
versant («-> with), more expert, more 
versed (4> in); a better connoisseur (^ 
of); (f. Asje. r arfd' 2 ) having a crest or 
mane, crested, maned 

Uj** marifa pi. «J»jU* ma'drif 2 knowl- 
edge, learning, lore, information, skill, 



know-how; cognition, intellection, per- 
ception, experience, realization; gnosis; 
acquaintance, cognizance, conversance, 
versedness; an acquainted person, an 
acquaintance, a friend; (gram.) definite 
noun; pi. JsjUU cultural affairs, educa- 
tion [ **j*£, by, through (after the 
passive); *£j*L\ *> knowingly, deliberately 
(jur.); 4j*j**JI «J»jUll j jj ( r umumiya) 
minister of education; <uy j iiyw jSo J 
(qaumihl) he was unknown among his 
people 

0>jt«w mtfdrif 1 face, countenance, 
features 

<Jmj^ ta*rif pi. -at, tJajjLJ ta'arif 2 
announcement, notification, communi- 
caL ; on, information; instruction, direc- 
tion; (social) introduction; definition, 
determination, identification, specifica- 
tion, characterization; a rendering def- 
inite (gram.) | ^Ju^cJI »W addt at-t. 
(gram.) the definite article; A*Lk> 
(Ju^-xJi identity card 

<Aij»j ta'rifa notification, information, 
apprising; — (pi. -at, ^JujU ta'drif 2 ) 
tariff; price list 

jtj>o ta'rifi tariff (in compounds) 

Js^J tctarruf acquaintance (^ or JI 
with); exploration, study; cognition, 
knowledge, perception, realization 

JjlJ^I iHirdf recognition (l-> of, also 
Vol.); acknowledgment; avowal, admis- 
sion, confession; (Chr.) confession | \j\j&\ 
i_j in recognition of; J~*iL <_!*'>*■ VI (bi-l- 
jamil) gratitude, thankfulness; y) 
<Jj\j&$\ aba l-i't. father- confessor, con- 
fessor (Chr.); JjIj^VI j* sirr al-i't. 
sacrament of penance (Chr.); <J»lj^Vl i** 
mu'allim al4't. father -confessor, confes- 
sor (Chr.); ^l^Jl j-*VIj <-j\jv>\ de facto 
recognition; 61 ol^Vl ^ it must be 
admitted that . . ., admittedly . . . 



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cjy> 



710 



<J»jU r arif acquainted, conversant, 
familiar (^ with); — (pi. -un) connois- 
seur, expert; master (craftsman; tun.) 



iijU f arifa (syr.) 
, village or tribe) 



sage, wise man (of 



J»jj** ma'ruf known, well-known; 
universally accepted, generally recog- 
nized; conventional; that which is good, 
beneficial, or fitting, good, benefit; 
fairness, equity, equitableness ; kindness, 
friendliness, amicability; beneficence; 
favor rendered, courtesy, mark of friend- 
ship; active voice {gram.) \ C^jylii or 
Uj^ in (all) fairness; with appropriate 
courtesy, in a friendly manner, amicably ; 
(Jsj^fjJJ ^S~U ungrateful; ul \J*jj*i\ it is 
(well-) known that . . ., as is well-known . . . ; 
it is commonly held that . . ., it is generally 
understood that . . . 

J*ja* mu'arrif pi. -un one who presents 
and personally identifies to the judge of a 
religious court or his representative 
(ma dun) the partners in a contract (Isl. 
Law) 

Cajm mu r arraf definite, determinate 
(gram.); definable | *J?jjw j& indefinite, 
indeterminate (gram,); undefinable 

ij»jl*i* muta'draf or 4JU <Jsjlo gener- 
ally accepted or recognized; common, 
usual, customary; commonplace; con- 
ventional; convention 

iji^** muHarif confessor (in the 
hierarchy of saints ; Chr.) 

*i J*J** mu'taraf bihi recognized, ac- 
cepted, admitted, granted, approved-of, 
licensed, authorized 

3j* 'ariqa a ("araq) to sweat, perspire II to 
make or let (* s.o.) sweat, promote 
perspiration; to add water (> to a drink), 
dilute (a a drink); to take root, strike 
roots; to be deeply rooted; to vein, 



marble (a s.th.) IV to take root, strike 
roots V = IV 

3je- r irq pi. 3jj& r uruq root; stem (of 
a plant, of a leaf); vein (boi. t anal.); 
hereditary disposition; race, stock, de- 
scent J »_-*jUI 3j& **• ad-dakab ipecac, 
ipecacuanha (bot.) ; ^j** 3y- *»• sus licorice 
root; UJt 3j* r i. an-nasd sciatica (med.); 
jyji wJ* fib aVi. noble descent; ^.-J* 
J^Ji tayyib al-'i. of noble descent, high 
born; ^-Lo J_^Jl (dassds) blood will tell, 
what is bred in the bone will come out 
in the flesh; 3j*> v ^j** to have a 
share in s.th., participate in s.th. 

3j& 'araq sweat, perspiration; arrack, 
a strong colorless liquor made of raisins, 
milky white when diluted with water 
(esp. syr.; = eg. zablb) | 5^*! I 3j* r ct. 
al-qirba pains, toil, exertion; <jj^J 3j* 
(zahlawl) a well-known brand of arrack 
made in Zahle (Lebanon) 

*Sjt 'araqa transom between two 
layers of stone or brick 

<Sj& 'araqiya (eg.) white cotton skull- 
cap (often worn under the tarboosh) 

*s\jc r ardqa deep-rootedness; ancient 
unspoiled character (of s.th.); ancient 

ancestral line, old family | »_ Ui J "*s\jc 

(nasab) noble descent 

vL^ 'arraqlya (eg.) white cotton 
skullcap (often worn under the tar- 
boosh) 

3ijt- r ariq deep-rooted j fJJaJI «j Jjy> 
(qidam) ancient; centuried, centuries- 
old; <*j j* <dJL& ^ from an old, respectable 
family; «_-— ill Jj^ r a. an-nasab of noble 
descent, highborn; £jjbJl j J^^ reach- 
ing far back in history 

JljJI aVirdq m. (also rarely f.) Iraq; 
jl*lj*Jl al-irdqdn Basra and Kufa 

jl^ 'Iraqi Iraqi, Iraqian; (pi. -un) 



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711 



fj> 



an Iraqi | LilyJl hjj^\ (jumhurlya) 
Republic of Iraq, official name : 4j j^fJ- 1 
i-^l y?lyjjcJjl 4Jl^*Jl (dimuqrdtlya, 8a e * 



Sjt\ a r raq* more deep-rooted 

3 j j*-* ma'ruq gaunt, emaciated, lean 
(face, hand, etc.) 

3j»* mu'arriq sudorific, promoting 
perspiration 

3 j** mu'arraq veined; striated 

J^w mu'riq firmly rooted; ancient and 
noble | aAaJ! j 3j~ (qidam) very old, 
ancient, centuried, centuries-old 

uJ^ 'arqaba to hamstring (a an animal) 

i-jyje r urqub pi. i—-»lj* 'ardqib 2 Achil- 
les' tendon; hamstring; r urqub name of a 
famed liar | vjV' Jr* V^' a greater 
liar than 'Urqub 

ijjijt- 'urqubl false, deceitful (promise) 

Ji/- 'arqala to render difficult, complicate, 
handicap, hinder, hamper, encumber, 
impede, obstruct, delay (a, » s.o., s.th.), 
throw obstacles in the way of s.o. or 
s.th. (a, *); (tun.) to seize, confiscate, 
impound (a s.th.) II ta'arqala to be 
aggravated, rendered difficult, be or 
become complicated, be hindered, 
hampered, encumbered, impeded, ob- 
structed, handicapped, delayed 

l&jc- 'arqala impeding, hindering, en- 
cumbering; — (pL ^y* r ardqil 2 ) en- 
cumbrance, impediment, hindrance; ob- 
stacle, difficulty, handicap | Jj'^1 £*j 
(LI to put obstacles in the way of 

iljft 'arnica u ("ark) to rub (a s.th.); to 
turn, adjust (a the knobs of a radio, and 
the like); to play havoc (a with), damage 
severely (a s.th.) |^aJl Sy (dahru) he is 
a cunning fellow, he knows about life ; — 



*ariha a to be strong in battle, be a tough 
fighter III to fight (« s.o.); to quarrel, 
bicker, squabble (o with s.o.) VI to engage 
in a fight, fight one another; to quarrel 
with one another, squabble VIII to fight 
one another 

iS^c *ark experience (gained through 
suffering) 

aT^ r arka fight; quarrel, squabble 

iSsj^ f arika disposition, frame of mind, 
temper, nature 

t&'j** mcfraka, ma'ruka pi. fljU. ma# 
*drik? battlefield; battle 

illjc r irdk fight; quarrel, squabble {Ju 
between) 

aT;U. mu'araka fight; quarrel, squabble 

llj«* mu'tarak fighting ground, battle 
ground 

j»^p II to heap up, pile up, stack (a s.th.) 
VIII to be vicious; to be stubborn, ob- 
stinate, headstrong 

*^ e arim vicious; strong, violent, 
vehement, powerful, terrific | ^y- ^Jj*- 
(jaiS) numerous, huge army; p*11 J~- 
sail al-*a. storm flood (which destroyed 
the dam of Ma 'rib in ancient S Arabia) 

*\jc 'urdrn viciousness (of character); 
violence, vehemence | Aj* J^** (sail) 
huge quantity, tremendous flood 

1*^ 'urma pi. p* e uram heap, pile, 
bulk, mass, large amount, multitude 

4j*j* 'arama pi. pj* r aram heap, pile, 
bulk, mass, large amount, multitude 

<*y 'an-ma dike 

ajU r drim vicious; tempestuous, violent, 
vehement, strong ; tremendous, enormous, 
huge ; inflexible (will) 



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P* 



712 



rs>jt> 'aramram strong, violent, vehement | 
pj*j& (jiw;- (jaiS) a numerous, huge army 

bj* 'aran a bony outgrowth, exostosis (med.) 

^jt "arln pi. bjc- r urun thicket; lair 
of a lion, lion's den 

'^jj£- r arina pi. $\js- 'ard'in^ lair of a 
wild animal 

^jj* Hrnin pi. ,>ji/> "ardnln 2 upper 
part of the nose, bridge of the nose 



^u_^ 



"irnas pi. j-ajIj* 'ardnis 2 distaff | ^U 



>j* 



*ji 'i. cfotra corncob (syr.) 



Uj*) 'j* ' ar ^ w farw?) and VIII to befall, 
grip, seize, strike, afflict (o s.o.), come, 
descend (» upon s.o.), happen (• to s.o.); 
to take possession (o of s.o.) 

ljj& r urwa pi. fjjc- T uran buttonhole; 
loop, noose, coil; ear, handle (of a jug, 
and the like); tie, bond, e.g., aila^aJl gjc 
( u. s-$addqa bonds of friendship; support, 
prop, stay | JjJJl *j^*J! (wutqd) the firm, 
reliable grip or hold, the firm tie 

(Sjc 'ariya a {'ury, \js. 'urya) to be raked, 
nude; to be free, be bare (^ of) | je gjt 
<olJ (^ or) to take off one's clothes, 
strip (naked), undress, have no clothes 
on; (j^Ut JS'jft gjt. (asds) to be completely 
unfounded, be without any foundation 
II to disrobe, unclothe, undress (• s.o.); 
to bare, denude, lay bare, uncover 
(a s.th.); to strip (ajLj j* o s.o. of his 
clothes); to deprive, divest, strip (j* o 
s.o. of s.th.) X to strip to the buff, take 
off one's clothes 

<Sj£- r ury nakedness, nudity; un- 
saddled (horse) 

hjc r urya nakedness, nudity 

*\js- r arW nakedness, nudity; bareness; 
open space, open country j »l^*Jl J in the 



open air, under the open sky, outside, 
outdoors; »1^*J1 J r-r~* (masrah) open-air 
theater 

o\jj& 'urydn pi. blj* 'ardyd naked, 
nude, undressed, bare | JaL dUjC (malt) 
stark-naked (eg.) 

O V^.y r ury amy a nudism 

t^jUil al-ma r ari the uncovered parta 
of the body (hands, feet, face) 

hjZ taWiya uncovering, disrobing (of 
s.o.); denudation, exposure (of rock; geol.) 

p\j*£l*\ isti'ra O self- exposure, exhibi- 
tionism 

jU r drin pi. ;l^p r urdh naked, nude, 
undressed, bare; free, devoid, destitute, 
bare, deprived, stripped, denuded (^ 
or jp of s.th.); blank, bare (e.g., a 
room), stark (e.g., a narrative) | ^jU 
f Ia»V1 barefoot(ed), unshod 

)t- 'azza i ( f izz, %}£■ f izza, Sjljp f azdza) to be 
or become strong, powerful, respected; 
to be or become rare, scarce, be scarcely 
to be found; to be or become dear, 
cherished, precious (J* to s.o.); <jl <JLc. jc 
he is sorry that . . . ; to be hard, difficult 
{Jp for s.o.); to hurt, pain {J* s.o.), be 
painful (Jc for s.o.), be hard (J* on 
s.o.) II to make strong, strengthen, rein- 
force, fortify, corroborate, confirm, solid- 
ify, invigorate, harden, advance, support 
{a, * s.o., s.th.); to consolidate (a s.th.); 
to honor (» s.o.); to raise in esteem, 
elevate, exalt (» s.o.); to make dear, 
endear (» s.o.) | <JU- jjc to strengthen, 
reinforce, fortify, solidify, consolidate 
s.th., make s.th. strong, powerful, mighty 
IV to make strong, strengthen, fortify, 
reinforce, invigorate, harden, steel (a, » 
s.o., sth.); to love (a, t> s.o., s.th.); to 
honor (a, » s.o., s.th.); to esteem, value, 
prize (a, * s.o., s.th.); to make dear, 
endear (a, a s.o., s.th.) V to be or become 



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713 



J> 



strong, powerful, mighty, forceful, 
strengthened, fortified, reinforced, in- 
vigorated, hardened, solidified, con- 
solidated; to be proud, boast (<~> of), 
pride o.s., glory, exult (<_j in) VIII to 
feel strong or powerful (u-» due to, 
because of); to be proud, boast (u_> 
of), pride o.s., glory, exult (^ in); to 
arrogate to o.s. (^ s.th.) X to overwhelm, 
overcome (J* s.o.); to become powerful, 
mighty, respected, honored, be exalted; 
to make or hold dear, value highly, 
esteem (* s.o.) 

j* Hzz might, power, strength; inten- 
sity , very high degree ; honor, glory ; high 
rank, fame, renown | LaJp Her Highness 
(title); <>L-i Jc J (izzi sababihl) in the 
prime of his youth; ^1 Je- j ("izzi l-harr) 
in the most intense heat ; *liiJI Jp j ("izzi 
8-Hta) in the depth of winter 

*Jp Hzza might, power, strength; honor, 
glory; high rank, fame, renown; self- 
esteem; pride | 4_JU»t Zj* power, might; 
**»>*" »>JI (qaurniya) national pride; 
ir iJI Ijc- r i. an-nafs sense of honor, self- 
respect, self-esteem; Sj*Ji v^s-L* title of 
a bey 

> Jt r aziz pi. fljp! a'izza' 2 , ljz\ a'izza 
mighty, powerful, respected, distin- 
guished, notable; strong; noble, es- 
teemed, venerable, august; honorable; 
rare, scarce, scarcely to be found; diffi- 
cult, hard (J* for); precious, costly, val- 
uable; dear, beloved (Jp to), cherished, 
valued (J* by); friend; ruler, overlord | 
tS>> my dear! (esp. as a salutation in 
letters), jj^^\ <£\je- my dear Doctor! 
iijlp JJrJp my dear Aisha! <_JU-1 _>jp 
mighty, powerful, strong 

jtl a'azz 2 mightier, more powerful; 
stronger; dearer, more beloved; ^;j*JI 
aVuzza a goddess of the pagan Arabs 



j*j ta'izz* Ta'izz (city in Yemen Arab 
Republic) 

Zy* ma'azza esteem, regard, affection, 
love 

yjjo taziz pi. -at strengthening, con- 
solidation, support, backing; pi. ol>>J 
reinforcements, supplies (mil.) 

jljpl i'zaz strengthening, fortification, 
reinforcement, consolidation; love, af- 
fection, esteem, regard 

j\j&\ i'tizaz pride (i_j in) 

jU. mtftazz proud; mighty, powerful 

«_jJp r azaba i u (vjJ^ e uzub) to be far, be 
distant (y^ from); to slip, escape (^ 
s.o.'s mind) | OUiVl ^ vj^ *° De f° r " 
gotten, sink into oblivion; — 'azaba u 
(hj& r uzba t *jjJp 'uzuba) to be single, 
unmarried 

«_;Jp r azab pi. v'j* '«#»&» ujljp! a'zdb 
celibate, single, unmarried; bachelor 

<j}* 'izba pi. (_jjfr 'izab {eg.) country 
estate, farm; rural settlement 

i|jp 'uzba celibacy; bachelorhood 

ajjiJp ' uzuba celibacy; bachelorhood 

IjjJp 'uzubiya — \jj* < uzuba 

^_jjtl a'zab 2 celibate, single, unmarried; 
bachelor 

._jjU e dzib single, unmarried; bachelor 

^j** mu'azzab sheik, emir (Nejd) 

jjp 'azar i ( c azr) to censure, rebuke, reprove, 
reprimand (» s.o.); to refuse to have 
anything to do with s.o.; — r azara i to 
curb, restrain, subdue (* s.o.'s pride, 
and the like) II to censure, rebuke, 
reprove, reprimand (o s.o.); to refuse to 
have anything to do with s.o. 



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714 



jjs. 'azr censure, blame, rebuke, reproof, 
reprimand 



-CJ* 



ta'zir censure, blame, rebuke, 



reproof, reprimand; chastisement, casti- 
gation 

j\'J&\ iHizdr self-discipline 

JJljj^ e izraU 2 Azrael, the angel of death 

«J»jp e azafa i { r azf, «JuJ* 'cm/) to whistle, 
howl (wind); to play (Jp on a musical 
instrument, a tunes); to play (J to or 
for s.o.), make music (J for s.o.); — i u 
( f a2/, J*jjc- *uzuf) to turn away ( jp from 
s.th.), become averse (^ to s.th.), avoid, 
shun (^ s.th.), abstain, refrain (jl from 
doing s.th.) 

iJojJc- r azlf whistling (of the wind); 
weird sound or noise 

Jjjjp 'azuf disinclined, averse (jt- to 
s.th.) 

<J>}*+ mizaf pi. JsjU* ma'dzip stringed 
instrument; O piano 

J» jU r azif pi. ~un player, (musical) per- 
former; musician | Ji_>JI <-JJ\s. "a. al-buq 
trumpeter; ^LJ' JsjU 'a. al-biyano 
pianist; olSJl iJsjU 'a.al-kamdn violinist; 
(^Ui *JsjU flutist 

Sij-jjw nia'zufa pi. -a< piece of music, 
performance, recital (on an instrument) 

i3> f azaqa i { r azq) to hoe, dig up, break up, 
loosen (^jVl al-arda the soil) 

45j** mizaqa pi. JjU» rna'aziq 2 hoe, 
mattock 

Jjt "azala i ( r azl) to remove, set aside, 
isolate, separate, segregate, detach, cut 
off (^ *, » s.o., s.th. from); to depose 
(e s.o.), release, dismiss, discharge (a s.o. 
4-^ai. ^ 'on mansibihl of his office) 
IV <u*aX* J^i (mansibahu) to give up one\s 



position, resign VII to be or become 
isolated, cut off, separated, segregated, 
detached (jt from) VIII to keep away, 
stand aloof; to withdraw (from an activ- 
ity); to retire, segregate, secede, detach 
o.s., dissociate o.s., separate o.s., isolate 
o.s. (jp or a, o from s.o., from s.th.), part 
(^ or a, * with s.o., with s.th.); to be or 
get deposed | IuJ-M 6'Js\ {kidmata), Jj^l 
J**Jl ('amala) to retire from service, 
from work, go into retirement 

J^ f azl removal, dissociation, detach- 
ment, setting aside, isolation (also, e.g., 
in case of contagious disease), cutting-off, 
segregation, separation; deposition, dis- 
charge, dismissal | <jjX-\ Jjp iajU- (harq) 
fire wall; JjJii JjIJ j& irremovable, ap- 
pointed for life tenure (judge) 

Jj£ r azal unarmedness, defenselessness 

Jjt r uzul unarmed, defenseless 

"4js- 'uzla retirement, seclusion, re- 
treat, privacy; segregation, separation, 
detachedness; insulation, insularity, iso- 
latedness; isolation; solitude | jt *J^c J 
secluded, segregated, cut off, detached, 
separated, insulated, isolated from 

Aijcr r izla pi. J^t e tzal subdistrict of 
a nahiya (Yemen) 

Jljp r izal {eg.) furniture, household 
effects, movable goods, luggage 

Jjftl a' zap, f. *V>- 'azW 2 , pi. J> T uzl 
unarmed, defenseless | Jj*VI £i\ c - Jl star 
a in the constellation Virgo, Spica 
Virginis (astron.) 

J J*-, ma'zil pi. JjL** ma r dzil 2 place of 
retirement, house of retreat; seclusion, 
segregation, isolation; isolation ward (in 
a hospital) | j* J_>x separated, detached, 
apart, secluded, segregated, isolated from 

Ji>o! in'iztil detachedness, seclusion, 



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JJ* 



segregation, insularity, insulation; iso- 
lation 

JI>Jl in'izali isolationist(ic) 

IJI^ul inHzaliya isolationism 

Jlj^pl i'tizdl retirement, seclusion, 
retreat, privacy; withdrawal (from an 
activity) | i»j£l <$\j*\ i f t. al-kidma retire- 
ment from service 

JjU r azil insulator {el); insulating | 
<JjU il^. (mawddd) insulating materials 
(techn.) 

O *Jj^ *azi/a pi. -af, Jj'jp "awdzil 2 
insulator, nonconductor (eZ.) 

JjJ*m ma'zul far, distant, remote (jp 
from); isolated, insulated 

(J^*i. mun'azil isolated, single, solitary, 
sporadic 

J>w mu'tazil withdrawn, living alone 
and in isolation 

4^*11 al-muHazila name of a theological 
school which introduced speculative dog- 
matism into Islam 

d£** mu* iazal pi. -at (place of) solitude, 
(place of) retirement 

fj& 'azama i ( r azm, «jc^p T azima) to decide, 
resolve (J* on s.th.); to make up one's 
mind, determine, be determined, be re- 
solved (Jp to do s.th.), be bent (Jp on 
s.th,); to adjure (Jp s.o.); to invito (• 
s,o. ol or Jp to or to do s.th.) II to enchant, 
spellbind (Jp s.o., s.th., by magic rites) 
VIII to decide, resolve ( Jp or * on s.th.), 
make up one's mind, determine, be de- 
termined, be resolved (Jp or a to do 
s.th.), be bent ( Jp or a on s.th.) 

pjp *azm determination, firm will, 
firm intention, decision, resolution; ener- 
gy 



i.^p 'azma decision, resolution; strict 
order (^ to do s.th.) 



olute 



r azum determined, resolved, res- 



Iuj^p 'uzuma invitation; banquet 

*jf jp r azlma determination, firm will, 
firm intention; (pi. /Ijp 'aza'im?) res- 
olution (Jp to do s.th.), decision; in- 
cantation; spell 

fjU 'dzim determined, resolved (Jp 
to do s.th.) 



fj^~ 



mu'tazim determined, resolved 



( Jp to do s.th.) 

{j^ and ,j;Jp) Ijp e azd u { r azw) and ^Jp 
e aza i ( r azy) to trace (back) (J or Jl * 
s.th. to an origin), ascribe, attribute, 
impute, owe (J or Jl a s.th. to s.o., to 
s.th.); to charge, incriminate (J or Jl a 
with s.th. s.o. or s.th.), blame (Jl a for 
s.th. s.o. or s.th.), lay the blame (Jl a 
for s.th. on s.o., on s.th.); — ^Jp 'aziya a 
(*r^- e azd') and Ijp f aza u {>\j* *azd y ) to 
take patience, console o.s. II to persuade 
(» s.o.) to bear with equanimity (J or 
jp s.th., the death of s.o. or the loss of 
s.th.), comfort, console (jp e s.o. over), 
give comfort, express one's sympathy, 
offer one's condolences (o to s.o.) V to 
take patience; to console o.s. (je for) 
VII to console o.s. (i_j with), find solace 
(^ in) VIII to trace (back) one's descent 
(Jl to) 

jj* f azw tracing back, ascription, 
attribution; imputation, accusation 



Ijje *izwa\ »jJaJ1 j~o- hasan al-' 
good ancestry, of good stock 



of 



*ljp f az<£ composure, equanimity; 
comfort, consolation, solace; ceremony 
of mourning 

hju ta f ziya pi. JUj ta'dzin consolation, 



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solace, comfort; condolence | -^jo vj 
to express one's sympathy, offer one's 
condolences; ^jUxIl f-U (qaddama) do. 

'J*. mtCazzin comforter, consoler, con- 
doler 

<J -& e assa u ( r ass) to make the rounds by 
night, patrol by night 

iJ ^^ 'asas patrol (as a body of men) 

5 — p 'assa guard j 4-J^ail S — jjl 
(masuna) (formerly:) the bodyguard of 
the Bey of Tunisia 



asib tail bone (of the horse); fpl. 
i~~~s- r usub) a palm branch stripped of 
its leaves 

i_jj-~ju ya r sub pi. <- r -i-L*j ya'asib 2 male 
bee, drone; head, chief, leader 

£^jp 'ausaj boxthorn (Lycium europaeum 
L. and Lycium arabicum Schwf.; bot.) 

o>*-^ 'asjad gold 

i^Jbw^ "asjadi golden 
J^m mu'asjad gilded 

x ~£> 'asura u ( f usr, r usur) and r asira a ( f amr) 
to be difficult, hard, trying, adverse (Jp 
for s.o.); — r asara i u ( r asr) to press, 
ur S e (J* • s -°- to h to force, compel, 
coerce (Jp o s.o. to) II to make difficult 
ot \iard (* s.tW.); to act hosti\e\y {^ 
toward s.o.); to oppress, distress (J*. 
s.o.), bear down hard fj& on s.o.) Ill to 
treat (4 s.o.) roughly or harshly IV to 
be in distress, be in a fix, in a predic- 
ament; to become impoverished, be 
reduced to poverty, be up against it, be 
in financial straits, live in straitened 
circumstances Y to be difficult, hard, 
trying, adverse (Jp for s.o.) VI = V; 
X = V; to find {a s.th.) difficult, hard, 
trying, or adverse 



j~& *u$r, 'usur difficulty, trying or 
distressful situation, predicament, plight, 
fix, pinch, press, straits, straightened 
circumstances, distress, poverty, desti- 
tution 

j~»& "asir hard, difficult; trying, dis- 
tressing, adverse 



j*— p 'asir difficult, hard, harsh, rough; 
Asir (mountainous district in SW Arabia, 
between Hejaz and Yemen) 

j~s\ asar 2 left-handed; harder, more 
difficult 

*j~** ma r sara = j-s- *usr 

jL-pI i r sdr poverty; financial straits, 
insolvency 

j^3 ta r assur difficulty 

jj~aa ma'sur (living) in straitened 
circumstances 

j~*j> mu'sir (living) in straitened 
circumstances; poor, impoverished 

j^tc* muta'assir hard, difficult, try- 
ing, distressing, adverse 

k~. p r as r asa to darken, grow dark 



asafa i { f asf) to act recklessly or 
thoughtlessly (j in s.th.), do (j s.th.) 
rashly; to treat unjustly, oppress, 
tyrannize {» s.o.') II to overburden, over- 
task, overtax (» s.o.) IV = II; V to do 
j a s.th.) at random, haphazardly, dispose 
arbitrarily (j of); to deviate, stray (j^ 
from) VIII to do {» s.th.) at random, 
haphazardly ; to deviate, stray ( jp from); 
to go astray; to force, compel, coerce 
(^ * s.o. to) 

<Jl~p r asf injustice, oppression, tyr- 
anny 

ijsj— p 'asuf oppressor, despot, tyrant 



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JL*. r assaf oppressor, despot, tyrant 

,Ju-*J ta'asmf arbitrariness; an arbi- 
trary, liberal, inaccurate manner of 
using the language; aberration; de- 
viation 

;^o ta'assufi arbitrary; despotic, 
tyrannical; abusive; excessive, reckless 

i_!»l— Ifrl Vtisdf straying, aberration, 
deviation; coercion, compulsion, force 

iWLL* r asqaldn 2 Ashkelon (seaport in SW 
Palestine) 

JL* 'askar pi. ^TL-p 'asdkir 2 army, host, 
troops | y*>U* jTL-p (ddbitiya) constab- 
ulary, police troops 

fSJy^-z r aakarl military, army- (in com- 
pounds) ; (pi. -tin, J?Ls> 'asdkir*) soldier ; 
private (Eg., Syr.; mil.); pi. OjtjSL^i\ 
the military | (j-JjJl ^TL* 'a. at -bulls 
policemen 

\ ^SLp 'askariya military service ; mili- 
tarism; soldiership, soldiery, soldier- 



u'^-ap f aisaldn hyacinth (bot.) 
• ma* sola beehive 



^5Ljm mu'askar pi. -at military en- 
campment, army camp; camp (also pol.) j 
Jli^.*yi ^L~ m concentration camp 

J-* II to prepare or mix with honey (* 
s.th.); to sweeten, make sweet or pleasant 
(a s.th.) 

J-*- r asal pi. JI-pI a" sal, Jj— e. r usul 
honey | jZ**" <J~* T a. sukkar molasses, 
treacle; j^l J— e. do.; J^ J— e '«• nahl 
bee honey; ^^ J-* (sina f i) artificial 
honey; J«jJI ^^ &rAr a£- f a. honeymoon 

J-* 'asct/l honey- colored, amber, 
brownish 

JLe 'assaZ gatherer of honey; bee- 
keeper, apiculturist 

'4L*z r assdla beehive 



iL-wo ta'slla (eg,) nap, doze 

Jj— ** ma'sul prepared with honey; 
honeyed, honeysweet | *Jj-** u^UlT (fcaZt* 
maZ) fine empty words 

J— *a mu'assal: J—*. jl>o (rf«A*«n) a 
mild-tasting tobacco, due to its prep- 
aration with molasses, glycerine, fra- 
grant oils or essences 

JL-* 'usluj pi. f-.L-* 'asdlij 2 tender sprig, 
small twig, shoot 

rj^-* ' usluj pi. rtJl«* 'asdlij 2 tender 
sprig, small twig, shoot 

1 L$U £- 'asa (without imperf.; frequently with 
foil, jl an and subj., also with pron. suf- 
fix as subject: £lL«, «U-p) it might be, 
it could be that . . ., possibly . . ., may- 
be .. ., perhaps . . . j J*il ol lS ^ liL. what 
should I do? 1-i* ^iJ ^-p U (yanfcfu) of 
what use could this possibly be? »L-c liL 
djju what could he possibly say? lS ^ U 
<lj DjSCi ol what could possibly be in it? 
Js*-Jl 1a* Oj& jl (S ^ j* [man, rajul) who 
could this man possibly be? *j^ (o!) »Up 
it may be that he'll come; o\ >jj iS ^ 
&V (rabbukum, yarhamakum) perhaps 
your Lord will have mercy on you 

^ e asly (possibly) able (w-> to do s.th.), 
capable (^ of doing s.th.), suited (^ for) | 

he ought to . . ., it would be fair for him 
to . . ., it would befit him, would be 
proper for him 

2 Kj Ae- 'asin dry, withered, wilted 

Jit. II to build a nest, to nest; to take root, 
become established, settle in V to become 
rooted; to be rooted ( j in) VIII to build 
a nest, to nest 



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jip e uSS pi. ,jille Hsas, ^iULei a'.s'rt*-, 
<ZJLp 'i$a&a nest | ^jI^p ^ '«. ^wra6 (e^.) 
mushrooms 

iip W£a, *t$fa pi. ^iJL*. *u§a§, r isa§ 
hut, cabin; shack, hovel; arbor, bower | 
£\ji iit '«. firak chicken coop, cage for 
hens; (eg.) shabby house, dump 

(^JLfr 'asiba a, r a$uba u to be grassy, grass- 
covered (ground) II do. 

.^JU r u$b (coll.; n. un. S) pi. (_>U*I 
a T sdb (green) grass, herbage, plants; 
pasture 

i-1* r u8ba plant, herb 

iS Ji^ *Ms6t herbaceous, herbal, vege- 
table, vegetal, plant- (in compounds) | 
iaJU **j*f herbarium; 5...l>V ^b' (am* 
din) green landscape, overgrown country 

w-U *a&6 grassy, abundant in grass 

4jli* 'asaba luxuriant vegetation 

wJU. mu'Ub grassy, abundant in grass 

jl^tt *t&ar* Ishtar (Assyr.-Bab. goddess) 

ZjJl* 'aStara 2 and CjjjJu. f a$tarut 2 Astarte 
(west Semitic goddess) 

jU *a$ara u to collect the tithe (o from s.o., 
* of s.th.) II = I; to divide into tenths; 
(eg.) to mate (U with a female animal); 
to be pregnant (animal) III to be on 
intimate terms, associate (closely) (« with 
s.o.) VI to be on intimate terms, associate 
with one another, live together 

jit \isr pi. jlicl cfsdr, j yts, r usur one 
tenth, tenth part; tithe | jLu. ^.i* 'it. 
mi'Sar one hundredth 

(jj^c r a$rz decennial 

iSjZ* r u£ri decimal (adj.) 

^jlipl a'sarl decimal (adj.) 



*j-Z* Hsra (intimate) association, in. 
timacy, companionship, relations, (so- 
cial) intercourse, company; conjugal 
community, community of husband and 
wife 

*jj& f amra (f. ^ r ah) ten; ^1! the 
first ten days of Muharram 

J.U X-^ taldtata 'asara (f. IjU <i>H 
talMa "asrata) thirteen 

ol^^tt r a$arat tens (arith., in contrast 
to ones, hundreds); some tens, tens (of); 
decades; (with foil, genit.) dozens of..., 
scores of . . . 

jLi* 'isar (eg.) with young, pregnant 
(animal) 

tSjli* 'uSari tenfold, consisting of ten; 
decathlon (athlet.) 

j Lip 'asSdr pi. -un collector of the tithe; 
publican (in the New Testament) 

jr-i* r aslr pi. *\jJif, f u£ara' 2 companion, 
fellow, associate, friend, comrade 

IjJu. 'aslra pi. Jit* f asd'ir 2 clan, 
kinsfolk, closest relatives; tribe; pi. 
j-'LUi (syr.) the Bedouins | J\Jt^\ ^^ 
haras al-'a. Bedouin police (responsible 
for surveillance of the nomads) 

iSJ\±^ 'asd'irl (syr.) Bedouin (adj.) | 
<jj[±*l\ Jj^JI (*urf) the customary law 
of the Bedouins 

»lj_^£U r d$urd* 2 , >\jjt* r aiura' 2 , *^j 
*\jjZ>\*. yaum '«., »tj^iU iLJ lailat % 
Ashura, name of a voluntary fast day 
on the tenth day of Muharram; day of 
mourning sacred to the Shiites, the 
anniversary of Husain's martyrdom at 
Kerbela (10th of Muharram A. H. 60) 

bjjJU f i£run twenty 

ob^^Jl al-'ifrindt the twenties (dec- 
ade of a century) 



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ma'sctr pi. ^JlU» ma'dUr 2 assem- 
community, company, society, 
group, troop; kinsfolk | *_jLiJl j!j» U 
yd mcfsara s-sahdb oh ye young men! 

jLi*« mVmr one tenth, tenth part 

j±*3 ta'Sir covering, serving (of a female 
animal) 

*jJi\jL» mu'dsara (intimate) association, 
intimacy, social relations, social inter- 
course; company, society, companion- 
ship; community, jointness 

^U* mu'asir companion, fellow, as- 
sociate, friend, comrade 



mu r <is*a$ (leb.) firmly settled (j in); 
(t%n.) fatted 

Jip r aUqa a ( f isq) to love passionately (*, » 
s,o., s.th.), be passionately in love (*, • 
with s.o., with s.th.) II to fit tightly 
together, interjoin closely, dovetail (a 
s.th.); to couple, connect (* s.th.; techn.) 
V to court, woo (U a woman), make love 
(U to a woman) 

Jip 'Uq love, ardor of love, passion | 
O C*\Si\ <$£■£■ narcissism (psych.) 

J~ip f asiq lover, sweetheart (m.) 

UJt* 'astqa beloved, sweetheart (f.) 

J^ip 'iSsiq lover 

jJL*j ta'Slq tight inter] unction, dove- 
tailing; coupling (techn.); transmission, 
clutch (of a car), gear shift (techn.) 



I ta'Mqa pi. J^Uj ta'dsiq 2 dovetail 
(in carpentry); coupling (techn.); trans- 
mission, clutch (of a car), gear shift 
(techn.) 

jJ^U 'asiq pi. -«n, J Lip 'ussdq lover; 
fancier, fan, -phile (in compounds); — 
(pi. J-iijp 'awdsiq 2 ) knucklebone; (game 
of) knucklebones 



Jj-1*- ma'suq lover, sweetheart (m.) 
4ijJ^A ma'suqa beloved, sweetheart (f.) 

(fts, and ^c) Lip r as& u ( f asw) and t5 ip 
'asiya a (Lip r asan) to be dim-sighted; 
to be night-blind II to make dim -sighted, 
make night-blind (» s.o.) ; to give a dinner 
(» for s.o.) IV to make dim-sighted {» s.o., 
a the eyes) V to have dinner (or supper), 
to dine, to sup 

Lip 'aSan dim-sightedness; night- 
blindness, nyctalopia 

^ip r a$a,n and JJ <^ip (laili) night- 
blindness, nyctalopia 

j^ip f asly evening 

•Lip 'a§a pi. i-ipl a'siya dinner, 
supper | (jjJ\ >Li*JI (sirri) the Lord's 
Supper, the Eucharist (Chr.), Jb^JI »Li*JI 
(rabbdnl) do. 

»Lip e isd* evening; (f.) evening prayer 
(Isl. Law) 

syLp t asxva darkness, dark, gloom; 
dinner, supper 

Sjlip 'aSdtva dim-sightedness; night- 
blindness, nyctalopia 

5~ip 'asiya pi. -at, ULip r a§dyd evening; 
nightfall; eve, day before a feast | <J*p 
^l T a§iyata amsi last night, yesterday 
in the evening; UU**j ILip ,>j (duhdhd) 
from one day to the other, overnight, all 
of a sudden 

J^ip 'as-tva' 2 darkness, dark, gloom; 
also see j^ip! a r sd 

^tpl a'sd, f. J^ip f aSwd* 2 dim-sighted; 
night-blind, nyctalopic; blind, aimless, 
haphazard, desultory, senseless | Ja-a^ 
* l^ip ]a^~ yakbitu kabta *aswd*a he 
acts blindly, thoughtlessly, at random, 
haphazardly 



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j\jt£- r aswai random, happening at 
random, without plan 

iJ ** r assa a ('ass, ^yt^s. r asas) to be or become 
hard, harden 

*usas, r usus coccyx 



'asaba i ("ash) to wind, fold, tie, bind, 
wrap (J* a s.th. around or about s.th.); 
to bind up, bandage (a s.th.); to fold 
(a s.th.); to wrap (a the head) with a 
brow band, sash, or turban | a Li ^J\ <^a* 
(rlqu fahu) the saliva dried in his mouth, 
clogged his mouth II to wind around, 
fold around, tie around, wrap around 
(a s.th.); to bind up, bandage (a s.th.); 
to wrap (a the head) with a brow band, 
sash, or turban V to wind the turban 
round one's head, put on the turban ; to 
apply a bandage, bandage o.s.; to take 
sides, to side («, J with; J* against); 
to be chauvinistic; to cling obdurately or 
fanatically (j to); to be fanatic, bigoted; 
to form a league, clique, group, team, 
gang, or coalition, gang up, team up; to 
plot, conspire, collude, connive (Jp 
against) VIII to form a league, clique, 
group, team, gang, or coalition, gang up, 
team up; to go on strike, to strike 

(_—«* r asab (coll.) nerves; — (pi. u->Lapi 
a' sab) nerve; vein, artery; sinew | o^iJ 
<uL^I (nafarat) his veins swelled, stood 
out, i.e., he was enraged 

<s ^at. 'asabi sinewy, nerved, nervy; 
nervous, neural, nerve-, neuro-, neur- 
(in compounds); nervous, high-strung | 
g\jl I ^at nervous, high-strung; jl^l 
(j^ajJ! (jakaz) the nervous system; <IU- 
io^oc nervousness, nervosity; ^ --H .Jt*^)! 
(du'f) neurasthenia 

4-wic 'asabiya nervousness, nervosity; 
— (pi. -at) zealous partisanship, bigotry, 
fanaticism; party spirit, team spirit, 
esprit de corps; tribal solidarity, ra- 



cialism, clannishness, tribalism, national 
consciousness, nationalism 

k^os. *asba pi. <^a& *usab (eg.) a black 
headcloth with red or yellow border 

4~^ap 'asaba pi. -at and 'usba pi. i_**m; 
r usab union, league, federation, asso- 
ciation; group, troop, band, gang, clique; 
asaba paternal relations, relationship, ag- 
nates | /Vi <**& f usbat al-umam the 
League of Nations 

ov^e 'aslb hot, crucial, critical (time, 
stage) 

<_jLap f isab band, ligature, dressing, 
bandage 

iUofi r isaba pi. ^jUac r asa'ib z band, 
ligature, dressing, bandage; headcloth, 
headband, fillet; brow band, frontlet; — 
(pi. -at) union, league, federation, as- 
sociation; group, troop, band, gang | 
<JaU^l cjbLae f i. al-Jcatf bands of 
robbers; oLL**Ji ^^- karb al-H. guerilla 
war(fare), partisans' war 

<_jUip 'usab and tS Ju ^L*p (nafti) 
neurosis (med.) 

O vr^" ta f slb innervation (physiol.) 

t_~-a*j ta'assub fanaticism, ardent zeal, 
bigotry; party spirit (of a political, religi- 
ous or other group); racial or national 
pride, self -awareness; chauvinism; ra- 
cialism, race consciousness, tribalism 

v_.»La^i i'tis&b pi. -at strike 

^-~***u muta'assib fanatically enthu- 
siastic (J for); enthusiast, fanatic, bigot, 
zealot 

Sx^p 'asida a thick paste made of flour and 
clarified butter 

s*s. r asara % (W) to press (out), squeeze 
(out) (a s.th., e.g., grapes, olives, etc.); 
to wring (* s.th., esp. wet clothes); to 



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compress (a s.th.) II to modernize, bring 
up to date (a s.th.) Ill to be a contemp- 
orary (» of s.o.); to be contemporaneous, 
coeval, or concomitant (a with) V to be 
pressed (out), be squeezed (out) VI to be 
contemporary or of the same age; to 
belong to the same age, era or generation 
VII = V; VIII to press (out), squeeze (out) 
(a s.th., e.g., grapes, olives, etc.) | ^' 
&£?? (jablnahu) to knit one's brows 
(pensively); <u: j^csS (damahu) to work 
oneself to death, wear oneself out 

j^£. "asr (act of) pressing (out), squeez- 
ing (out); (act of) wringing (out); (pi. 
j^s>\ a'sur, jj^ls. r usur, jUad a T sar) age, 
era, time; period; epoch; — (pi. jU*p 
r asdrin) afternoon; (f.) afternoon prayer 
{hi. Law) | i£jjjJ\ _ r -a*Jl (bronzl) the 
Bronze Age; JlU-I ^ac the Ice Age; 
<£/>i-l j**j1>\ (hajari) the Stone Age; 
ijJLoJ-l ^mJ\ the Iron Age; ^U-l j^u^ 
the present (time), our time; SjaJI j^t- 
'a. ad-darra the atomic age; cJLfJl j& 
f a. an-nahda the Renaissance; JU-^-jJI ^-^1 
and J**jJI jj*a*>\ (wustd) the Middle 
Ages; fjt iSJ^ 3 ^ r o,sa,riya yaumin one 
day in the afternoon hours; (oliji) ^ 
^jLsjJI in the afternoon ; j^a*j j*e* JT j 
(wa-masrin) always and everywhere, at 
any time and any place 

<£j*o£- e asri modern, recent, present, 
actual, contemporary; (pi. -mm) a con 
temporary; modernist 

\j**p e asrlya modernism, modernity 

>^t r aslr that which is pressed or 
squeezed out, (squeezed-out) juice, extract 
(also fig.); the best, the pick, the prime 
of s.th. | JUj^JI j~*£. f a. al-burtuqal 
orange juice; J»^J1 j^-^ '<*■ at-tamdtim 
tomato juice; i^LiJI j^a^ fruit juice; 
Oj*JUI j^a£- 'a. al-laimun lemon juice 

Zj^ac r asira (squeezed-out) juice 

jUa* e usar juice, sap 



SjLot 'usdra pi. -at juice, sap (also 
physiol.) 

IjL^c r assdra pi. -at press, squeezer; oil 
press; cane press (also i^-^xdJI SjLa* f a. 
al-qasab); wringer | Oj*JUI SjLae "a. al- 
laimun lemon squeezer 

>mwj ta r sir modernization 

jLae! i stir pi. ^w»UI a r a>£r 2 whirlwind, 
tornado, cyclone, hurricane | O •*-* 
jUatVl didd al-i. anticyclone 

S^am misara pi. ^U. ma'asir' 2 press, 
squeezer; oil press; cane press 

i£j~<*** ma' sari (tun,) a brand of lamp 
oil 

^U. ?nu r dsir contemporary, contem- 
poraneous; a contemporary 



O ^l 
guistics) 



muta r dsir synchronic (lin- 



usus, *as r as pi. ( _ r -a*-Lap r asa f i>f coccyx 



asa/a i ('as/, Js^^ac f usuf) to storm, 
rage, blow violently (wind); <o tj^ap to 
blow s.th. away, carry s.th. away (wind) ; 
to shake s.o. thoroughly, through and 
through 



f asf storming, blowing; stalk and 
leaves of grain 

r asfa (n. vie.) gust of wind, blast 



iiU«*. 'usdfa chaff; straw 

t_A-^U 'dsif blowing violently | <JwU £ j 
(rlh) or SjL^U £j violent wind, gale 

ii^»U 'dsifa pi. cJu*^ 'awdsif 2 violent 
wind, gale, tempest, storm, hurricane | 
ii^UI £j\ji quwwat al- r a. storm troops 



usfur safflower (Carthamus tinctorius ; 
hot.); the red dyestuff prepared from 
its flower heads 



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mu'aafar dyed with 'ttsfur 



l}jl^2£. 'usfur pi. ^sUat 'asdfir 2 sparrow; 
any small bird | kX\ jyu** 'u. al-janna 
swallow; <£jjs jji^**- (durl) house spar- 
row; j^l. jji^ic (mugannin) warbler; 
^jUS" j_>A*aP (kanari) canary; (^L»l) ^j^ 
(Jb-lj) j>*£. ^jjyL^p (asdba, r usfuraini 
bi-hajarin) to kill two birds with one 
stone; Jp i_jJI ^ jJ~ -lJI J j^jLap 
1yyi^\ (kairun min aljin, sajara) a bird in 
the hand is worth two in the bush 
(proverb) 

Ijji^Ae- 'us jura female sparrow; dowel, 
pin, peg 

r usf&riya {syr.) insane asylum, 



madhouse 

J^*p 'asala u ('asl) to bend, twist, warp 
(a s.th.); — 'asila a [ r asal) to be twisted; 
to warp (wood) 

-><**■ 'asama i ( r asm) to hold back, restrain, 
curb, check, prevent, hinder (a, » s.o., 
s.th.); to preserve, guard, safeguard, 
protect, defend (a, * s.o., s.th.); to 
immunize, render immune (« s.o., med.) 
VIII to cling, keep, adhere («_-• to); to 
seek shelter or refuge (^ with, in), take 
refuge, resort (<_> to); to keep up, 
maintain, guard, preserve (<_> s.th., 
e.g., £***JL bi-s-samt silence, ,j2U-l ^j-r 
bi-r, al-ja'Is equanimity); to occupy (J, l_j 
esp. buildings of a university, factory); 
to stage a sit-in (strike) X = VIII; to 
resist (a temptation) 

'usma necklace 



'isrna hindering, hindrance, pre- 
vention, obviation; preservation, guard- 
ing, safeguarding; defense; protection; 
chastity, purity, modesty, virtuousness ; 
impeccance, sinlessness, infallibility | 
i^a*Jl ILs-L* title of ladies of high social 
standing; J&J! Iwap the bond of mar- 



riage; d^j X*~a& J under s.o.'s custody, 
protection, or power; married to s.o.; 
Uju J L^x*-u*p cJU>- ja'alat HsmataM fl 
yadihd she made herself independent; 
she became or remained independent; 
l$>-jj £* !« - .., nr - cfii fakka *ismataha min 
zaujikd to revoke the husband's matri- 
monial authority over his wife (jur.) 

aLmc- 'isam pi. 4,-^ipI a'sima, *m£- 'usum, 
fU*p *isam strap, thong 

tjL^afi- 'isaml noble, eminent, distin- 
guished (due to one's own merits, as 
opposed to t/lUc 'izdmi); self-made; (pi 
-un) self-made man 

<-.Lap e isdmiya self-made success 

**osS a'sam 2 , f. *\ c a^ T a$ma' 2 t pi. ~*p 
'usm having a white foot (animal); ex- 
cellent, valuable, precious | vL^' i> J*^' 
jo^V {gurab) rarer than a white-footed 
crow (proverbially of s.th, rare) 

f*a*A mi*sam pi. ^U* ma'dsim 2 wrist 

O (**** ma T sam pi. ~*U. ma'asim 1 
traffic island, safety isle 

*La^l i'tisdm clinging, adherence (y 
to), maintenance, preservation, guarding, 
safeguarding; — (pi. -at) occupation (esp, 
of university buildings, factories); sit-in 
(strike) 

-^•U *dsim protector, guardian 

i^U r dsima pi. **\j* 'awdsim 2 capital 
city, metropolis 

f^a*» ma'sum inviolable, sacrosanct, 
protected by the laws of vendetta {hi. 
Law); infallible, sinless, impeccant, im- 
peccable | $J\ ^ fj~*~ (zalal) infallible 

JjU-aP 'usmdnli (syr.) Osmanli, Ottoman; 
oldrfashioned, out-moded 



{j~a&) Lap "asan f., pi. 



iS a£- t usly, r i<siy, 
u x&\ a* sin staff, rod; wand; stick; 



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U^ 



walking stick, cane; scepter, mace; (field 
marshal's) baton; a blow administered 
with a cane or stick | SJUjlil Lap 'a. 
1-mariSaUya field marshal's baton; i_~*J 
UwJI Wb al-'a. {eg. — <-r^) singlestick 
fencing (a popular game, esp. in rural 
areas); UaJl ji (Saqqa) to dissent, se- 
cede from the community; SpUaJI Lap j^ 
to rebel, revolt, renounce allegiance; Jp 
fjji)\ Lap ( c asa l-qaum) to sow dissension 
among the people; .^Lap cJLLii (irt* 
saqqat) they fell out (with one another), 
broke with one another 

•Lap r asdh staff, rod; wand; stick 

□ 4jL*p 'asaya staff, rod ; wand; stick; 
walking stick, cane 

i-s^p 'u$ayya pi, -at little stick, little 
rod; bacillus 



(S a£- r asd i ( f asy, X~*&** ma'siya, OL-ap r isydn) 
to disobey, resist, oppose, defy (a « s.o. 
in s.th.), refuse, or renounce, one's 
obedience (a » to s.o. in s.th.), rebel, 
revolt (» against s.o.) Ill — I; V to be 
or become difficult, intricate, or in- 
volved (affair) VI to be difficult, hard, 
inaccessible, or impossible (Jp for s.o.); 
to refuse (jp to do s.th.) VIII = V 
X to resist, oppose, withstand, defy ( Jp 
s.o., s.th.), revolt, rebel (J* against s.o.); 
to be recalcitrant, insubordinate, re- 
bellious; to be difficult, hard (J* for 
8.0.) ; to be malignant, insidious, in- 
curable (disease); to elude, escape, defy 
(jp s.th.), be beyond s.th. (jp); (of an 
instrument, machine, etc.) to fail, break 
down ( Jp on s.o.), refuse to work ( Jp for 
3.0.), fail to operate | JiiiJi *~1p iS a*^*\ 
{lafz) the words died in bis mouth, be 
couldn't bring himself to speak 

^as. 'amy pi. -un, »Ls*pi a'siya 2 rebel; 
intractable, refractory, recalcitrant | [S ^£- 
jkJl f asiy an-nutq unable to speak, in- 
capable of speech 



OL-op Hsydn disobedience, insubordi- 
nation, refractoriness; insurrection, re- 
volt, rebellion, sedition 

<.<*»** masiya disobedience, insubordi- 
nation, refractoriness; insurrection, se- 
dition, revolt, rebellion; (pi. ^U* ma* 
e d$in) sin 

»La*^ islisa* refractoriness, re- 
calcitrance, obstinacy; impenetrability, 
unfathomableness ; difficulty; malignan- 
cy, virulence, insidiousness; mechanical 
failure, breakdown, malfunction; jam, 
misfire (of a firearm) 

^Lp e asin pi. #Lap e usdh disobedient, 
insubordinate, rebellious, mutinous, ri- 
otous, seditious, subversive; rebel, in- 
surgent; sinning, sinful; ^Ul (also j^ 
^UJl nahr al- r d.) Orontes (river in Syria 
and Turkey) 

j^sjC* muta'assin difficult, intricate, 
implicated, involved, delicate; incurable, 
irremediable 

^^r * musta'sin difficult, intricate, 

implicated, involved, delicate; incurable, 
irremediable 

op "adda (1st pers. perf. T adidtu) a { r add, 
^.A; .rip e adid) to grab with the teeth, 
bite (*_> or J* or *, » s.o., s.th.); to bite 
into s.th. (a); to hold on, cling, cleave 
(<-» to); to torment (* s.o., e.g., hunger) | 
oUjJI <u*p (zamanu) or 4jL yhJUl <u«p 
'addahu d-dahru bi-ndbihi time, or fate, 
gave him a raw deal, heaped trials and 
tribulations upon him, he suffered re- 
verses ; Jp -U- \j^ U u £& to cling stubbornly, 
stick doggedly to s.th; see also JU-U II to 
bite fiercely or frequently (a, a s.o., s.th.) 

u ^ f idd small prickly shrubs, brambles 

Utfi. f adda a bite 

^LAp 'adddd (given to) biting, snap- 
pish, mordacious 



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724 



ijjjj&'adud (given to) biting, snappish, 
mordacious 

r adb sharp, caustic, acid (tongue) 



it 'adada u {'add) to help, aid, assist, 
support, back (a, » s.o., s.th.), stand up 
(» for s.o.), advocate (a s.th.) II and 
III = I j VI to help, assist, or support 
one another, give mutual help, assistance, 
or support; to work hand in hand, 
cooperate 

XJx* f add help, aid, assistance, support, 
backing; helper, aide, assistant, sup- 
porter, backer 

•Wp 'advd pi. iUap-i a' dad (f.) upper 
arm; (m.) strength, power, vigor, forco | 
a-Uit A-i ( r adudahu) to strengthen, support, 
bolster, assist s.o.; ( >od! *XJ& y> he is 
an indispensable aid to him; »JUit j c-i 
(fctita) to weaken s.o., sap s.o.'s strength, 
discourage, enervate s.o. 



ta'did help, aid, assistance, 
support, backing 

ZxJ>[** mu' adada help, aid, assistance, 
support, backing 

JUtfUJ ta r advd mutual aid, mutual 
assistance, cooperation 

^-UJLj ta'ddudi cooperative (adj.) 

SuA-m^Uj tafadu&lya pi. -at (Magr.) co- 
operative association, co-op 



muaddid helper, aide, assistant, 
supporter, backer 

Uip f adila a ( e adal) to be or become muscular; 
— r adala u i ( r adl) to prevent (U a woman) 
from marrying; to prevent (jp a s.th. 
from) IV to be or become difficult, 
problematic, puzzling, enigmatic, or 
mysterious (cj or t, for s.o.) | »IaJI J-^l 
*Q»VI (afibbd'a) the disease defied all 
medical skill, gave the physicians a 



headache, posed a puzzling problem for 
the doctors V »U>Vi *l JJi J^J = »UI J^l 

J-^ap r adal (coll.) muscles, musculature 

J«*p r adil muscular, brawny 

^La* 'adala pi. -at muscle | Sk-Li iUt 
extensor, Xjuls Si-it flexor (anat,) 

J^i* 'adali muscle-, musculo-, muscul- 
(in compounds), muscular 

J Li* "uddl inveterate, chronic, in- 
curable (disease) | JL^p #b inveterate or 
deep-seated evil 

J~i*L. mu r dil difficult, problematic, 
puzzling, enigmatic, mysterious 



mu'dila pi. -at, J^l** ma'dgiP 
difficulty, problem, dilemma, puzzle, 
enigma 

n Lit r iddh fair-sized thorny shrubs 

jj& f udw pi. Aj&\ a'4& member, limb, organ 
(of the body); member (of an organiza- 
tion) ; member (in compounds) | J-*»l jj* 
(asll) regular member; £jjtj| jj& pistil 
(bot.); ^L^l jj& (ihtiyati) substitute 
member, alternate member; jS~Jc)\ y^c 
stamen (bot); J-1^ jJ& (murdsil) cor- 
responding member (of an academy); 
dhjS jj& associate member; j^ jj& 
(fakri) honorary member; Vj-"* »^' 
(sautiya) and jkJI *L*atl a. an-nutq 
organs of speech (phon.); J-UJl »Ubl 
a. at-tandsul, iJLWI »Lip*yf and »UicVI 
^uJaII the sexual organs, the genitals; 
j~M aL (balad) a member country; Jj-dl 
cLipVI {duwal) the member states; lc 
►UitV' (JuLUj r '7m w. a£-a. physiology 

~*jji£, f udwa pi. 'uduwdt female member 

<Sj~a& 'vdwl organic; ^j^itV or ji> 
,jj~±& inorganic | ^j^kc. «H~ (JcuUa) 
organism 



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L_i]a£ 



*jjj& f udwlya pi. -at membership; 
organism 

O ^**^' (»-J- 1 al-jism al-muta'addl the 
organism 

lJ» f aft6a a ("atab) to perish, be destroyed, 
be ruined II to ruin, destroy, wreck, 
damage, injure, impair, mar, spoil (* 
s.th.); to spice, mull (* s.th,); to brew, 
mix (a a drink) IV to ruin, destroy, 
wreck, damage, injure, impair, mar, 
spoil (*, * s.o., s.th.) V to be damaged 
VIII — I 

lJ*p f atab perdition; wreck (e.g., of 
ships); destruction, ruin; damage, in- 
jury 

I...U*" taHlb damaging, ruin(ing), wreck, 
destruction 

<^.Un~ txCatiub a suffering of damage, 
impairment, ruin 

l_j^L** maHub damaged, wrecked; 
(mor.) out of order, broken 

)& II to perfume, scent (a, o s.o., s.th.) 
V to perfume o.s. 

Jb* *tyr pi. jj^s. 'utftr, olj^iap r uturat 
perfume, scent; essence | ->jjJ' Jac H. al~ 
ward attar of roses, rose oil 

jiap f atir sweet-smelling, fragrant, aro- 
matic | *Jas- lUr* (sum f a) brilliant or 
excellent reputation 

^Jes, r itri sweet-smelling, fragrant, aro 
matic 

*lj*s- 'itrlya pi. -at aromatic, perfume, 
scent 

jUap ' attar perfumer, perfume vendor; 
druggist 

SjLLp Htara drug business; perfumeries; 
drugs 

^U 'atir sweet-smelling, fragrant, aro- 



matic | fbiJI Je\c 4J& Jjl atna 'alaihi 
f atira t-tana" to extol s.o. to the skies 

Jom mil attar perfumed, scented 

ijUap f utarid 2 (the planet) Mercury 

J*£, 'apasa i u ('ats, ^Us* 'utds) to sneeze 
II to cause (* s.o.) to sneeze 

'LStfr 'atsa (n. vie.) a sneeze 

^IW e utas sneezing, sneezes 

tfja* f atus snuff (tobacco); sneezing 
powder 

tfj*^ c atus snuff (tobacco) 

^Ja** ma'tis pi. ^-kU* ma'atis 1 nose 

^lLp c o£i3a a ( r atas) to be thirsty, to thirst; 
to long, languish, thirst (Jl for) 11 to 
make thirsty, cause to thirst (*, * s.o., 
s.th.) IV = II; V to thirst, languish, long, 
yearn ( J I for) 

l\ae r atas thirst 

jhx, r atis thirsty; dry, parched (soil) 

jlilsp 'atsan 2 , f. <^W r at3d, pi. ^Uz* 
'itas, jb* 'atsa thirsty ; covetous, desirous 
(Jl of), languishing, yearning, craving 
(Jl for) 

^iklp r dtis thirsty; covetous, desirous 
(Jl of), languishing, yearning, craving 
(Jl for) 

^jik*!* muta r attis thirsty; covetous, 
desirous (Jl of), languishing, yearning, 
craving (Jl for) 

^J^s* T atasjl pi. A-^iiap 'atasjlya stoker, 
fireman 

-L*kfr 'afata to clamor, yell; to be uproarious, 
very noisy 

^Jdap c atafa i { r atf) to bend, incline, bow 



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<Jalajt 



726 



(a s.th.); to incline, lean (Jl toward, to); 
to turn (J* to s.th., also to a subject); 
to be favorably disposed (J* toward 
s.o.), be attached (Jp to s.o.), harbor 
affection (Jp for), be fond ( Jp of s.o.), 
have or feel compassion, sympathize 
(Jp with s.o.), feel {Jp for s.o.); to turn 
away (jp from); <o JcUp to incline, 
dispose s.o. ( Jp toward), awaken affection 
or sympathy (Jp for) or interest (J* in 
s.th.); Jp «u ^J4p to make s.o. appreciate 
s.th., bring s.th. close to s.o.'s heart; ^JiW 
jc <u to dissuade, alienate s.o. from 
II to fold, double, fold up (* s.th.); to 
make {« s.o.) favorably disposed; to 
soften s.o.'s (e) heart, move s.o.; to 
awaken affection, sympathy, tenderness 
(* in s.o., Jp for); to fill with affection, 
love, etc. (« s.o., * s.o.'s heart, Jp or _^ 
for) V to be favorably disposed (Jp 
toward s.o.), be attached (Jp to s.o.), 
be fond (Jp of s.o.), have or feel com- 
passion, sympathize (Jp with s.o.), feel 
(Jp for s.o.); to deign (^ to do s.th.) | 
<Jslia*Jlj (_kLo to put on a coat, wrap o.s. 
in a coat or cloak VI to harbor mutual 
affection, be attached to one another 
VII to be bent, inclined, crooked, or 
curved; to bend, curve; to bow, make a 
bow; to turn off (Jl toward, to), turn, 
swing (Jl into a road, etc.); to be fa- 
vorably disposed (Jl, Jp toward), be at- 
tached { Jl, Jp to), be fond ( Jl, Jp of), have 
or feel compassion, sympathize (Jl, Jp 
with), feel (Jl, Jp for s.o.); to turn away, 
turn around VIII JjLLJU <Jik*.t = uJJz*j 
«JsU**JLj X to ask for, or seek, s.o.'s (#) 
compassion or sympathy; to entreat, be- 
seech, implore (* s.o.); to affect winning 
or conciliatory manners, display affec- 
tion; to seek to conciliate, propitiate, or 
win over (*^U- kdtirahu or * s.o.); to 
seek to be friends (» with s.o.); to try 
to attract or win (* s.th.) 

^iUp r atf bend(ing), inclination, curv- 



ing, curvature; corner; sympathy (Jp 
with), affection, attachment, liking (Jp 
for) | <Jd«JI (Jy-) SW adat (harf) al~ r a. 
conjunction [gram.); oLJi <JJ*p 'a. al- 
bayan explicative apposition (gram.) 

J&* f itf pi. J»LLpI a'paf side (of the 
body); du. and pi, (periphrastically) the 
whole body (of a person), pi. figures (of 
people) | <* <uLp JJ (tannti) he proudly 
turned his back on him; JsUipVI <>J 
layyin al~a. tractable, docile, pliant; >>i 
\jjj~* olalap (ihiazza) his whole body 
trembled from joy; .uUapl j ikjjl c^U 
(gibtatu) a feeling of joy flowed through 
him; ^LkoVi cJ-J (tarannahat) they 
were carried away, became ecstatic; 
AsLkpl jru ^J to combine (a qualities) 

Ulap 'atja turn, turning, twist, curve, 
bend; (pi. 'atafdt, JoLp r utaf) lane, alley, 
small side street (eg.) | «wJl>- <aJ«p side 
alley; SjjA-w. iikp blind alley 

J»U*p 'itaf pi. JA& f utuf, ULpI a'fifa 
coat, cloak 

iJs^U r atuf compassionate, sympathetic, 
affectionate, loving, tender, kind 

4»jL» ^tttufa affection, attachment, be- 
nevolence, good will; (as an honorific title 
before the name = ii^l ^L?) His Grace 



mi'taf pi. <JJ*U. ma'dtif 2 coat, 
overcoat; smock, frock | «>■*.. Jek** (mu* 
samma') (impregnated) raincoat; cJiLw 
jji m. farw fur coat 

<JJ*Uj ta r dtuf mutual affection, sym- 
pathy 

oUa*jl in' itaf inclination, bend(ing), 
curving, curvature; sympathy, com- 
passion; liking, attachment, affection 

cJ»LU«i-.l isti'faf imploring, entreaty, 
earnest supplication; tender affection; 
conciliatory attitude 

■JukU 'dtif compassionate, sympathetic, 



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affectionate, loving, tender, kind; con- 
junctional (gram.); pi. iJiUjt 'awdtif 2 
conjunctions, connectives {gram.) | .Js^*- 
.JoLU (harf) conjunction, connective 
{gram.) 

iiUU r atifa pi. i_jiki_>p 'awatif 2 amorous 
affection; affectionate benevolence, so- 
licitude, sympathy, compassion, affec- 
tion, attachment, liking, kind(li)ness; 
feeling, sentiment 

Ji»U r a$ifi sentimental; emotional; 
emotive, feeling; tender, affectionate, 
loving | oiUU 1^3 {qissa) love story 

ILiklp 'atifiya sentimentality, sentimen- 
talism; emotionalism, emotionality 



mun'ataf pi. -at (road) turn, 
curve; turn, turning, winding, tortuosity, 

twist, bend; lane, alley, narrow street; 
turning point (in history), beginning of 
a new era 

Mal a w i .,* mustcffif imploring, beseeching, 
supplicatory; tender, affectionate 

Jiac r afila a ( f apal) to be destitute, be devoid 
(^ of s.th.), lack (^ s.th.); to be idle, 
not to work, rest; to be without work, 
be unemployed II to leave without care, 
to neglect (a, « s.o., s.th.); to leave 
without work, leave idle (a » s.o. s.th.); 
to hinder, hamper, impede, obstruct 
(a s.th.); to interrupt, suspend, defer, 
discontinue, stop (a s.th., eap. some 
activity); to ban temporarily, suspend 
(a s.th., esp. publication of a newspaper); 
to disturb (jp o s.o. in an activity); 
to damage (gravely), destroy, ruin, 
wreck, paralyze, neutralize, put out of 
service, lay up, put out of action, make 
inoperative (a s.th.) ; to retire from service 
(a a ship, a machine, etc.); to put out of 
commission, block (a a nerve, the activ- 
ity of an organ; med., physioL); to stop, 
shut off (a s.th., e.g., a motor); to shut 



down, keep closed (a s.th., e.g., an 
office); to annul, declare no longer in ef- 
fect, make void (a s.th.) V to remain with- 
out work or employment; to be or become 
unemployed (also J^JI tf> JI**j); to be 
or become idle, inactive; to be hindered, 
hampered, impeded, obstructed, de- 
layed, suspended, deferred, or inter- 
rupted; to stop, stall (motor, machine); 
to fail (apparatus); to be (gravely) 
damaged, be or be put out of action 
or commission; to be shut down, be or 
remain closed; to be no longer valid, be 
ineffective (statutes) 

Jl*p *utl destitute, devoid (<j^ of s.th.); 
impairedness, defectiveness, (gravely) 
damaged state; damage, loss 

JJae 'apal unemployment 

4il*p f utla unemployment, also SILp 
JiJtJi jp (sugl); leisure, holidays, vaca- 
tion^), recess; (pi. -at, Jlap 'utal) holiday, 
off day, free day | "Lj^j SUac (rasmiya) 
official, or legal, holiday; ij^JI i^*>UiJl a\A 
(ayyam al~ r u.) official, or legal, holidays; 
fj^-Vl ^=p 'w. al-usbu\ *upJr*"' ~dl&, also 
fj~ -Vi ijlf iikc *u. nihayat al-usbu f 
weekend; SJL^is UlLp (qadaiya) court 
recess (jur>) 

iJUap 'afdla unemployment 

J-Uo teffil hindering, obstruction, ham- 
pering; discontinuance, interruption, de- 
ferment, suspension (of some activity); 
temporary ban, suspension (of a newspa- 
per) ; impairment, damaging, destruction, 
ruining, wrecking, injury; paralyzation, 
neutralization, stoppage (e.g., of traffic); 
stopping, shutting-off (of a motor) ; shut- 
down, closure (of an office); annulment, 
abrogation; a theological concept deny- 
ing God all attributes (as opposed to 
«uxiJ taSbih; theol.) \ jjJ-\ "&j>- JJ**J *- 
harakat al-murur traffic congestion 

JLJ ta'attul unemployment; inactivity, 



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idleness; stoppage, functional interrup- 
tion; (mechanical) failure, breakdown; 
standstill | J**JI ^ JLwJ ( e amcti) unem- 
ployment 

JkL 'atil destitute, devoid (j* of 
s.th.); inactive, idle, out of work, jobless, 
unemployed; stopped, not functioning, 
broken down, kaput; useless; — - (pi. -tin) 
idler; an unemployed person | JkU j*a& 
{'udw) functionless organ (biol.); UkU Sail* 
unused, untapped energy 

Ji»|_jp 'awatil 2 vacations, holidays 

Jluw mu'afpil one who denies God all 
attributes (theol.); — (pi, -at) jammer 
(teckn.); blocker (med., physiol.) 

Ji**- mu'aftal inactive, idle, out of 
work, jobless, unemployed; inoperative, 
out of action, service, or commission, 
shut-down; stopped, shut-off (motor); 
closed (office) 

Jae 'atana i u ( f a$n) to soak (-lU-l al-jilda 
the skin or hide so as to remove the 
hair, in tanning); to macerate (JUxJ! 
al-kattdna the flax); — r atina a {'atan) 
to rot, decay, putrefy (skin, hide, in 
tanning) II = I e atana 

(jlac- "atan resting place of camels near 
a waterhole | j^aJ! &~1> dayyiq al-'a. 
narrow- minded, parochial; jla*!! <~-^j rahb 
al-'a. broad-minded 

jLt *atin putrid, rotten, stinking 

<>W 'aim putrid, rotten, stinking 

jUap r itan tanbark 

\J±£-) III to give (a o to s.o. s.th.) IV to give 
(* J or j to s.o. s.th.); to present, hand 
over, offer (a o to s.o. s.th.); to grant, 
award, accord (a & to s.o. s.th.); to 
present (a « s.o. with s.th.), bestow 
(a o upon s.o. s.th.); pass. u r tit/a to 
get, obtain, receive (a s.th.) | L-jjj lS UpI 



to give lessons; Jl^il ( _ 5 UaI (aqwdlahu) 
to give evidence, give one's testimony 
(jur.); <J&\ «d Jit! (kalimata) to allow 
s.o. to speak; oJLj alk^l (bi-yadihi) to 
surrender or submit to s.o.; J »JL^- Japl 
(jahdahu) to devote one's efforts to s.th.; 
^i* i Jzp\ (matalan) to give or set an 
example V to ask for charity, ask for alma 
(o s.o.) ; to beg VI to take (a s.th.) ; to swal- 
low, take (a a medicine) ; to take over, as- 
sume, undertake, take upon o.s. (a a 
task); to occupy o.s., be occupied or busy 
(a with s.th.), be engaged (a in s.th.), 
pursue, practice (a an activity) X = V 

Us* "atari gift, present 

»Uat "aid* pi. 4-Lcl a'tiya gift, present; 
(pi. -at) offer, tender; bid (at an auction 
or on invitation of tenders) ; bid with cost 
estimate {com.) | *lkp *& (qaddama) to 
make an offer or tender, submit a written 
bid 

iJafr "atlya pi. Like "atdyd gift, present 

»Uajc mVta' (invar, for gender) very 
liberal, generous (person); productive, 
yielding well (land) 

a ILL* mu'atdh exercise, practice, pur- 
suit (of an activity) 

•Uatl i'ta donation; presentation, 
grant(ing), award(ing) 

JpUJ ta r dtin pursuit, practice (of an 
activity) 

#Ua*iJ isti'tci begging, mendicity 

ia** muHin giver, donor 

J*** mu'tan given; (pi. -at) given 
quantity {math.); pi. oLk*ll the given 
facts, data 



musta'tin beggar 



J^ III W&l JJiU {kalama) to be repetitions 



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in one's speech, use tautologisms, 
repeat o.s. in speaking 

Jip r azuma u ( r izam, 4* Has- 'azama) to be or 
become great, big, large, grand, grandiose, 
magnificent, imposing, powerful, or 
mighty; to be huge, vast, enormous, 
tremendous, immense, stupendous; to 
be hard, distressing, painful, agonizing, 
or oppressive ( Jp for s.o.) II to make, or 
cause to become, great (er), big(ger), 
large(r), (more) grandiose, (more) im- 
posing, (more) magnificent, mighty or 
mightier, (more) powerful (a, o s.o., 
s.th.), enhance the greatness, grandeur, 
magnificence, power, or might (a, * 
of s.o., of s.th.); to enlarge, enhance, 
magnify (a s.th.); to aggrandize, glorify, 
extol, exalt (a, » s.o., s.th.) IV = II; to 
attach great importance (a to s.th.); 
to regard (a s.th.) as huge, vast, tre- 
mendous, enormous, immense, or stu- 
pendous; to find (a s.th.) hard, distress- 
ing, or oppressive V to be proud (<_-» of 
s.th.); to boast (^ of), vaunt, flaunt 
(tj s.th.); to be arrogant, presumptuous, 
haughty VI to be proud, arrogant, 
presumptuous, haughty, supercilious; to 
be great, grand, grandiose, imposing, 
huge, prodigious; to equal in weight, 
significance or importance (a s.th.) ; to be 
weighty, grave, serious, portentous (* 
for s.o.) | >uJl uU •uklo V (sa'nu 
Vaduw) the enemy's importance does not 
unduly impress him X to be proud, 
arrogant, presumptuous, haughty, super - 
oilious; to regard as great, significant, or 
important (a s.th.) 

J*p *azm pi. Jacl cfzum, a tils r izavi 
bone | JUI Jap shinbone; flLJI 3y*~** 
bone meal; fUsuJl ^J lln al- e i. softening 
of the bones, osteomalacia 

f jJ\ac r azmi bone-, osteo- (in compounds) 
osseous, bony 



Jip r izam, *uzm greatness, magnitude, 
grandeur, power, might; significance, 
importance 

SJifr r azma piece of bone; bone 

ijip "azama majesty; pride, arrogance, 
haughtiness; exaltedness, sublimity, au- 
gustness | SuLJI ^_^-U» His Majesty; His 
Highness; jUaUl iUip e a. as-mltan His 
Highness, the Sultan 

CjjJ&* 'azamut greatness, magnitude, 
grandeur, power, might 

Jip 'azim pi. *Uap 'uzanw? 2 , *Uip 
e izam f /U«p 'azd'im 2 great, big, large 
strong, powerful, mighty; significant 
important; grand, grandiose, imposing 
stately, magnificent; lofty, exalted : 
august, sublime, splendid, gorgeous 
glorious, superb; huge, vast, prodigious 
enormous, tremendous, immense, stu- 
pendous; hard, distressing, gruesome, 
trying, oppressive | 4*J*p X*0j (fursa) 
golden opportunity; j^Vi fU*p great 
or terrible things; *\j&\j »Uik*Jl (bubara ) 
the great of the world 

i*Jap f azlma pi. fUip r azd 3 im 2 a pro- 
digious, terrible thing; great misfortune, 
calamity, disaster 

t/Uip 'izdmi of noble descent, highborn, 
aristocratic, noble, blue-blooded, of or 
pertaining to nobility; aristocrat, noble- 
man 

Jip I a'zam 2 , f. iJ J&* r uzmd, pi. jJiUI 
a'dzim 2 greater, bigger; more significant, 
more important ; greatest, major, supreme ; 
most significant, paramount | JU-j jJiUl 
j^a* a. r. misr the most outstanding men 
of Cairo; ^jJip **^«r capital crime; v^' 
^JkJl (harb) World War I; ^\ al^JI 
(sawdd) the great mass, the great ma- 
jority, the major portion (of the people); 
JspV' j-UaJI (sadr) (formerly:) title of the 



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730 



Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire 
(Ott.-Turk.: sadr-i cfzam) 

-ii*j ta'zim aggrandizement, glorifi- 
cation, exaltation; military salute 

*]*** mu'azzam glorified, exalted, re- 
vered, venerated; sublime, august (esp. 
of rulers); splendid, gorgeous, glorious, 
magnificent, resplendent; bony; ossified 

Jiiw mu'zam most of (them), the 
majority, major part or portion (of), 
main part; maximum | <uli^* J mostly, 
for the most part, largely 

J^Ul* mutcfazim proud, arrogant, pre- 
sumptuous, haughty, supercilious 

51^ r iza see JUpj 

Ca£- 'affa i (Up f iffa, i_jUp e afaf) to refrain, 
abstain (^ from s.th. forbidden or 
indecent); to be abstinent, continent, 
virtuous, chaste, modest, decent, pure 
V — I; to shrink (jp from), be shy (je 
of), be ashamed; to shrink back (jp from 
s.o., in disgust) 

(-Jap r ajf chaste, modest, virtuous, pure ; 
decent; honest, upright, righteous 

Iap Hjfa abstinence, continence, vir- 
tuousness, virtue, chastity, decency; 
purity; modesty; integrity, probity, 
honesty, uprightness, righteousness 

iJjLat 'afaf — Up T iff a 

tjuip r af%f pi. *UpI a r ijfa 2 , IU\ a'iffa 
chaste, modest, virtuous, pure; decent; 
honest, upright, righteous 

«JipI a'aff 2 chaster, more virtuous; 
more decent, of greater integrity 



ta'affuf abstinence, continence, 
chastity, modesty; restraint 

muta'affif chaste, modest 



virtuous, pure; decent; honest, upright 
righteous 

r^ip 'afaj duodenum (anat) 

jj& 'afara i (afr) to cover with dust, to soil, 
begrime (also <->\J3\j bi-t-turah; a, » s.o., 
s.th.) II — I; to dust, sprinkle with 
dust or powder ( a s.th.); to glean 

jA£. r afar pi. jliel a' far dust 

j Up *ufdr {eg,) dust 

O vUp r affdra pi. -at spray, atomizer 

jA£-\ a* far*, f. >\ja* 'afro,' 2 dust- colored, 
earth-colored 

jj£*i ya r fur pi, >*Uj ycCdflr 2 earth- 
colored gazelle 

jJ>m tcffir (act of) dusting, sprinkling 
with dust or powder 

Cjja* II ta'afrata to behave like a demon or 
devil 

Cj _,it * if rlt pi. c-j j Lap 'afdrit 2 malicious, 
mischievous; sly, cunning, crafty, wily; 
afreet, demon, imp, devil; (e^.) naughty 
child | C^ijU j}j (walad) mischievous 
child, good-for-nothing, ne'er-do-well {eg.) 

^jAp r ifrlti devilish, fiendish, damnable 

<ijAe- 'afrita {eg.) lifting jack; overall 

m <&jA* 'afrata devilry; dirty trick 

pUp *afdrim bravo! well done! 

JiJ& ■ *afasa % { c af&) to gather, collect, heap 
up, amass {a s.th.) 

Lj iip 'afs refuse, rubbish, trash, junk; 
luggage, baggage; household effects, 
furniture 

X^Lip 'ufdsai ^-Ul j- iiLip worthless 
people 



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^jaas. 'afs galls, gallnuts, oak apples 

^-oip r afis sharp, pungent, acrid, 
astringent and bitter {of taste) 

X*t>y& 'ufusa sharpness, pungency, 
acridity, astringence (of taste) 

jjp 'afina a ('a fan, "£yt£- f ufuna) to rot, 
decay, putrefy, spoil; to be rotten, decay- 
ed, putrid spoiled ; to be or become moldy, 
musty, mildewy, decomposed V = I 

jip r afan rottenness, putridity, decay, 



jap f afin rotten, putrid, decayed, de- 
composed, spoiled, moldy, musty, mil- 
dewy; septic | obJ! ^J-\ {humma) putrid 
fever 

ujkc r ufuna rottenness, putridity, 
decay, spoiledness 

j*J tcfaffun rottenness, putridity, 
decay, spoiledness 

ji*. mu'affan rotten, putrid, decayed 
decomposed, spoiled, moldy, musty 
mildewy; septic 

jicu mutaaffin rotten, putrid, de- 
cayed, decomposed, spoiled, moldy, 
musty, mildewy; septic 

{jie) Up f afd u (*afw, »Up 'afd') to be or 
become effaced, obliterated, wiped out, 
eliminated; — 'afa u { f afw) to efface, 
obliterate, wipe out, eliminate (jp or 
* s.th.); to forgive (jp s.o.); to excuse, 
free, relieve, exempt (jp J s.o. from 
s.th.); to desist, abstain, refrain (jp 
from) II to efface, obliterate, wipe out, 
eliminate (Jp or * B.th.) | j.j)l <ulp ^ 
{zamanu) to be outmoded, antiquated, ob- 
solete, belong to the past III to restore to 
health, heal, cure (& s.o.); iiUU and pass. 
cJjp 'afUa bravo ! well done ! Ill and IV 
to guard ( jp or j- * s.o. against), protect, 
save (j© or j. « s.o. from); to free, 



release, relieve, exempt, except (*, « 
s.o., s.th. jp or j- from), excuse, dis- 
pense ( jp or j- o s.o. from s.th.) IV to 
dismiss, discharge, fire, depose (a s.o.) 
VI to recuperate,, recover, regain health 
VIII to call on s.o. (*) in order to obtain 
s.th. X to ask s.o.'s (•) pardon, ask for 
a reprieve (« s.o.); to request (t> of s.o.) 
exemption (j. from s.th.); to tender 
one's resignation (j* from an office); to 
resign ( j. from an office) 

y& f afw effacement, obliteration, elim- 
ination; pardon, forgiveness; waiver 
of punishment (Isl. Law); amnesty (jp 
for); boon, kindness, favor; surplus; \jju> 
"a f wan I beg your pardon! excuse me! 
(in reply to "thank you") you're wel- 
come! don't mention it!; of one's own 
accord, by o.s., spontaneously; casually; 
without design, in passing, incidentally | 
( o UU) pip ^ip ('amm) general amnesty; 
dj^UI jp jAti\ j>- (haqq al-'a., 'uqvba) 
right of granting pardon (jur.); J»\X\ jj& 
e afwa l-katir spontaneously, unhesitating- 



ly, casually; \jap 



(ja'alahu) to let 



s.th. go by unpunished (of God; Isl. Law) 



j**> 



r afw pi. *Up 'if a* young donkey 



<j jkc f afwi spontaneous ; without design 
or interference of others, happening of 
itself | <ijA& °jj~a) (sura) accidentally, 
u nintentionally 

\y& e afwlya spontaneity; *ijj*i auto- 
matically, involuntarily 



y* 



f afuw forgiving, merciful (God) 



Jc r afly {eg.) strong, vigorous,- husky, 
robust 

►Up 'a/a' effacement, obliteration, ex- 
tinction, ruin, fall; dust | *U*JI 4Tj.il 
adrakahu l-'afau to fall into disuse, pass 
out of use; *UJl <uip it's all over with 
him, he is done for 



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732 



ijAAj lafiya obliteration, effacement (Jp 
of s.th.) 

aliL* mu'dfdh exemption, excuse, dis- 
pensation; release, exemption from mili- 
tary service 

•Up I i'fd' exemption (from a fee, and 
the like), excuse, dispensation; remission 
(of punishment); discharge, dismissal 
(from an office) | ^>t 'Li*. I (jumrukl) 
exemption from duty; ^jSL**- »UpI {'as* 
kari) and ^.jU^I j* »Uel (feufota) release, 
exemption from military service 

#Li*x--l isti'fa 3 request for pardon; 
excuse, apology; resignation (^* from an 
office) 

Jlf 'affin effaced, obliterated, wiped 
out, eliminated 

LiU f afiya (good) health, well-being; 
vigor, vitality 

JU* mu'dfan exempt(ed), free, excused, 
dispensed (<y from); healthy 

D tJ?U. mu'df (eg.) exempted from 
military service 

f j*^ mu'fan exempted), free, excused, 
dispensed (^> from) | i-j^l ,y J*, tax- 
free; ijljiJi {j* jmu> interest-free (loan); 
~*>J\ J* ij** (rasm) free of charge, not 
subject to fees; i\j*J-\ *.^j j* j^ (rasm 
al-jumruk) duty-free 

Jp e aqqa u {'aqq) to cleave, split, rip, rend 
(a s.th.); — 'agqa u (JjmU r uquq) to be 
disobedient, disrespectful, undutiful, re- 
fractory, recalcitrant («L1 abdhu or »j}\j 
wdlidahu toward his father, of a child) 

Jp f aqq disobedient, disrespectful, un- 
dutiful, refractory, recalcitrant (child) 

J^ip 'aqiq pi. "&*\ a'iqqa canyon; ravine 
worn out by a torrent; — (n. un. 5) car- 
nelian (min,) f also _^l i $J& (ahmar); 
agate (min.), also Jlx J-a^ (yamdnl) 



JfJU 'o^igi carnelian-red 

J^ip 'wg-M^ disobedience, unrulinest,, 
refractoriness, recalcitrance (of a child) 

jfpl a'aqq 2 more irreverent, more dis- 
respectful, naughtier | dJUpl U (a'aqqaka) 
how irreverent you are ! 

JU e dqq disobedient, disrespectful, un- 
dutiful, refractory, recalcitrant (child) 

3* f aqaba u ( e aqb) to follow (a, » s.o., 
s.th. or after s.o., after s.th.), succeed 
(a, « s.o., s.th.); to come after, ensue; 
to continue II to follow (a, « s.o., s.th. 
or after s.o., after s.th.), succeed (a, t 
s.o., s.th.); to pursue, follow, trail (a, * 
s.o., s.th.); to expose, compromise, show 
U P (J* s.o.); to revise, correct, rectify, 
amend; to review critically, criticize 
( Jp s.th.), comment (J* on s.th.) | ^ 
•jtfl to tread in s.o.'s footsteps III to 
alternate, take turns (« with s.o.); to 
punish (Jp or v 6 s.o. for) IV to 
follow (a, o s.o., s.th. or after s.o., after 
s.th.), succeed (a, » s.o., s.th.); to come 
after, ensue; to have for son {a s.o.), be 
the father ( B of a son); to have as off- 
spring, have sired (a s.o,); to effect, bring 
about or cause (a a result); to revert from 
evil to good, mend one's ways, reform; to 
end well, succeed V to pursue, follow, 
trail (a, o s.o., s.th.), chase (a s.o.), seek 
out, locate, track down (» s.o., a a place) 
VI to be successive or consecutive, succeed 
one another, follow one after the other; 
to dart one by one (J* upon), launch 
successive attacks, act successively, 
embark successively (J* upon) 

i-Jip 'aqib, f aqb pi. <_->UpI a f qdb (f.) heel; 
(m.) last part of s.th., end; that which 
follows subsequently or ensues, sub- 
sequence (with foil, genit.); grandson; 
offspring, progeny: r aqiba (prep.) im- 
mediately after, subsequent to | <uip *U 
( r aqibahu) or <uio pU-, <ujU (J »U~ he came 



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closely after him; <_Jip Jp 'aid "aqibi 
immediately after...; 4-Jb Jp (iUj-^j-j 
( r aqibaihi) pi. ^^ J* O-J- 1 ^) 'j*TJ to 
retrace one's steps, turn back; -uJsp Jp oj 
(raddahu) pi. ^litl J* ^*^j to drive 
s.o. back to where he came from; Jp -Gj) 
4«Ip {irtadda) pi *^-Upt Jp IjAjJ to 
withdraw, retreat; .-Jop Jp L-1j (ra'aem) 
head over heels, topsy-turvy, upside 
down; from the ground up, radically; 
t_Jlp Jp l^^k (zahran) do. ; ^^-ijl l-jUpI J (a. 
iti-sakr) at the end of the month; i^UpI 
ol^JLJl a. as-§alaivat (supererogatory) 
prayers performed after the prescribed 
salat; ILUI <->L4p1 J at daybreak, im- 
mediately after night was over; j jU 
*f U»l he followed in their footsteps, came 
close behind them; he imitated their 
example 

t^Jip 'wtjfc pi. i->Upl a'gafe end, outcome, 
upshot; issue, effect, result, consequence; 
rest, remnant, remainder; (cigarette, 
etc.) end, butt, stub (of a pencil, of a 
candle, of a check, etc.) ; counterfoil 

<uap r aqaba pi. i_jLip r iqab steep road 
or track, steep incline; pass, mountain 
road; SJuJl or «JUJl **i5 goTat aZ- f a. 
Aqaba (seaport in SW Jordan); (pi. -at, 
yUp Hqab) obstacle; difficulty | <J*>j 
Oji SJip {'aga&afcm) to stand in the way 
of s.th., obstruct s.th. 

<-Jip f aqlb one who, or that which, 
succeeds or is subsequent; following, 
subsequent j viJJj *-r^ c - ^aqtba) there- 
after, afterwards, subsequently 

cjUp 'uqdb (usually f.) pi. *_JopI a r qub, 
oUp Hqbdn eagle; <_jULJI Aquila 
[a8tron.) 

tjlip 'wgait eagle- (in compounds), 
aquiline 

u-Ji* 'uqayyib a small eagle, eaglet 
i^ip 'uqvba pi. -a( punishment, pen- 



alty; suspension (of a player, club ; sport) ; 
pi. punitive measures, sanctions | CjU>5p 
4jiL«dl (iqtisadiya) economic sanctions; 
SJl. hjAP penalty (money), fine; OjJ\S 
Cj{jjju>i\ penal code (jur.) 

tJjAt r uqubl penal, punitive 

tS of- r uqbd end, outcome, upshot; 
issue, effect, result, consequence 

<— >jl*> ya e qub z Jacob, James; ya'qub 
(pi. ^*^Uj ya'dqib 2 ) male mountain quail 
(2:00/.) j <~r>j^i ^-iJ j 3>U li-hajatin fi 
najsi y, for some unknown reason, from 
secret motives 

<J^JaAj ya'qvbi pi. 4JU0 ya'dqiba a 
Jacobite, an adherent of Jacob Baradai ; 
Jacobite (adj.; Cfo*.) 



to^tft pi. -af pursuit, chase; in- 
vestigation; comment(ary) ; criticism, crit- 
ical comment { Jp on) ; appeal (of a sen- 
tence, jur.) I L-~JbcJi S/b court of review, 
appellate court (Tun.) 

^SU* mu f dqaba infliction of punish- 
ment, punishment; pi. olJL** sanctions 
{pot) 

uUt f iqdb infliction of punishment, 
punishment; penalty 

j Up 'iqdbl penal, punitive 

i-Jtw ta'aqqub pi. -at pursuit, chase; 
investigation 

^JfUj ta'aqub succession | j^^a*JI ^bJ Jp 
in the course of centuries 

c-JU 'a^ifc: t^iUJI Jp successively 

iJU 'dqiba pi. v*^ '^w^?^ 2 en d, 
outcome, upshot; issue, effect, result, 
consequence | 4JUI ^JU benign (dis- 
ease); «_Jlj*JI *j+£ having favorable 
results, having a good outcome 

i_JU. mu'dqib alternate; punisher 



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^JU. mu'aqab suspended (player, club ; 
sport) 

.^JUl. mvta'aqib successive, consecu- 
tive, uninterrupted, continuous; O dia- 
chronic (linguistics) 

JUp "aqada i ( r aqd) to knit, knot, tie (a s.th.); 
to fasten with a knot (a s.th.); to put 
together, join, fold, lock (a one's hands, 
and the like); to contract (a the brows, 
and the like); to fix (a one's eyes, <_j on); 
to arch, vault (a a structure); to come 
together, gather (a for a session, a meet- 
ing); to hold (a a session, etc.); to con- 
voke, summon, call (a s.th., e.g., a session, 
a meeting); to conclude (a a contract), 
effect (a a transaction, a sale); to con- 
tract (a a loan) | Jp "sU .Up (amalan) 
to pin, or set, one's hope(s) on ...; -Up 
41^ (jabhatahu) to knit, or wrinkle, one's 
brows, frown; AjiU- jup (muhddatatan) 
to strike up a conversation; 1^^ CjJUp 
Jp {'uqidat kitbatukd) she became engaged 
to...; Jp {y^\^X\)j^uX\ -Up (kimir y kana* 
sir) to give s.th. top-rating because of its 
excellence, put s.th. above everything 
else; U-ljJ -Up (zawdjan) to contract a 
marriage; Jp (lx j*}\) *j*Ji jup ( r azma) to 
make up one's mind to do s.th., be (firmly) 
determined to do s.th.; ^Lai jup (faslan) 
to compose an article; *JUJ -Up to silence 
s.o.; fr^i »\ji jup to found, start, origi- 
nate, launch, produce, kindle, provoke 
s.th.; oLUl Aji l$J Ajinil "^JlJ\ (liwd'tt l-q.) 
the flagship; Jl^tAJ UjljJ i_jA.il ^-jUl 
(liwauhd U-l-amlral) the admiral's flag- 
ship; o^>lj -Up (nasiyatahu) — -Up 
x^r; UUaJ JUp (nitaqan) to form a 
cordon (dj>- around s.o.}; Jp i-Ji -Up 
(niyata) to resolve, make up one's mind 
to do s.th., decide on s.th.; *\jl <U -Up 
(_ r -aJl) Jbil e uqida lahu liwau l-majd 
(n-nasr) approx.: he was awarded the 
laurel of fame (of victory); #1,1,1 Jp JUp 
('aid l-mar'a) to marry a woman II to 



knit (tightly), knot, tie (a s.th); to pile 
up, mass together (a e.g., clouds), 
cluster (a e.g., vapors, steam); to compli- 
cate, make difficult, intricate, or tangled 
(a s.th.) II and IV to congeal, coagulate, 
clot, thicken, inspissate {a s.th., esp. by 
boiling) V to be knit (together), knotted, 
tied with knots ; to be or become intricate 
or complicated; to congeal, coagulate, 
clot, thicken; to gather (of clouds, 
etc.) | <OLJ j_4*j (lisdnuhu) to express o.s. 
with difficulty, speak laboringly; to 
be unable to speak, be tongue-tied 
VI to be interknit, interknotted, inter- 
joined, interlinked; to make a contract; 
to reach agreement, come to mutual 
agreement ( Jp on, about) VII to be knit 
(together), knotted, tied with knots, 
entangled; to contract, become contract- 
ed (e.g., brows); to be inhibited (tongue); 
to congeal, coagulate, clot, thicken; to 
amass (e.g., clouds), gather (vapor, 
steam) ; to clot together, form into lumps, 
get lumpy; to be concluded (contract), be 
effected (sale) ; to convene, assemble, meet 
(a committee, a conference, and the like) | 
o! Jp J&u* P^V [ifmd') there is general 
conviction that . . . ; y: Sj y>j <J -U*x_ J 
(zahr, tarnar) to remain without blossom 
and fruit, be without any effect and 
consequence VIII to believe (firmly) 
(a s.th., (_j in) 

.Up r aqd knitting, knotting, tying; 
joining, junction, locking; holding, 
summoning, convocation (of a session, 
of a meeting); conclusion (of a con- 
tract, of a sale) ; contraction (of a loan, 
and the like); — (pi. ijle r uqud) 
contract, agreement, arrangement; legal 
act, legal transaction; document, deed; 
vault, arch; group of ten, half-score; 
decade, decenniura | JJl -Up (alfl) millen- 
nium; g-\jj\ -Up a. az-zawdj contraction 
of marriage, marriage; marriage certifi- 
cate; u\jji\ -Up contraction of marriage, 



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wedding; 2LSsIi\ -Up r a. al-milklya title 
deed; »-l&Jl aJ»p marriage contract {Isl. 
Law); oUL^-1 X& convocation or hold- 
ing of meetings; \mjX) oIjjj dip fa. 
daurdt) arrangement or holding of train- 
ing courses; J**) I Juip *a. al-amal work 
contract; J&Jlj JJ-I J* I (ahl al-hall) in- 
fluential people, those in power; J*^1 
*j»JLap (infarata) they broke up, they went 
their own ways; ^a-Up J^Tl (iktamalu) 
they were gathered in full number 

Aip 'iyrf pi. Sjle- f uqud chaplet, neck- 
lace | JUbJi ik-lj center, focus, highlight, 
chief attraction, piece de resistance 

SaJsp f w^a pi. 4ip r «gttd knot (also — 
nautical mile); inch; joint {anat.); splice; 
knot, knur, knob, swelling, nodule, node, 
protuberance, excrescence, outgrowth; 
knot, entanglement (of the plot; theat.); 
problem, difficulty; puzzle, riddle; com- 
plex (psych.) | i_-jJjl S-Up r «. udeb 
Oedipus complex {psych.); »L*J-*1 IXU 
*u. al-hiscL castration complex (psych.); 
^aaj SjJop T u. naqs inferiority complex 

iUp 'aqqdd a producer and seller of 
cords, braiding and tassels, maker of trim- 
mings 

SiUp 'iqada manufacture of trimmings, 
braiding, etc. 

JUip r aqid pi. »!aap f uqadd* z contracting 
party, contractant, contractor; colonel 
(in most Arab countries; mil.); lieutenant 
colonel (Leb. ; mil.) 

S-Lap *aqida pi. jJUp 'aqa'id 2 article of 
faith, tenet, doctrine; dogma; creed, 
faith, belief; conviction; O ideology | 
4-ily- SxJifr (kurdjlya) superstition; j 
J-uip according to my conviction, as I 
believe 

(^.Ue f aqadi dogmatic; pertaining to 
religious faith or doctrine 



4j oJip f aqidiya dogmatism ; devotion to 
doctrine 

^jJUp r aqaidi dogmatic; O ideological ; 
(pi. -un) dogmatist 

SjjJUp 'aqa'idiya dogmatism 

JUpI cfqad 2 (elative) knottier, more 
knotted; more complicated, more diffi- 
cult; — cfqad 2 , f. *1jUop 'aqda' 2 knotty, 
knotted, gnarled | *ldip Lip ('asan) 
knotty stick, brier cane 

Xa** ma'qid pi. A*U. ma f aqid z place 
where s.th. is knotted or tied in a knot 
or knots; point where s.th. joins or 
meets, a junction, a juncture, a joint, 
a seam | JUT juL*. the object on which 
s.o. pins his hopes; ot>- jJUx tg^Ql JU-U V 
(&ara 6t-)?i. jafnihl) no slumber closed 
his lids 

JLiJ ta^d complication, entanglement, 
involvement; complicatedness, intricacy, 
complexity, tangledness; confusion, lack 
of clarity; pi. -at intricate, complicated 
problems 

ju*j tcfaqqud complicatedness, complex- 
ity, intricacy 

JI5L1J ta'dqitd conclusion of a contract; 
contractual obligation; (pi. -at) contract, 
agreement, treaty 

(^aSUj ta'dqudi contract, etc. (in com- 
pounds) 

iliol irCiqad meeting, convening, ses- 
sion (of a committee, and the like) | jji 
jli*JVl daur al-in. session, term (pari.) 

jiuscl %tiqad (firm) belief, faith, trust, 
confidence, conviction; — (pi. -at) (re- 
ligious) creed, faith; article of faith; 
principle of faith, tenet; doctrine; dogma 

^UipI itiqadi dogmatic; (pi. -un) 
dogmatist | ^jUxpVI i^JUlI (madhab) 
dogmatism 



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AjiUxei i'tiqadlya dogmatism 

-blc e dqid legally competent to contract 
{I si. Law) 

*ja*a ma'qvd knit, knotted; joined, 
interlocking (arches; arch.); arched, vault- 
ed (ceiling, etc.); (of milk) curdled | 
uLW *ja*a tongue-tied, incapable of 
speech; jl \ijl~ J. VI a IT (amalu) it 
was hoped that . . .; *ja»* y (mamara) 
archway, arcade 

<&** mu'aqqad knotted, knotty, gnarl- 
ed; lumped together, thickened; com- 
plicated, intricate, entangled, snarled, 
involved, difficult; confused, lacking clar- 
ity, unintelligible 

-*itw mu'dqid contracting party, con- 
tractant, contractor 

Jj\jcl» muta'dqid under contract, bound 
by contract; jUldJ the two contract- 
ing parties 



muHaqad believed; ul JLodl it is 
believed that..., it is held that...; — 
(pi. -at) article of faith, principle of 
faith, tenet; doctrine; dogma; creed, 
faith; conviction, belief, view, opinion 

Jaz f aqara i ( r aqr) to wound (a, * s.o.,s.th.); 
— r aqura u and c aqara i ( r uqr, 'agr, aj[J& 
'aqara) to be barren, sterile; to be 
childless III to be addicted, be given 
(a to s.th., e.g., to drinking) IV to stun, 
stupefy (* s.o.) 

Ja* r uqr, r aqr barrenness, sterility; 
middle, center | jUJI Jk* J within the 
house itself (not outside the house) ;Jcs- j 
«jta in his own house; J»Jo$ Jac J within 
the country; in their own country, on 
their own ground 

Jac e uqr indemnity for illicit sexual 
intercourse with a woman slave (Id. 
Law); childless man 



j Up *aqdr pi. -at immovable property, 
immovables, real property, real estate, 
realty; piece of real estate, landed 
property 

jUp 'uqar residue 

^jUp r aqarl of or pertaining to im- 
movable property, immovables, landed 
property, or real estate; consisting in 
immovable property, immovables, landed 
property, or real estate ; landed | ^jU* db 
real -estate bank, land -mortgage bank; 
tSjU* jfcj (rahn) mortgage on landed 
property, landed security; ^jUaJJ «ill 
(qism) real-estate administration (Tun.); 
tSjUp jJL (milk) landed property; see 
also^fi Sahr 

jjac f aqur mordacious, rapacious, vo- 
racious (animal) 

j lit r aqqar pi. j^Up 'aqdqlr' 2 drug, 
medicament, remedy 

SjUt ' aqara barrenness, sterility 

3j\ap f aqlra voice 

J>[p r aqir (f.) barren, sterile (woman) 

VV^ap 'aqrab pi. »-»jUp 'aqdrib 2 (mostly f.) 
scorpion; sting, prick; hand (of a watch 
or clock); lock, curl; — v>**" Scorpio 
(sign of the zodiac; astron.); the eighth 
month of the solar year (/Saudi Ar. ; cf. 
J*- hamal) 

<->jA** mu f aqrab crooked, curved, curled 
^^flJip 'aqasa i ( T aqs) to braid, plait (* the hair) 



r aqi$a pi. ^Up 'aqaif, ^U* 
c iqds braid, plait (of hair), lock 

J*Zfr 'aq'aq pi. JpUp *aqa r iq z magpie (zool,) 

i-AAc 'aqafa i ( r aqf) to crook, hook, bend 
sharply (a s.th.) II = I 

4ji£p r uqja pi. -at loop, ring, eyelet (to 



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hold a button, the cords of the r iqdl, 
and the like) 

(JwpI a r qaf z , f. *Uit 'aqfa* 2 crooked, 
bent, hooked 

<Ju** ma r qif square bracket 

<j>j£aa ma'qitf crooked, bent, hooked; 
bent at the ends, handlebar- shaped (mus- 
tache); dual JlijJi*. square brackets 
{typ.) | <J»ji*ll (_JL«JI the swastika 

mun'aqif square bracket | <>j 
in square brackets 



Jit 'aqala i (*aql) to hobble with the 'iqal 
(JUp q.v.; juJ\ al-ba f ira the camel); 
to intern, confine, detain, arrest, put 
under arrest {* s.o.); to throw (* s.o.) in 
wrestling ; to pay blood money or wergild 
(J « for the slain to s.o.); to be endowed 
with (the faculty of) reason, be reasonable, 
have intelligence; to be in one's senses, 
be conscious; to realize, comprehend, 
understand (a s.th.) | <uLJ Jip (lisanahu) 
to tongue-tie s.o., make s.o. speechless 
II to make (t> s.o.) reasonable or sensible, 
bring ( 6 s.o.) to reason V to be or become 
reasonable, sensible, rational, intelligent, 
judicious, prudent, wise; to comprehend, 
grasp (* s.th.) VIII to arrest, put under 
arrest, apprehend, detain (« s.o.); to 
intern (» s.o.); to seize, impound (a 
s.th.) 

Jit f aql blood money, blood wite, 
wergild; {pi. J^i* f uqul) sense, sentience, 
reason, understanding, comprehension, 
discernment, insight, rationality, mind, 
intellect, intelligence [ JJuJl JxJ£ muktall 
al-'a. mentally deranged, demented, 
insane, mad; JJuN {^^) JL-sane; O S^ 
^Ul, also O tSJj**^ J^' {la-Su'uri) 
the unconscious (psych.); Q ^jyJ^\ Ji*Jl 
(h'url) the subconscious (psych.); JI*)1 
j>\J\ and >Jil JaJI (mumayyiz) the 
conscious mind, the conscious (psych.); 



Jjj^SGI Jit- (elektroni) electronic brain 
(techn.) 

( Ji^ r aqU reasonable, rational; ratioc* 
inative; mental; intellectual; (pi. -un) 
rationalist; an intellectual; oLUJI ah 
"aqliyat the mental world | Ji*Ji t-j^JIi 
(madhab) rationalism; 4JULJI ILLJUJl (fah 
safa) do.; iJU*JI ^I^Vl mental diseases 

SJU* 'aqliya pi. -at mentality, mental 
attitude 

J^xp r aqlanl rational, reasonable 

Uap 'uqla pi. Jit 'uqal knot, knob, node 
(e.g., of a reed, cane, etc.); joint, arti- 
culation; knuckle; layer (hort.); trapeze 

J Lit 'iqal pi. Jit e uqul cord used for 
hobbling the feet of a camel ; a headband 
made of camel's hair, holding the kuflya 



in place | l$J lit 



u*Hj>- 



jlU (atlaqaharban) 



to unleash or start a war 

Jjlc. r aqul understanding, reasonable, 
sensible, discerning, intelligent; costive 
medicine; (and JjjU r aqul) a low spiny 
shrub of the steppes of North Africa and 
Western Asia (camel's- thorn, Alhagi mau- 
ronim; Alhagi manniferum Desv.; hot.) 

*LJU r itqila pi. JjUt 'aqcTil* the best, 
the pick; wife, spouse j -cLap 3X-J! (say 
yida) hi.s wife; oLL^Jl Jjlit r a. as-sifat 
the very best qualities 

Jiti aqal 2 more reasonable; brighter, 
smarter, more intelligent j ^^1 Jit-1 a. ah 
r umr the most reasonable time of life, the 
years of reason and maturity 

JJia* maqil pi. JSU* maaqil 1 refuge, 
sanctuary; stronghold, fortress, fort; 
O pillbox, bunker, dugout (mil.); forti- 
fied position 

*iJU« ma* quia pi. Jit** ma'dqil 2 blood 
money, wergild 

JiJ taaqqul understanding, discern- 



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738 



merit, prudence, judiciousness, wisdom | 
J^tj sensibly, intelligently 

Jli^l i'tiqal pi. -ai arrest, detention, 
internment; cramp, spasm | JliipVi _fiL~** 
mu'askar al-Vl. concentration camp 

JjU r dqil pi. -un, *t>Up 'uqala' 2 , JUc 
'uqqdl understanding, reasonable, sensible, 
rational, discerning, intelligent, prudent, 
judicious, wise; in full possession of one's 
mental faculties, compos mentis, sane in 
mind 

SiSU "dqila a clan committed by un- 
written law of the Bedouins to pay the 
blood wite for each of its members 

J^U* ma'qul reasonable, sensible, in- 
telligible, comprehensible, understand- 
able, plausible, logical; rational; appre- 
hensive faculty, comprehension, intellect, 
discernment, judiciousness, judgment; 
common sense | Jji** j^ unintelligible, 
incomprehensible, nonsensical, incongru- 
ous, preposterous, absurd 

*4jA*a ma'quliya comprehensibility, in- 
telligibility; logical, rational, or reason- 
able character, logicality, rationality, 
reasonableness 

JSsa* mu'taqal pi. -at concentration 
camp; prison camp; internment camp, 
detention camp; (pi. -un) prisoner | Jijw 
^U- (siydst) political prisoner 

j^Ut 'aqlana to rationalize (a s.th.) 
(JtiUp 'aqlani see under Jl* 

Jit 'aqama u and 'aquma u ( r aqm, r uqm) to 
be barren, sterile (womb, woman); — 
'aqama i (*aqm) to render barren (a the 
womb) II to render sterile or barren, 
sterilize (a, » s.o., s.th.); to degerminate 
(a s.th.); to pasteurize (a s.th.); to dis- 
infect (a s.th.) V to be rendered barren, 
be sterilized 



r uqm, f aqam barrenness, 



Jip aqm, 
sterility 



i«JU r uqma barrenness, sterility 

^S* r aq'm pi. S* 'uqum, pli* f iqfa 
barren; sterile; useless, unavailing, futile, 
fruitless, ineffectual, ineffective, un. 
productive (e.g., work, attempt) 

^JUj ta'qim sterilization, degermination, 
pasteurization ; disinfection 

O jfi** mu'aqqim disinfector, d 
fecting apparatus 

j**» mu'aqqam sterilized, pasteurized, 
disinfected, degerminated 



.i-U 'akka i ( ( akk) to be sultry, muggy (day) 

til* "akk sultry, muggy, sweltering 

<&U c akka z , »l£p 'akka' 2 and l£c *akk& 
Acre (seaport in Palestine) 

tSjbK*. 'akkawi pertaining to, or coming 
from, Acre 

iLS^ e akik sultry, muggy, sw> 
(day) 

jSU r akira a {'akar) to be or become turbid, 
muddy, roily II to render turbid, to 
roil, to muddy (a or J* s.th.); to disturb, 
trouble (a or J* s.th.) | ^jLJI JsU (safwa) 
to destroy the untroubled state, disturb 
the order; *jJL* j£c (safwahu) and ^ 
^jL^JI 4JU (safwa) to kill s.o.'s good spirits, 
spoil s.o.'s good humor V to become 
turbid, become muddy; to deteriorate, 
be aggravated, become worse (situation) 

j£* r akar turbidity, muddiness; sedi- 
ment, dregs, lees 



Js* f akir turbid, 
troubled, disturbed 



muddy, roily; 



#jl£t 'akara, 
dregs, lees 



'ikara (eg.) sediment, 



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739 



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j&S ta'kir (act of) rendering turbid, 
roiling, muddying; disturbance, trou- 
bling, derangement 

£** mu'akkar turbid, sedimentous, 
roiled, muddy; disturbed, troubled 

j£* V to lean ( Jp on a staff) 

jl£p e ukkdz, SjtSvp r ukkdza pi. -at , y&fce- 
'akdkiz 2 staff, stick; crutch 

j^SU 'aka&a i { f aks) to reverse, invert (a 
s.th.); to reflect, throw back, cast back, 
mirror (* s.th.) Ill to counteract, 
oppose, contradict (*, o s.o., s.th.), 
thwart (a s.th.); to disturb, trouble 
(a, a s.o., s.th.); to molest, vex, tease, 
harass (» s.o.) VI to be reversed, be 
inverted; to be thrown back, be cast 
back, be reflected, be mirrored \II to 
be reversed, be inverted; to turn back 

(Jp against); to redound (Jp to, on); 
to be thrown back, be cast back ( Jp or 

p by), be reflected, be mirrored (Jp 

or jp by, in) 

^SJ- r aks reversal, reversion, in- 
version; reflection; opposite, contrast, 
contrary, reverse; (prep.) 'aksa in contrast 
with, in opposition to | dUi &* J* in 
contrast with that, contrary to that ; <1>1T 
j. Lr £*)l Jp to be in contrast to, be in 
opposition to; ^r^*^ on the contrary, 
conversely ; j-^J b J-&JI j and vice versa ; 
LSUj \*Jb SJLJlI it^- (masalata tardari) he 
studied the problem from all sides or in 
all its aspects 

iS Ssr "aksl contrary, opposite, contrast- 
ing, antithetical, adverse 

j-^p 'akls layer, shoot, cion (hort.) 

lS\j* mu'dkasa pi. -at disturbance; 
molestation, pestering, harassment; 
struggle, fight, battle | i>-J 5JIU <-f U. 
(jaivwiya) inclemency of the weather 



^IS^Ji in'ikas reflection; — (pi. -at) 
reflex; reaction, repercussion 

^-ISC^l in'ikasi reflectional, reflexive, 
reflex (adj.) | v-lS^ui iS^>- (haraka) reflex 
action, reflex (physiol.) 

j^TU 'akis pi. -at screen, lamp shade; 
reflector | j\*J\ g\j*\ oL5**U radar re- 
flectors (phys.); O o~^^ 4-r* (muharrik) 
rocket motor, retroburner (space flight) 

i»T Ip 'akisa reflector; eye shade; lamp 
shade 

^U* mm" akis counter-, contra-, anti-; 
adverse (circumstances, opinion) | **£ 
XS\*a (hajma), ^i** f>? counter- 
attack 

^S Uu muta'dkis contrasting, opposite, 
opposed, conflicting 

Lr SCoj mun'akis reflected; reflectional, 
reflex (in compounds) | Z*Sx~* »jj**> 
(sura) mirror image, reflected image, re- 
flection; ^-SCo J*i (fi'l) pi. *~£*x* JUif 
reflex action, reflex (physiol., psych.), 
O J>j5 ^r^* J*> (/»% *w*5) conditioned 
reflex 

^ mun'akas pi. -^ reflex (physiol, 
psych.) 

<ii£p 'akdsa awkwardness, clumsiness 

SJilSCp ^ukdsa, f ukkdsa spider; spider 
web, cobweb 

iJaSU 'akafa u i (*Js^p T ukuf) to adhere, cling, 
stick, keep (Jp to); to give o.s. over, 
apply o.s., devote o.s., be addicted (Jp 
to s.th.), indulge (Jp in s.th.), be 
obsessed (Jp by), be bent, be intent 
(Jp on s.th.); to be busily engaged (Jp 
in), busy o.s. {Jp with); to remain 
uninterruptedly (J in); to seclude o.s., 
isolate o.s. ( j in, at a place), withdraw, 
retire (J into, to a place) ; — 'akafa u i 
( f akf) to hold back, restrain, keep (jp • 



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s.o. from) II to hold back, restrain, keep 
(jp a s.o. from) V to remain uninter- 
ruptedly (a in); to seclude o.s., isolate 
o.s. (j in, at a place; ^ from), with- 
draw, retire ( j into, to a place; jz from) ; 
to live in seclusion, in retirement (jp 
from) VIII = V; to devote o.s., apply o.s. 
assiduously (Jl to s.th.), busy o.s. (Jl 
with); to apply oneself zealously to the 
service of God (in the mosque) 

iJaSic r akif pi. -un, i-JjS^p 'ukuf, ijSic. 
'ukkaf given, addicted (J* to s.th.); 
obsessed (J* by), bent, intent (Jp on); 
busily engaged ( Jp in), busy ( Jp with) 

<J*&aa mu r takaf place of zealous vener- 
ation of God, site of worship 

*£p 'akama i ( f akm) to bundle up, pack, tie 
in a cloth, and the like (a s.th.) 

^!s*. mu'aknan {eg.) annoyed, irritated, in 
a bad mood 

,jj\£U "akkawi see a£p 

1 Jp f alu see J& 

2 Jp 'alia, Jj Walla (particle; with accusative 
noun immediately following) perhaps, 
maybe | JJ ^j-b j* (man yadrl) who 
knows if . . . 

3 Jp r alla i and pass, 'ulla to be or fall ill 
II to occupy, busy, keep busy, entertain, 
distract (^ • s.o. with); to justify, 
motivate, explain (c_j a s.th. with) | 
^ {^JciS or) «u-o JU to indulge in the 
hope that . . ., entertain or cherish the 
hope of or that ..., be given to the 
illusion that ...; JUL <~J>j JJU to indulge 
in hopes; to entertain vain hopes; Jit 
*-> JLV' to cherish the hope of ...; <JU 
Jj*jJb to put s.o. off with promises V to 
occupy o.s., busy o.s., amuse o.s., distract 
o.s., divert o.s, («-» with); to make an 



excuse, offer a pretext; to offer or use 
as an excuse, as a pretext («-> s.th.); to 
use as an expedient, as a makeshift (^ 
s.th.) | SLu JJUj (bi-'Ulatin) to make a 
pretext, plead s.th. as an excuse VIII to 
be or fall ill; to be weak, defective; to 
make an excuse, offer a pretext; to ad- 
duce, give, offer (i^> a reason or excuse, 
Jp for s.th.); to pretend, purport, allege, 
feign, dissimulate, offer as a pretext or 
excuse (»_j s.th.) 

ilp *%Ua pi. -at, JIp Hlal illness, sick- 
ness, disease, malady; deficiency, defect, 
weakness; weakness, defectiveness (of 
a letter or word; gram.); metrical 
variation or irregularity (prosody); — 
(pi. JIp r ilal) cause, reason, occasion; 
excuse, pretense, pretext, plea | iLJI ^jj*- 
the weak letters (1, j, &; gram.); 4j^U J* 
in spite of his weaknesses, such as he is; 
J^Uilj <LJ1 cause and effect; j JU1 <U 
the principal cause of ..., the deeper 
reason underlying . . . 

aIp 'alia pi. -at concubine | CoWl jj 
banu I "a. sons of a man by different 
mothers 

JJp r alil pi. oApI a'illd' 2 sick, ill, 
ailing; sick person, patient; soft, gentle, 
mild, pleasant 

yp r illiya causality 

iJLp 'ilya, 'ulliya and CijAa Hlllyun 
see jb 

<J">U r uldla comfort, consolation; re- 
mainder, remnant, rest 

JJjJ ta'lll pi. -at entertainment, di- 
version, distraction; argumentation, justi- 
fication, motivation, explanation | O J^*J 
^^1 t. al-marad aetiology (med.) 

U*j ta'illa pi. -at pretext, pretense, 
excuse; makeshift, expedient, substitute, 
surrogate 



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J^tl t'ti&xZ illness, sickness, disease, 
malady; weakness, defectiveness 

JjU. mcflul ill, sick, ailing; effect | <LJl 
JjUllj (*iUa) cause and effect; Up Jji*ll -i^l 
ittakada l~ma*lula 'illatan to mistake 
cause and effect 

J** mu'all ill, sick, ailing 

Jaw mu r tall ill, sick, ailing ; weak (letter; 
gram.); defective (word; gram.) 



JU II to can, tin, preserve in cans (a s.th.) 

4-U *ulba pi. cJU 'wZaft, <_j^U f ^a& box, 
case; can, tin; etui 

uJL* mifallab preserved in cans, can- 
ned; pi. oLLw canned goods | LLw Z*A>\ 
(at'ima) and SJL** SjApI (agdiya) canned 
foods 



4ft III to treat (* s.o., a patient; a a disease, 
also a subject); to occupy o.s,, concern 
o.s., have to do, deal (a, t> with s.o., 
with s.th.), attend, turn (a, « to s.o., to 
s.th.); to cultivate (a s.th., e.g., a 
literary genre); to take up (a s.th.), go 
in (a for s.th.), apply o.s. (a to s.th.); 
to take upon o.s. (a s.th.), undergo (a 
s.th.); to work (a s.th. or on s.th.), 
process, treat, manipulate, handle (a 
s.th.); to endeavor, take pains, try 
hard (ul or a to do s.th.); to palpate, 
paw, finger, touch (t, s.o.), fumble 
around (» on s.o.); to influence (» s.o.), 
work {* upon s.o. by arguments or 
persuasions), prevail {» on s.o.) | Mp 
j**VI J*jJI {ramaqa) to be on the verge 
of death, be dying ; oJ»j <lLU (bi-ta r natin) 
to land a stab on s.o., stab s.o. VI to 
be under medical treatment, receive 
or undergo medical treatment VIII to 
wrestle, struggle, fight (with one an- 
other); to be in violent commotion or 
agitation, heave, surge, tremble 



^ 'ilj pi. rj\* 'uluj infidel; uncouth 
fellow, lout 

*ilU* mualaja treatment (of a patient, 
also of a subject); nursing (of a patient); 
cultivation (of an art); manipulation, 
handling, processing, treatment {of a 
material, etc.) j (•_£>•> IjJtj SJ-UIl radium 
radiation therapy (med.) 

^Ap Hid} medical treatment; (pi. -at) 
remedy; cure, therapy 

^>-^p *ilaji curative, therapeutic 

rJ LJ tadluj medical treatment (which 
one undergoes) 

<jJU *ala\a i ( c alf) to feed, fodder (a livestock) 

oaLp c alaf pi. <J»*>Ul aldf, J»"^p r ilaf> 
iijie. 'ulufa fodder, forage, provender 

J*:>U f allaf pi. S seller of provender 

ASjlc- 'alufa pi. ijaj^ 'ald'if 2 stall-fed 
animal; — (pi. <jJU 'uluf) fodder, forage, 
provender 

tjjjw mi e laf pi. iJJU. ma'dlif 2 manger, 
trough 

J^jLv. ma'lftf stall-fed, fattened (ani- 
mal) 

jIp 'aliqa a Calaq) to hang, be suspended, 
dangle; to stick, cling, cleave, adhere 
(<_j to); to catch (<_j on, J in), get caught 
or stuck (l-j on, J in); to be attached, 
affixed, subjoined (^ to s.th.); — (J>Lp 
f uluq, 40U ''aldqa) to keep (<-> to s.o.), 
be attached, be devoted (^ to s.o.), be 
fond (lj of s.o.); (with foil, imperf.) to 
begin, commence to ... , start doing 
s.th.; — 'aliqat (J^U r uluq) to become 
pregnant, conceive (woman) II to hang, 
suspend (J* or <~> a s.th. on), attach, 
hitch, fasten, affix, tie (a s.th. J* or 
<^» to); to leave undecided, keep pend- 
ing, keep in abeyance (a s.th.); to make 



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dependent or conditional (a s.th. *_-> or 
Jp on); to comment (Jp on s.th.), an- 
notate, gloss, furnish with notes or a 
commentary (Jps.th.), remark, state (Jp 
with regard to); to make notes {* of 
s.th.), jot down (* s.th.) | Jp JU^/I j!p to 
set one's hopes on; Jp (Sj^L^) L-M jIp 
(aJiammiyatan) to attach importance 
to s.th. IV to hang, suspend (t-» a s.th. 
on), attach, hitch, fasten, affix, tie {<-j a 
s.th. to); to apply leeches V to hang, be 
suspended, dangle (uj from); to cling, 
cleave, adhere («-» to); to keep, stick, 
hang on (^ to); to be attached, be de- 
voted (t-> to), be fond (<_-» of s.o.); to 
depend, be dependent or conditional ( Jp 
or i-> on); to refer, pertain, belong, 
be related (<-» to), be connected, have to 
do {lj with), concern (^ s.th.) | <u*£ ,ji*5 
(bi-hubbihi) to be fond of s.o., be affec- 
tionately attached to s.o.; i-j J^-i j^i 
with regard to, as to, regarding, con- 
cerning 

jlp T ilq, f alq pi. cs^! a'ldq precious 
thing, object of value 

jjp r alaq (coll. ; n. un. S) pi. -df medicinal 
leech; leech; (coagulated) blood, blood clot 

SJiip 'alqa {eg,) beating; bastinado; a 
thrashing, spanking 

J~Lp r aliq pi. Jj^p r alaiq z fodder, 
forage, provender 

(jJp T ullaiq twining and creeping 
plants or shrubs (of various kinds); the 
lesser bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis; 
hot.); common English blackberry, 
bramble (Rubus fruticosus; hot.); black- 
berry; raspberry 

*uJLp r ullaiqa: ^j* *u-ip t u. rnusd the 
Burning Bush 

J^Ap 'alldq coat hanger 

^3^p 'aldqa attachment, devotion, 
affection, bond; (pi. -at, jbU 'altfiq 2 ) 



relation, affiliation, association, contact, 
bond, connection (*_j with); pi. cM% 
relations, conditions (e.g., social, econom- 
ic) | 4JLJI oUo\p (insdnlya) human re- 
lations; ^.UJl ujU^JI public relations; 
7-UVI oU^p f a. al-intdj production con- 
ditions; \j&\*> C>Ub*p (hdtifiya) telephone 
connections; as'J&j} competent; connected 
(^ with); 4<r>LJi oii oUJUl (sulvtat) 
the competent authorities; oU*iUl1 ^a 
(jj**iUJI) qat' al~ e a. severance of relations; 
( j^ikJl) o UbUJi Jji tawattur al-'a. tenseness 
of relations, tension in the relations 

'£*&■ 'ildqa pi. Jj"}U 'ala'iq 2 a strap, 
and the like, for suspending s.th. 

y^U- r alldqa coat hanger 

jlpl a r laq 2 : J* -ML jLpI (dj/m) that to 
which the mind is more inclined 

ijbkw mildq pi. jjJL-i ma'aliq 2 pluck (of 
an animal) 

J-Uj fa7Z<? hanging, suspending; tem- 
porary stay, remission or abrogation, 
suspension; the oblique, "hanging" duc- 
tus (in Arabic calligraphy); (pi. -df, ^JU" 
ta r dllq 2 ) commentary, comment(s), explan- 
atory remarks | oljLil J~Lu t. al-muba* 
raydt suspension of games (sport); j~lo 
Ssi-I t. al-hukm suspension of a sentence 
(jur.); u->!^V' jJLo Z. al-idrdb temporary 
suspension or stay of a strike; jJUl 
JHkil f. at-taldq conditional repudiation, 
conditional pronunciation of the talak 
{Isl. Law); *Lj^l Jp J*!>J (cm&a') news 
commentary (radio) 

4JLUj ta'llqa pi. -d(, jJL*J tcfdliq 2 
marginal note, annotation, note, gloss, 
scholium 

jLo tcCalluq attachment, devotion 
(*_-> to), affection (<_j for); linkage, con- 
nection, relationship (t-» with) 

jLw mu r alliq commentator (radio, press) 



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jJLw mu'allaq suspended, hanging; 
floating (in the air, between heaven and 
earth); in suspense, pending, undecided; 
hinging (v on); depending, dependent, 
conditional (i-j or Jp on), conditioned (<-» 
or J* by) | jU. j^>- {jisr) suspension 
bridge; jU. ^l*»- suspense account; 
SJU*, £>\J*\Z suspension railways; JjL- 
UJL. pending questions; jl~ ^jjftyub* 
n\ eg.) footbridge (over roads or traffic 
junctions) ; «-> <u-L* <^j (ragbatuhu) his 
desire is directed toward . . ., he has his 
heart set on . . . 

iiJU. mu'allaqa pi. -at placard, poster, 
bill; oliLli the oldest collection of 
complete ancient Arabic kasidas 

jJLx* muta'alliq attached, devoted 
(^ to); connected (o* with), related, 
pertaining (^> to), concerning (^ s.o. 
or s.th.) | *~£ jL^« (bi-hubbihl) affection- 
ately attached to s.o. ; <u ULcl. j* depending 
on s.o. or s.th., pertaining to s.o/s 
authority 

JiU 'alqam pi. Ji^c r aldqim 2 colocynth (bot.) | 
JiLJl Jli to taste bitterness, suffer 
annoyance, vexation, chicanery or tor- 
ments (,y from) 

dU 'alaha u i ('alk) to chew, champ (a s.th., 
esp. j»UH the bit, of a horse) 

iiU "ilk mastic 

l \e r alima a (Him) to know («-> or a, * s.o., 
s.th,), have knowledge, be cognizant, be 
aware (c-» or a of s.th.), be informed 
( v or a about or of s.th.), be familiar, 
be acquainted (<-> or a with s.th.); to 
perceive, discern (uor* s.th.), find out 
((_j or a about s.th., j* from), learn, 
come to know (<_j or a s.th. or about 
s.th., ^ from); to distinguish, differen- 
tiate ( j- a s.th. from) II to teach (u»»or 
a o s.o. s.th.), instruct, brief (<-> e or 



a a s.o. in s.th.); to train, school, educate 
(« s.o.); to designate, mark, earmark, 
provide with a distinctive mark (J* 
s.th.); to put a mark (Jp on) IV to let 
(« s.o.) know (»-> or a s.th. or about s.th.), 
tell {<-> or a & s.o. about), notify, advise, 
apprise, inform (lj o or a o s.o. of or 
about s.th.), acquaint [<~> « or a * s.o. 
with) V to learn, study (a s.th.); to 
know (a s.th.) VI to pretend to be learn- 
ed or knowledgeable, feign erudition X to 
inquire (^p * or a o of s.o. about), ask, 
query (,jc * or a e s.o. about), inform o.s. 
(^p » or a « through s.o. about), gather 
information ( Jp a or a * from s.o. about) 

ic r t7m knowledge, learning, lore; 
cognizance, acquaintance; information; 
cognition, intellection, perception, knowl- 
edge; (pi. rjU 'ulum) science; pi. pjJUl 
the (natural) sciences | ^j 1JL Hlman 
wa-amalan theoretically and practically; 
<u!p J j£J (li-yalcun) be it known to 
him, may he know, for his information; 
^j *U 1p Jp uS" (iamm) to know s.th. 
inside out, be thoroughly familiar with 
s.th.; to have full cognizance of s.th.; 
UI and ]a)I j^-lj (rajina) for your in- 
formation, f.y-i.; please take note; jl Up 
r ihnan anna (opening phrase in formal 
letters) you are informed that . . ., this is 
to inform you that ...; oh i*J1 £* I A* 
further (or finally) may I inform you 
that . . .; J_^jJl JU receipt; Jj^JI ^ 
registered (mail), J^JI Uj ^JUj regis- 
tered letter; — l_o^I ]p *t. al-adab study 
of literature; jjUil t-oVI ^ (muqarin) 
comparative literature; oLJVl i* H. al- 
insan anthropology; **\J-} ^ bacteriol- 
ogy; f-lrt-^l 1* sociology; 1pUx>- s j/I pjLJl 
the social sciences; J Li- 1 ^ f i. al-jamal 
aesthetics; ^L-ii ^ arithmetic; ^ 
obyU-l "i. al-hafriyat archaeology; pale- 
ontology; j^sUVl jip paleontology; ^ 
oLLj^ll c i. al-muhUdt oceanography; 1p 
• Li I r t. al-hayah biology; *L*-Vt ^ do.; 



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jljJ-l ie H. al-hayawdn zoology; ]p 
J^Vl ethics; «JVaJ1 1p '*. ad-daldla and 
O J*il i^ **■ cU-mafnd semantics (lin- 
guistics); Sjl^VI i^ **". al-iddra study of 
administration; business management; 
lijIiVl c^^l (idariija) administrative 
sciences; oljAJl 1p 'i. ad-darrdt nuclear 
physics; i^j^l ]p ( i. at-tarbiya pedagogy; 
jrd»L-VI J* mythology; t_j^£Ji U ethnol- 
ogy; 4p*-aI1 ip 'J. a§-§ihha hygiene; ]p 
(Ji^^l %'. a§-§arf morphology (gram.); 
olj«<»Vi J* and CjLJj^J! It *i. os-sflraft* 
t/ai phonetics; phonology; *<U-JaJl J* 
physics; natural science; ^jVl <i*~l» it 
geophysics; «_^jV oUJ» ]p 't. tabaqat 
al-ard geology; j^Uil Jp mineralogy; 
diliJi )p %*. al-falak astronomy; astrology; 
SjJIi ip r »\ al-luga lexicography (of the 
Arabs); linguistics (Western); j»L*JI iiill U 
('dmm) general linguistics; OuJI ]p f i. 
an-nabdt, oULJI ]p botany; lJ Jc^\ J* 
*i, an-nafs psychology; ^L^NI ^Jdl ]p 
social psychology; &yd\ ^j-^iJl J* (fardl) 
individual psychology; ajIj^I 1p '*. aZ- 
wirata genetics; »L*pVI »JtjLi»j ic f i. w. 
ala'dd* physiology; for other compounds 
look up the second word; — Ip l-JU? 
talib r L student; y*_^i*il LIS" kulllyat aVu. 
faculty of science (of a university) 

i j^£- 'ilmi scientific; erudite (book); 
learned (society) 

4-JU 'ilmiya scientific nature (of s.th.), 
scientificalness 

it r alam pi. >o>U a" lam sign, token, 
mark, badge, distinguishing mark, char- 
acteristic; harelip; road sign, signpost, 
guidepost; flag, banner; a distinguished, 
outstanding man; an eminent personali- 
ty, an authority, a star, a luminary; 
proper name {gram.) [J* Jp jU a lead- 
ing light or celebrity; jp Jp jlj ^ ^il 
very famous; it ~.l ismun 'alamun or 
tamw 'alamin pi. (*:ApVI »LH proper name 



Jcidmat al-'a. (Syr.) 



(gram.); i*JI i». 
military service 

Up 'oifm pi. »UJU 'wZama' 2 knowing; 
cognizant, informed; learned, erudite; 
pUI the Omniscient (one of the attri- 
butes of God) 

ptAp r aUdm knowing thoroughly (with 
foil, genit.: s.th.), completely familiar 
(with) 

i.'ib r allama most erudite, very learned 

<.^p 'ctlama pi. -at mark, sign, token; 
(conventional) sign or symbol (also lin- 
guistics); punctuation mark; grade or 
mark (in school); badge, emblem; distin- 
guishing mark, characteristic; indication, 
symptom [ IJ* i*^\p ('aldmata) in token 
of that, as a sign of that; hj^ i.^ 
(barriya) see &j barri; ajjU? X**U 
(tijdriya) trade-mark; <3j\ i.}U 'a. ar- 
rutba insignia of rank; O jV& <**$*■ r a. 
at-ta'attur and <_^*a^1 <*^Ap 'a. at-taajjub 
exclamation point; fl$i^-Vl i.*}U question 
mark; ^ ■.■, * ,'. : J I i.*>U quotation mark; 
ottjl 4*^p f o. al-waqf period, full stop (as 
punctuation mark); O ^L»*>UJI \J^ na-- 
zariyat al-a. theory of signs, semiotics 

^ 'aiUim tender; (pi. JLp 'ayalim 2 ) 
well with abundant water; sea 

<*jb\ u'luma pi. JIpI a c alim 2 road 
sign, signpost, guidepost 

<**>U7 ti'lama most erudite, very learned 

^ ma" lam pi. £U» ma'dlim 2 place, 
abode, locality, spot; track, trace 
landmark, mark, distinguishing mark, 
characteristic; road sign, signpost, guide- 
post; peculiarity, particularity; pi. sights, 
curiosities; characteristic traits; out 
lines, contours (e.g., of the body), 
lineaments, features (of the face) 

<*U* ma'lama pi. -at encyclopedia 

^Lj ta'llm pi. -at, JUJ ta'dlim 2 in 



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formation, advice, instruction, direction; 
teaching, instruction; training, schooling, 
education; apprenticeship; pi. Cj1<JUj 
instructions, directions, directives; in- 
formation, announcements [ iaizk JLu 
(muktalit) coeducation; JU JLw ( r dlin) 
higher education, academic studies; O o* 
pLsIl fann at-t. pedagogy, pedagogics; 
juJUl JUj and jL$3l ^JL*J t. al-kibdr 
adult education; ^^ JUS ($a r bi) public 
education; j* JUxj under a directive 
from . . . 

^^JLo ta'llmi instructional ; educational ; 
didactic 

v>Ul i'lam notification, advice; in- 
formation; communication; notice | -1$** 
rtUVl ma'had al-i. institute of commu- 
nications; V)U^i j j j minister of in- 
formation; jOWVI JjUj communications 
media, the media 

^•}Ul Vlami information, communica- 
tion (in compounds) 

Lo ta'allum learning, studying, study; 
education 

^U-.l istilam inquiry (^ about); 
(pi. -at) information | CjIoUl/*M ^Si» 
maktab al-ist. information office, in- 
formation desk 

iU r alim knowing; familiar, ac- 
quainted (oj with), cognizant (t_j of); 
expert, connoisseur, professional; (pi. 
»LJU 'ulamd' 2 ) learned, erudite; scholar, 
savant, scientist; (in Islam) theologian 
and expert in canonical law | L y^J* JU 
(tabVl) physicist, natural scientist; #LJLJI 
Oj^^Jll (muktasstin) the specialists, the 
experts; see also 2 (1U f dlam 

UU e dlima woman of learning, woman 
scholar; (eg., pronounced r alma) singer, 
chanteuse, belly dancer 

4-iU 'alimiya learnedness, scholar- 
liness, erudition, rank or dignity of a 



'dlim ; rank of scholarship, conferred by 
diploma, of the Great Mosque in Tunis 
and of Al Azhar in Cairo 

1*1 (Clam 2 having more knowledge; 
more learned | IpI ahI God knows best 

fjL** ma'lwm known; fixed, determined, 
given; of course! certainly! sure! no 
doubt! (as an affirmative reply); known 
quantity (math.); (»>L*i1 the active voice 
(gram.); — (pi. JU* ma'dllm 2 ) fixed sum, 
fixed rate (money); fixed income; tax, 
duty, fee; sum, amount, cost(s) | *jLw 
wlilj>JU m. al-hayawanat impost on live- 
stock ( Tun,) 

5>ji>w ma'luma known fact, a given 
fact; given quantity (math.); pi. CjLjUa 
knowledge, information; data, facts, de- 
tails (which one has, or has received, 
(jc- about) j (IjUjJUJlI *st- jam r al-m. data 
gathering 

l^jU.* ma'ltimiya fact or state of being 
known, notoriety (of s.th.) 

I** tau'allhn pi. -tin teacher, instruc- 
tor; master (of a trade, etc.) | <J»!j^Vl !*• 
father- confessor, confessor 

4*Lc mu'allima pi. -at woman teacher, 
woman instructor 

Lw mu'aUam taught, instructed, 
trained, schooled; <JU Lw designated, 
marked | ^-VLj <uU JU* marked with 
red pencil 

1*1* muta'allim educated; able to read 
and write, literate; — (pi. -tin) appren- 
tice; an educated person 



JI^p 'aivdlim 2 world; 
oliUJ! al-* ataman the 



2 JU 'alam pi. -un, 
un i vers e , cos mos ; 
two worlds = Europe and America; 
o_>iU 'dlamun inhabitants of the world, 
specif, human beings | uj_*J-1 JU 'a. al- 
hayawtin the animal kingdom; j^Uil JU. 
'a. al-ma r adin the mineral kingdom; 



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CjLJI iU r d. an-nabat the vegetable 
kingdom; *j>-^\ l\* this world, this life; 
^JUJl jIUI the third world (poZ.)i jlUII 
^-jU^l the outside world; r alim see 
under * it 

JlIp c d£awu worldly, secular, world 
(adj.); international; world-wide, world- 
famous, enjoying world-wide renown 

4J.U r dlamlya internationality; inter- 
nationalism; "dlimiya see under a ^ 

JUU *almani, JUU laic, lay; (pi. -ww) 
layman (in distinction from the clergy) 

4JIJU r almdnlya laicism; secularism, 
secularization 



3 *y& r ald-nia see p ma 

JjIp 'alana u f 'aluna u (SJ^Ac- r aldniya) to be or 
become known, manifest, evident III to 
indicate, make known, reveal, disclose 
(^ » to s.o. s.th.) IV to manifest, reveal, 
make known, show, demonstrate publicly 
(a, ^p e.g., an attitude, a conviction, an 
intention); to make public, publicize, 
publish, disclose, declare, announce, pro- 
claim, promulgate (a s.th.); to state 
frankly (a JI to s.o. s.th.); to announce 
(^1 that); to issue a summons (JI to 
s.o.); to give notice {jt of); to ad- 
vertise (,jp s.th,, e.g., the rent or sale 
of s.th. in a newspaper) ; to give evidence 
(jc of), indicate, show, betray, bespeak 
(jc s.th.) I Up u-»ji-l ^>U1 (harba) to de- 
clare war on s.o.; a& j^> L^UJ (sarihatan) 
we state it quite frankly (without refer- 
ence to a preceding noun) VIII = I; X = 
I; to seek to bring out or to disclose 
(a s.th.); to bring to light (a s.th.) 

UJU f alanan and jUi J falan) openly, 
overtly, publicly, in public 

^1p f alani open, overt, public 



ILUp 'alaniya openness, public nature 
(of meetings, etc.) 

jie T alin open, overt, public; evident, 
patent 

SJ 1 ^ 'aldniya openness, overtness, pub- 
licness, publicity (as opposed to secrecy); 
'aldniyatan openly, overtly, publicly, 
patently, in public 

o^pl i c ldn pi. -at publication, pro- 
mulgation; revelation, manifestation; 
proclamation ; declaration, statement, 
pronouncement; announcement, notice; 
public demonstration (of an attitude, 
etc.); campaigning (<jp for an idea, doc- 
trine); advertising, publicity {^y for); 
posted notice (on a blackboard) ; advertise- 
ment, ad; poster, bill, placard \jj~*>- o%\ 
i. hvdur summons; v^"' Jtjb-I i. al-harb 
declaration of war; aa£JI *J& j^Ul I 
"adarn at4iqa vote of "no confidence"; 
4jj~» oU^Ul (mubaivwaba) classified ads; 
aJjJ> oU^Ul (dau'iya) electric signs, sky 
signs 

JU* mu'lin pi. -un announcer, master 
of ceremonies (e.g., in a cabaret); adver- 
tiser 

^U. mu'lan : «JI ^^L. summoned (before 
a court) 

(_jlp and Jp) "£* 'aid u ( r uluw) to be high, 
elevated, rise high, loom, tower up; to 
rise, ascend ; to ring out (voice) ; to heave 
(chest); to be higher or taller (^ or a, • 
than s.o., than s.th.), (over)top (^ or 
a, s.o., s.th.), tower (jp or a, * over s.o., 
over s.th.), be located or situated higher 
( jc- or a than s.th.) ; to be attached, fixed 
or fastened above or on top of s.th. (a); 
to rise {^ or a above s.th.); to exceed, 
excel, surpass (a, or y s.o., s.th.); to 
be too high (a, jorjp for s.o., for s.th.); 
to overcome, overwhelm (J* or » s.o.), 
get the better of s.o. (0) ; to be or become 



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noisy; to be louder (Jp than), drown out 
(J* s.th.); to turn upward; to ascend, 
mount, climb, scale (a s.th.); to over- 
spread, cover (a s.th.); to come, descend 
(a, * upon s.o., upon s.th.), befall, seize 
(a, o s.o., s.th.) ; <o lU to raise s.th. or s.o.; 
to exalt, extol s.o., to sing s.o.'s praises | 
Ijl^JI SbVl ">W (addta, sada'u) rust has 
covered the tool; olj-#V'. *jJue> <^rj *zJ& 
'cdat wajhahu sufratu l-a. deathly pallor 
suffused his face; i.LJui <^>-j jS*3 {waj* 
hahu) a smile appears on his face; *>U 
(j-Ui »j^-j jjjJ\ joy suffused the faces 
of the people; iXJl 4x1* 'cdathu s-sa'dma 
he was overcome by fatigue; *uiiJi cJp 
ijtj r alat Safataihi ragwa foam appeared 
on his lips; maSL ^U {bi-*anfihi) he was 
haughty, displayed arrogance; <u*Ty :>U 
he raised his head; he was supercilious, 
conceited; ajJUtJ ">\p it made his bosom 
swell (pride, enthusiasm); iSj^i ^ ^j^- 
[bi-basarl) I raised my eyes to him; cSs- 
jJI <i (sinnu) he had attained great age, 
he was an old man; ^ £j+* tA& (sau* 
tuhu) his voice rang out with . . ,, he ex- 
claimed . . . aloud; — Jp 'old i to climb 
(a e.g., to the roof); — Jp r aliya a (»*>U 
'da?) to be high, elevated; to excel, stand 
out II to raise, make higher (a a building, 
etc.); to raise aloft, lift, hoist, lift up, 
elevate, uplift, exalt (a, » s.o., s.th.) 
IV = II | <uti Jp! (sanahu) to play up, 
stress, emphasize s.th,, put emphasis on 
s.th.; to further, promote, advance s.th.; 
to raise s.o.'s prestige V to rise, become 
high VI to rise, lift, ascend, rise aloft; 
to be raised, become loud (noises, voices) ; 
to resound, ring out; to deem o.s. above 
s.o. or s.th. (Jp), look down (J* on s.o., 
on s.th.); to be sublime (jp above s.th., 
of God); to stay away (jp from); JLw 
ta'dla (imp.; f. JUj, pi. IjJLJ) come (here) ! 
come on! let's go! forward! | JUj ajjI God 
the Sublime; JUj *Jy (qauluhu) the word 
of the Sublime (introducing Koran quota- 
tions) VIII to rise, lift, ascend, rise aloft ; 



to rise high, tower up; to mount, ascend, 
climb, scale (a s.th.); to step (up) (a on 
s.th.); to be enthroned, be perched 
(a on s.th.); to tower (a above s.th.); 
to ascend the throne; to accede to a 
high office X to rise, tower (Jp above); 
to master (Jp s.th.); to take possession 
( Jp of s.th.), appropriate ( Jp s.th.) 

Jp e alu : Jp j- min 'aXu from above 

jL *uluw height, tallness, elevation, 
altitude; greatness, grandeur, highness, 
exaltedness, sublimity | Cjj-JI jU *u. 
a$-saut sound volume, sound intensity; 
1^*531 J& *u. al-ka'b high, outstanding 
position 

,jj1p "ulwi upper; high, lofty; built on 
a roof (apartment); sublime, exalted; 
heavenly, divine | Sj^Ip S^l (irdda) 
supremo will, divine decree; ^^Ip *b-> 
(bind") superstructure (also fig.); ,jjU JjU* 
(tabaq) top floor; ^jJUH Jj^JaJI {taraf) the 
upper end 

<^1p 'alawl upper; heavenly, celestial; 
Alawi (adj. and n.) ; pi. by m J^\ the Alawis 
(official name of the Nusairis inhabiting 
the coastal district of Latakia in NW 
Syria) 

Jp f vlan height, tallness, elevation, 
altitude; highness, exaltedness, august- 
ness, sublimity; high rank 

Jp e ala (prep.) on, upon, on top of, 
above, over (place, rank); at, on, by; 
in, in the state of, in the manner of, in 
possession of; to, toward, for; in ad- 
dition to ; to the debit of, to the disad- 
vantage of; against, in spite of, despite; 
on the basis of, on the strength of, by 
virtue of, due to, upon; by, through; 
according to, in accordance with, pursu- 
ant to; to (one's taste, one's mind, 
one's liking, etc.); during; (as to syntac- 
tical regimen see under respective verb) | 
Jp j* from above . . ., from upon. . ., from 



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the top of...; j I J* (an) on the condition 
that . . ., provided that. . . ; J Jp (anna) al- 
though, though, albeit; (introducing a 
main clause) however, but, on the other 
hand, nevertheless, yet, still, ... though; 
in the subjective notion or view that ..., 
as^e.g.: i^o 1^1 Jp ^J^\ c>\J J*- 
<^ VI jana tormrati l-ardi 'old annaM 
nVmalu l-dliha he reaped the fruits of the 
earth (accepting them) as a boon bestowed 
by the grace of the gods; JJ*i jp Jp 
(zahri l-hail) on horseback; Sy-Ul^li Jp 
aboard the steamer; Cl# p^Ul (salamu) 
may peace be upon you! ,>*)! j ^Jl Jp 
'aid r-ra's wa-l-ain very gladly! just as 
you wish! at your service! with pleasure ! 
■>^VI ^r-jjj Jp publicly, for every- 
one to see; jUI Jp ^JU- he was sitting 
by the fire; 4^* Jp (yamlnihl) to (at) 
his right; JU JT Jp (kulli) or JT Jp 
(hullin) in any case, at any rate; Jp 
*j~*±:\ especially, particularly, specif- 
ically; J^V! J* (ifldq) absolutely, unre- 
strictedly, without exception, in any 
respect, under any circumstances; Jp 
^ij^i\ approximately, almost, nearly, 
about, circa; Ji^dl Jp (tawall) continuous- 
ly, incessantly, in uninterrupted suc- 
cession; >y* Jp (dau'i) or j J Jp (nuri) in 
the light of ...; j» Jp uS~ (haqqin) or 
ji-! Jp oK" to be on the right way, have 
hit on the right thing, be right; Jp ulf 
JkUl or tia>. Jp or (kafa'in) to be on the 
wrong way, be wrong, be mistaken; 
pty U i y~*-\ Jp^>a (ahsani 7 yuramu) he is 
as well as you can possibly wish (for 
him); ... ^ ,^» Jp^ he has certain ...; 
ftf-UI j* ^ Jp^ (dakd') he has a good 
deal of intelligence; ^ Jp 10* ^U there 
is nothing in it, it's worthless; ^ ^U 
•^ Jp ^ !aa all this is unfamiliar to 
him; he doesn't understand a thing 
about it; ^ — Li ^j Jp olf (diwt J-m.) to 
belong to the Christian religion, be a 
Christian; <^ ^ Jp ulT (Hlmin) to be 



informed about, be acquainted with ...; 
•jUaiJl Jp jlT to wait for s.o, or s.th.; 
*<J- J? J* for no reason; ^.Yl ,> Ijy^ Jp 
in cognizance of the matter, knowing the 
matter; 4^ S^. j^ Jp (ma'rifatin) 
without his knowing about it, without 
his knowledge, unwittingly; ^ jiV 
(a, « or) take . . . ! help yourself to . . . ! 
make use of ...» ^wJU tiJLip (bi.s-?abr) 
you must have patience! «o LJU he is 
the one we must have! -u Jp ('alayya) 
bring, give him (or it) to me! I must have 
him (or it)! <j I Up it is incumbent on 
him to . . ., it's his duty to . . . ; he must . . ., 
he will have to .,.; liJLJU V don't worry! 
^Xp V never mind! it's nothing! no 
harm done I (indicating forgiveness, in- 
dulgence); UU L, what of it? what does 
it matter? let's forget it! <> <<JLU U don't 
worry about ..., don't mind ..., don't 
give ... a thought; ol Up L he doesn't 
care if ... ; it's of little importance to him 
that . . ,; ^1 ^ Up (U) V (with sub j.) it 
doesn't matter if he . . .; ajL*- Jp (hied* 
Uhl) at his expense; ^ *Jl* (dam) he is 
in debt(s); }\ Jp U) " |j (alaman) to 
inflict on s.o. pain upon pain, double s.o.'s 
suffering; gy <c^ Jp j> (sinnihi qawly) 
he bears his years well; fU 'aldma where- 
fore? what for? why? o\^\ Jp JiSjU 
istaiqaza r al& l-addn he awoke over the 
call to prayer, he was awakened by the 
azan; I* <oU Jp Jj (qUa, lisanihl) he 
was supposed to have said things 
which ,.., statements were ascribed to 
him which ...; ^ Jp (yadihl) through 
him, by him, at his hand; dlii Jp in this 
manner, thus; accordingly, hence; more- 
over, furthermore ; aJ^j and accordingly, 
hence; j> U Jp JU-I c**b the situation 
remained unchanged; JLw U Jp (yu* 
qdlu) as they say, as it is said; ^^. Jp 
r ald kasabi (prep.) according to, in 
accordance with, commensurate with, 
depending on; L^ jj. Jp (tauHn) with 
her obeying, without opposition on her 



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part; <J.sL Jp according to his habit, as 
was hia wont, as he used to do; j>>- J* 
*Lp (^mi gajlatin) suddenly, all of a 
sudden, unawares, unexpectedly; JL^p Jp 
faMi) at the time of; 4j"^j Jt <L-J 
(Us" a, taldta) nine divided by three, 9:3; 
4*-J\ IJL Jp (wajh) in this manner, this 
way, thus; jjUl Jp by cold process, 
without applying heat ; ^Ul Jp by hot 
process, in a heated state; Jp iJJi^ 
t_iiUi dry cleaning; ^-ULI Jp see under ^ 

Jp Wty high, tall, elevated; exalted, 
sublime, lofty, august, excellent; J*J1 the 
Most High, the Supreme (one of the 
attributes of God) j ULJl SJjjJi (daula) 
name of the old Ottoman Empire 

Up 'ilya (pi. of Jp 'ally): ^UJI *JL, 
j»jiJl UL upper class, people of distinc- 
tion, prominent people 

Up r ulliya, 'illlya pi. J*>L "aldliy 
upper room, upstairs room 

OjJp 'illiyun the uppermost heaven; 
loftiest heights 

»">U 'akf height, loftiness; high rank, 
high standing, nobility | oLJI Jl -ujj 
to raise s.th. toward the sky, point s.th. 
upward 

S*>L 'alah pi. t>L 'akm anvil 

#LL f alya" 2 loftiness, exaltedness, sub- 
limity, augustness; lofty height; heav- 
en^) | *LJL»«Jl JaI afti al-*a. people of 
highest social standing 

»ji& 'ildim addition; increase, raise 
(in salary); extra pay, bonus | Jp »j^ 
(ildivatan) in addition to 

Iffc 'alaya height, loftiness 

Jp! a'Za, f. ULp e ulyd, pi. Jp r «2an, J Li 
a'aJm higher, highest ; upper, uppermost ; 
Jlpl cfdlin the highest portion of s.th.; 
heights, peaks (fig.) | O^pt a'lahu further 
up, above; #">Ui jjS'-L above-mentioned; 



tjyu** JpI Jp (■Aio) j-c^* (mu'tamar 
mun r aqid, mustaivan) top-level conference ; 
£^j~* Jp Lj bi-ald sautin very loud, at the 
top of one's voice; jUUI JLI ^^i-* seago- 
ing vessel; J~Ji JLI a. n-«i£ the upper 
course of the Nile; JpVI Jl upwards; 
Jp^l j**J\ (sahar) high point of dawn 
(shortly before daybreak); UUJI oUJaJl 
(tabaqdt) the upper classes (of society); 
the upper layers (of the atmosphere, of 
rock formations); LJUJ1 j^u> Upper Egypt 

JL* ma'dlin (pi.): j>*Vi JL- noble 
things; J Li I <_*?-L» or -uJL. ma'alihi His 
Excellency, j jj\ JL- His Excellency the 
Minister (title of cabinet ministers) 

ULj trfliya elevation (e.g., of a building 
by adding a story); enhancement, uplift, 
exaltation; raising (e.g., of the voice) 

ctApl i r la elevation, enhancement, up- 
lift, exaltation; raising, lifting; O sub- 
limation (psych.) [ Aa\J> »t^pl boosting, 
furtherance, promotion, or advancement 
of s.th. 

otikpl i'tild* ascension (e.g., to the 
throne); accession to office (e.g., of a 
cabinet minister) 

**>Lx^i isti'la superiority 

JL f dlin high, tall, elevated; loud, 
strong (voice); higher (as opposed to 
elementary); lofty, exalted, sublime, 
high -r unking, of high standing; excellent, 
first-class, first-rate, outstanding, of top 
quality (commodity) J JLJI oUI the 
Sublime Porte; JL .kw [dagt) high volt- 
age, high tension {el.); JL J\y (tawdtur) 
high frequency {el.); aJL 'dliyahu above, 
above-mentioned (in letters; esp. in 
official and business style); <JL| j^^* 
{hi-dliki) above-mentioned; (eg.) JL 
JLJ1 *&l al- r dl excellent, first-rate, top- 
quality, A-l (merchandise); JL J^** 
(ma'had) institution of higher learning, 
college, academy 



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JUl. muta'dlin high, elevated, lofty, 
exalted; resounding, ringing; J toil the 
Most High, the Supreme Being (one of 
the attributes of God) 

J»r mustctlin: SJUdJJ (TjI^VI the 

sounds articulated with the back part of 
the tongue raised (i.e., according to gram- 
marians, s y d, t, z, q, g and k) 

Ojb = bj^e 
b\jb — b\j^ 

,Jp, 3JU, bjJ*, »U^, £^ see _^ip 



l ~c- abbreviation of the formula joUI *Jlc 
{saldmu) may peace be upon him ! 



8 *x. "amma < U jc, see |» ma 

3 *p r amma u ({_yf "umum) to be or be- 
come general, universal, common, prev- 
alent, comprehensive, all-embracing, to 
spread, prevail; — r amma u to comprise, 
include, embrace, encompass, pervade 
(a s.th.), extend, stretch, be spread, be 
diffused, be prevailing (a all over s.th.) | 
<o tSjU\ £*J- (balwd) it has become a 
general necessity II to generalize (a 
s.th.); to spread universally, universalize, 
popularize, democratize (a s.th.); to 
make (a s.th.) universally accessible, 
open (a s.th.) to the public at large; to 
introduce (a s.th.) universally; to attire 
(c s.o.) with a turban; to wrap in a turban 
(a head) V to become general, widespread 
(Jp with) V and VIII to put on or wear a 
turban 

■vp 'amrn pi. rjf 'umurn, fUM a'mdm 
father's brother, paternal uncle | ^Jl ^1 
ibn aVamm cousin on the father's side; 
periphrastically for husband; **Jl c^-> 
bint al-amm and **!l oj ibnat al- e a. 
female cousin on the father's side; peri- 
phrastically for wife; ^ U uncle! old 



boy! (friendly address for older men of 
simple status); ±\j* p*JI ''uncle 1 ' Murad, 
good old Murad 

<f "amma pi. -at paternal aunt 

Xf- "imma turban 

fS *amim general, universal, com- 
mon, prevalent; all-comprehensive 

*jf r umum generality, universality, 
prevalence; whole, total, totality, ag- 
gregate; p**^ the (general) public, the 
public at large; \*jf 'umuman in general, 
generally | \**y**- — U^ in general — 
in particular; fj**N J* in general, gener- 
ally; /»j*^' **-j* bi-wajhi l-'u. generally 
speaking, in general; JLH\ *y? j ( e u. 
il-qutr) throughout the country; Lr U 
r>«*N majlis al-'u. the House of Commons, 
the Lower House; r umum frequently 
replaces kJj^ r umuml in compound 
terms of administrative language, e.g.: 
J^l *jf aa*U- j, T u. al-ummdl general 
federation of labor; dJjU-1 *jf- Sjlal 
General Administration of Customs and 
Tariffs {Eg.); iJLJLl ryf- o\jij> (dlwdn 
r u. al-maslaha) administration head- 
quarters, chief administration office; 
yiil *jf jJ^jj d. 'u. al-mdliya General 
Administration of Finances (Eg.); ,J^£ 
iSj\ *yP t. r u. ar-rayy General Inspec- 
torate of Irrigation {Eg.); *jjf JUL* 
JjU-l J.JI mujattis 'u. an-nll al-janubl 
Inspector General for the Southern Nile 
(Eg.) 

ijjJ- 'urnumi public; universal; gen- 
eral; common; state, civil, public | <^- 
V_^ (jam'iya) plenary session; general 
assembly; v>*^' *_-xSCjl jta (ddr al-kutub) 
public library; v_^ jLi-il public works; 
j>*mJI JjA^JI (sunduq) i>ublic treasure; 
^J^ St*J general agent, distributor 
(com.); C^L*j-wJIj oLSJJ-l (juzlydt) the 
particular and the general aspects, the 
minor and the major issues 



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\*jf 'umumiya public character, open- 
ness to the general public 

l*jf "umuma uncleship, unclehood; 
pi. of »p 'amm 

l*\jf 'imama pi. fU" f ama*im 2 tur- 
ban 

^*jJ ta'mim generalization, univer- 
salization, general propagation or dif- 
fusion, popularization, democratization; 
vulgarization 

-****j j*\ amr tcfmlmi general order, 
governmental edict to all agencies and 
departments 

flp 'dmm public; universal, prevalent; 
general; common | pU!l ^Vl (amn) 
public security; fU jX» {mudir) director 
general, general manager; pUJI J\J\ (ra'y) 
public opinion; fUJl J-U^Jl or <*L*J1 <t>JLdii 
(maslaha) public welfare, the common- 
weal; fUlj ^U-'l (kdss) high and low, 
all men, all, everybody (also fL*JI 
^li^lj); >»UI IUi!l it ( r i. al-luga) gener- 
al linguistics 

i.U 'amma general public, people at 
large; i.UJI the common people, the broad 
mass of the people ; i«U r ammatan in gen- 
eral; generally; commonly, altogether, in 
the aggregate, collectively | X.U — t^>[>- 
(kassatan) in particular — in general; 
jm\^\ i.U — SuUJl; i.UJIj 5-^U^l (kdssa) 
high and low, all men, all, everybody {also 
l*\£\j i.UII) 

fljJI al-'awdmm (pi. of i*U 'amma) 
the common people, the populace; the 
laity (CAr.) 

i/U r ammi common, vulgar, plebeian, 
ordinary, popular; ordinary person, man 
in the street; <L*UJi al- f dmmiya popular 
language, colloquial language 



**** mu'ammam wearing 
turbaned 



turban, 



4 l> "amma — L ^p | !Sl U- *JL he asked 
him whether . . .; ^y If- and J*!? L^ 
shortly, presently, after a (little) while, 



Xf f amada i ( f amd) to support, prop, shore, 
buttress (a s.th.); to intend, purpose 
(J or Jl or * s.th.); to betake o.s., repair, 
go (J or Jl or a to); to approach, under- 
take (J or Jl s.th.), go, set (J or Jl about 
s.th.), proceed, apply o.s., turn, attend 
(J or Jl to), embark (J or Jl upon); to 
take up (Jl s.th.); to be intent (Jl on 
s.th.); — *amada i to baptize, christen 
(» s.o.) II to baptize, christen (» s.o.) 
IV to support, prop, shore, buttress (a 
s.th.); to baptize, christen (• s.o.) V to 
intend, purpose, do intentionally, do on 
purpose (a s.th.); to approach (a s.th.) 
with a definite aim in mind; to single 
out (* s.o.), aim (a, » at); to be bap- 
tized, be christened | SJUIj Ia.UjJ L 
(ihdna) he was not out to insult her, 
he had no intention of offending her 
VIII to lean (Jp against), support one's 
weight (J* on) ; to rely, depend (a, * or Jp 
on s.o., on s.th.) ; to use as a basis (a or Jp 
s.th.); to employ, use, apply (a s.th., e.g., 
a new method); to confirm (a s.th.); to 
sanction, authorize (a s.th.); to recognize 
(a an examination, a result); to accredit 
(* a diplomat); to place at s.o.'s disposal, 
grant, award (a financial support, funds); 
to loan, give on credit (a J to s.o. a sum); 
to be baptized, be christened 



xf r amd intention, intent, 
purpose; premeditation, willfulness {jur.); 
\xf 'cundan intentionally, deliberately, 
on purpose; willfully, premeditatedly 
(jur.) | juJI *~i Hbh al-'a. quasi-delib- 
erate intent (I si. Law); J**JI JiaJl (qatl) 
premeditated murder (jur.); xf j^ — \xf 
r amdan 



^xf f amdi intentional, 
premeditated, willful (jur.) 



deliberate ; 



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*xf- 'urnda support, prop, shore; 
main subject, main issue, basic issue 
(e.g., of a controversy) j (pi. xf- e umad) 
chief of a village, chief magistrate of a 
small community {eg.); mayor | Ixf- 
. fsr[/U basic reference work; main source 

al/ r imad pi. xf- *umud, «xf , \ a'mida 
support, prop, stay (also fig.); bracket, 
buttress, post; pole, pillar; column; mast; 
major general (Leb.; mil.); — 'imdd bap- 
tism 

Sal/' e imdda office of dean, deanship; 
(also e amdda) office of the dean (univer- 
sity) 

JU/ 'amid pi. *I-Up *%mada % support; 
head, chief; leading personality (in a 
cultural field); dean (of a faculty); 
director (of a college or academy) ; doyen, 
dean (as, of a diplomatic corps); high 
commissioner (also t/Ui -UwJl), resident 
general; brigadier general {Eg., Syr., Ir., 
etc.; mil.); colonel {Leb.; mil.); (formerly, 
Ir.:) general, (formerly, Eg.:) lieutenant 
colonel {mil.) | Jjl XJ- {awwal) brigadier 
general {Leb.; mil.); <jj*$\ v- 1 ^ -V C°* 
al-adab) the foremost representative of 
Arabic literature; SJuUl XJ- head of the 
family 

Sjl^ 'amida dean (fern.); directress 
(see X>) 

s^f- 'amvd pi. lXf-\ a'mida, xf- 'urnud 
flagpole, shaft (of a standard) ; pale, post, 
prop, shore, pier, buttress; lamppost; 
(telephone, telegraph) pole; column, 
pillar, pilaster; stem (of a glass); — (pi. 
lx? 1) column (of a newspaper); O ele- 
ment, cell {el) | £j£i\ .a^JI {saukl) the 
vertebral column, the spine ; <jjle}\ a^**JI 
{faqri) do. ; J^jfi' sy? [kahrabd'i) Q elec- 
trode; transmission mast, pole for electric 
power lines; jUo $jf- 'a. dukdn column 
of smoke 

a^*U c dmud pi. x^\je- 'awamidP — 



*jf 'arnvd \ Q SaLJiJI j^Lp steering 
column, steering mechanism (of an auto- 
mobile) 

(S^yf- 'amudi columnar, pillar-shaped; 
vertical, perpendicular, upright | SylL 
*i*yf helicopter 

lj1ju*H U*-^j yuhannd l-ma r maddn John 
the Baptist 

JU*»u ta'mid baptism 

•U*J ta'ammud intention, intent, design; 
resolution, determination, purpose; IjLm 
ta'ammudan and jucj intentionally, 
deliberately, willfully, on purpose, pre- 
meditatedly 

i£-U*5 ta'ammudi intentional, deliberate, 
premeditated, willful 

a£pi i'timdd reliance, dependence 
(Jp on), confidence, trust (Jp in); use, 
utilization, employment (of s.th.); con- 
firmation; sanction, approbation; re- 
cognition; accreditation (of diplomats); 
(pi. -at) subvention, fund, grant, support 
{fin.); extra pay; credit, loan; pi. CjUU^I 
funds, financial means (for an objective, 
a project) | ^Jd\ Jp j£pVI {nafs) self- 
confidence, self-reliance; a£p^i t_*iT icu* 
tub al-Vt. or j£pVI Jbj' aurdq al4H. cre- 
dentials (of diplomats) ; JUtfl i^pl {iddfi) 
supplementary credit; a**\i» ob£tl {ran* 
tdha) available funds 

*i*j-*** ma'mudiya baptism; baptismal 
font 

JU** mu'ammad baptizee, one re- 
ceiving baptism 

jUjcl» muta'ammad deliberate, premed- 
itated, willful; intentional 

X*z** mu'tamad reliable, dependable; 
object of reliance, support; sanctioned, 
approved, authorized; accredited; allo- 
cated, available (funds) ; — (pi. -un) com- 
missioner, authorized agent, proxy, 



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envoy, representative; commissary, com- 
missar; {Tun.) head of an administrative 
district in Tunisia, district president j 



-UIj 



\ (sdml) the High Commissioner ; 



J^jjlsiu (qunsuli) consular agent {dipt.); 



<Up . 



*L*i (asds) a reliable basis 



ajJUju. muHamadiya pi. -at legation 
(dipl.); {Tun.) administrative district 
{subdivision of a wilaya, province); dis- 
trict government 

/• 'amara u i { e amr, f umr) to live long, be 
longevous; — f amura u (Sjl^ r amdra) 
to thrive, prosper, flourish, flower, 
bloom; to be or become inhabited, 
peopled, populated, civilized, cultivated; 
to be full (<-> of s.th.), be filled, filled up 
(<_> with s.th.); to have or own plenty 
(y of s.th.) ; — *amara u to fill with life, 
cause to thrive, make prosperous; to in- 
habit (a s.th.), live, dwell (a in s.th.); to 
fill, pervade (^j*r s.o.'s heart), reign 
{<&\j? in s.o.'s heart) ; to build, erect, con- 
struct, raise, rebuild, reconstruct, restore 
{a s.th.) II to let (o s.o.) live, preserve (» 
s,o.) alive; to prolong s.o.'s (*) life, grant 
long life (6 to s.o.; of God); to populate, 
people (a s.th.); to build, erect, construct, 
raise (a a building); to rebuild, recon- 
struct, restore, repair, overhaul, renovate, 
refurbish, recondition (a s.th., esp. a 
building); to provide, furnish, supply, 
fill (^j a s.th. with, e.g., the lamp with 
oil, the censer with charcoal, the goblet 
with wine); to load (a a gun); to fill 
(a a pipe); to fill in (a a form, a blank; 
tun.) | oj jJr {waqtahu) to take up, or 
claim, s.o.'s time IV to bring growth and 
prosperity; to build up, develop (a a 
country); to populate, people (a s.th.); 
to perform the c umra (q.v.) VIII to 
visit (a, » s.o., s.th.); to perform the 
'umra (q.v.) X to settle (J » s.o. in); 
to settle, colonize (a s.th.); to turn (a a 
country) into a colony 



jf. 'umr { f amr in oaths) pi. ji>l 
a'mdr life, duration of life, life span, 
lifetime; age (of a person); pi. jl>l 
age groups, ages | ^j**} la-amri upon 
my life! ajj! j^J la- r amru lldhi by the 
everlasting existence of God! by the 
Eternal God! ly j~^\ oli dat al-umrain 
amphibian (n.); aL» bjj£& tyf- {'ifauna 
sanatan) he is twenty years old 

•jf r amra headgear (e.g., turban); 
{eg.) repair, repair work 

Ijf- *umra pilgrimage to Mecca (the 
so-called " minor hadj" which, unlike 
the hadj proper, need not be performed 
at a particular time of the year and 
whose performance involves fewer cer- 
emonies) 

tjjj- 'umrd donation for life {Isl. Law) 

Ijlf- 'amdra (naval) fleet 

lj\j- Hmara pi. -at, JlS 'amd'ir 2 
building, edifice, structure; real estate, 
tract, lot; S J \ C *J1 or oj^l js fann al- e i. or 
SjI^JI 2U.U* kandasat al-i. architecture, 
art of building 

j\jS "umrdn inhabitedness, populous- 
ness, thriving, flourishing, prosperity (as 
opposed to ^j^-kardb); luxuriance, lush- 
ness ; civilization ; construction of houses, 
building trade ; architecture 

(j\j^ 'umrdnl civilized; pppulous and 
flourishing (country, region); civiliza- 
tional, serving or concerning the develop- 
ment of civilization; constructional, con- 
struction (in compounds), architectonic, 
architectural | <jl^ S^^- architectural 
planning 

4jjL & r ammdrlya camel-borne sedan 
and the virgin riding in it into battle 

jf-\ a? mar 2 more inhabited, more 
populated, more populous; more culti- 



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vated, more civilized; more flourishing, 
more thriving 

J\f* mi* mar builder, architect; mason 

<jj\** mi'mdri architectonic, archi- 
tectural; — (pi. -lya) builder, architect; 
mason | <£j\»* ^-^fr* (muhandis) builder, 
architect; t£j!c*i1 ^JsW (fann) art of build- 
ing, architecture 

ju*j" ta r mlr building, construction, 
erection ; restoration, repair, overhauling, 
refurbishing, reconditioning; renovation 
of old buildings; development (of an 
area); reconstruction (e.g., of a country's 
industry); filling, filling-up; (tun,) filling 
out (of a form) 

I jwu ta'mlra filling, filling-up 

j\*^m\ istimar colonizing, colonization, 
foundation of colonies; colonialism {pol.); 
colonial rule | JboJ-t jLa2-V1 neocolonial- 
ism 

i Sj ] \^'\ isttfmarl colonial; colonizer 

h j ]^m I isWmarlya colonialism (pol.) 

j^U < amir inhabited; peopled, popu- 
lated, populous; full, filled, filled up; 
jammed, crowded, filled to capacity 
(<~> with); amply provided, splendidly 
furnished; civilized; cultivated (land); 
flourishing, thriving, prosperous; ^Ui 
is a frequent epithet of castles, palaces, 
etc., of ruling houses | J-VL» j-U (amal) 
full of hope; u-JLi _^U f d> al-jaib with a 
full pocket; J i*JUI ^U ( f a. ad-dimma) 
obliged to s.o., committed to s.o.; j-.U 
<-j a Jd\ ( f d. an-nafs) obsessed by, pos- 
sessed by; y\e. s\ umm 'amir hyena 
(zool.); »ja\s- Sjj> voluptuous bosoms 

jj*** ma r mur inhabited, populated, 
populous; j_j**ii or aj^^dl the (in- 
habited) world | (Sjj*a1I) jj+A\ »U'I Jf j 
all over the world, throughout the 
world 



j+*+ mu'ammir pi. -im colonist ; colonizer 

j*** mu'ammar pi. -un senior (in 
sports) 

j*xl~»a musta'mir colonial, imperial- 
istic; — (pi. -«») settler, colonist; colo- 
nizer; foreign conqueror, invader; im- 
perialist 

• j -*-..— musta'mara pi. -at colony, 

settlement | O «iiu- Sj^ai^ (musta* 
qilla) dominion 

( JJ U \ a f mas 2 affected with an eye disease, 
bleary-eyed 

^l> "umds (eg.) mucous discharge of the 
eye, rheum 

J^ 'amuqa u ( f umq, vl? r amdqa) to be or 
become deep, profound II to deepen, 
make deep or deeper (a s.th.) IV = II 
V to penetrate deeply, go deeply (a or j 
into s.th.), become absorbed (a or J in); 
to immerse oneself (J in a subject or 
field) 

J^ 'amq, r umq pi. JLpI a'maq depth, 
profoundness, profundity; bottom | ^ 
<ui* 3i/-\ (a. qalbihi) from the bottom 
of his heart, from the depth of his soul; 
cr -«Jt Jsl^l ,> (a, in-nafs) do. 

J^ r amiq deep (also of feelings), 
profound 

Jf\ cfmaq 2 deeper, more profound 

ta'miq deepening; intensification 



J> f amila a ( e amal) to do, act, operate, be 
active, work (also: j in a field); to make, 
produce, manufacture, fabricate, perform, 
carry out, execute (a s.th.); to act (<_j 
according to, in accordance with, on the 
strength of, on the basis of); to operate, 
put into operation, set going (<_j s.th.); 
to plan, contrive, seek to accomplish, 



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practice, pursue (J* s.th.), aim, work 
away {J or Jp at), be out, strive (J or J* 
for), apply o.s. {Jp to), take pains, en- 
deavor, exert o.s. {J* to do s.th.), be active 
{Jp in the service of s.th.); to process, 
work, treat (j s.th.) ; to act (J upon s.th.), 
affect (j s.th.); {gram.) to govern (J a 
syntactical member) | «j J^*j (yu'malu) 
it is valid, is effective, is in force (e.g., 
an ordinance); CjUj/ J^ to make ar- 
rangements or preparations; <!1>I J^ 
{tfynalahu) to behave, or act, like s.o. ; 
Jlj*j «dU Vj J**j ** V (yu'malu, yu'aw* 
walu) null and void II to appoint as 
vicegerent or governor (Jp » s.o. over, of); 
to fester, suppurate, be purulent (wound) 
III to apply (t-> » toward s.o. s.th.); to 
treat (<-j • s.o. in a manner), proceed, 
deal (<-* o with s.o. in a manner); to 
trade, do business (» with s.o.) | JiiU 4JL.U 
{bi-l-mitl) to repay s.o. like for like, treat 
s.o. in like manner IV to make (a s.th.) 
work, put to work, operate, put into oper- 
ation, bring to bear, employ, use (a s.th.) ; 
V or J * J^ ' to putter, or tinker, with 
s.th. about s.th. else, work with s.th. 
on s.th. else | ^£iJl J^i {fikra) to busy 
the mind, think, reflect, ponder, muse; 
(H*Uj J «Jl-JI J>-l (saifa) he caused a 
massacre among them, had them mas- 
sacred V to go to a lot of trouble, take 
great pains, spend much effort VI to have 
dealings, associate (*> with s.o.); to co- 
operate, work together (« with s.o.); to 
treat one another (w> according to a 
custom or tradition), behave mutually (cj 
following a principle or habit); to 
trade, do business (with one another); 
to trade, do business (^. with) VIII to 
work, be active, operate X to apply 
(a s.th.), use, employ (a, » s.o., s.th.); 
to put into operation, operate, run (a 
s.th.); to place s.o. («) at the head of 
s.th. ( Jp), install, instate ( Jp » s.o. over) [ 
»jJ»JI JjUj 4** J**x-J (wasd'ila l-qaswa) he 
brought severe measures to bear upon him 



J^ 'arnal doing, acting, action, ac- 
tivity; work, labor; course of action, 
way of acting, practice; achievement, 
accomplishment; activity (Jp for), work 
(Jp in the service of s.th.); making, pro- 
duction, manufacture, fabrication; per- 
formance, execution; make, workman- 
ship; practical work, practice; action, 
story (in a play or novel); — (pi. JL^I 
a'mal) act, action; operation (mil.); 
work, job, chore, labor; deed, feat, a- 
chievement, exploit; occupation, busi- 
ness ; trade, craft, handicraft ; vicegerency, 
province, district ; administrative district 
(formerly, Tun.); ^> J^Jl validity, effec- 
tiveness of s.th. (e.g., of an ordinance, 
and the like); pi. J I* VI business, com- 
mercial life J aaLaJLj J^ Kqifo) and J^ 
iJjUilj (rmtqawala) piecework; J^Ji ♦i J »-l 
<_-» (ijra* al-'a.) enforcement, implemen- 
tation of s.th.; 0*^1 J**Ji U what's to 
be done now? what's there to be done? 
what can you do? <-> *^ ('amalan) in 
execution of, in pursuance of, according 
to, pursuant to, as stipulated by; J 1^1 
'^ij>- (harblya) belligerent, or warlike, 
acts, military operations; **jjVI Jl^Vl 
(arb(fa) the first four rules of arithmetic ; 
^Lp^iai-I jLf ! intelligence or spying activ- 
ity; *Jc*JI JUH a. al-'unf acts of violence; 
4-j^iJl JL^I subversive activity, revolu- 
tionary machinations; ^»-bJl J^ (intdji) 
productive work; aJ>» JU 1 ! {manziliya) 
household chores, household work; JUM 
4jjJu (yadawlya) handiwork(s), manual 
work; J**Jl <_^-U» employer; JU'VI j\j$ 
business circles; Jl^i JU-j rijal al-a. 
businessmen; Jl>VI Sj^l idarat al-a. 
business management; Jl^Vi flU r dlam 
al-a. the business world 

J^ r amall work-, working- (in com- 
pounds) ; serving practical purposes, prac- 
tical; applied; LJU T amallyan practically, 
in practice | ILLJI »Li-f practical life, 
workaday life, professional life; ^Iil 



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J**ji (madhab) pragmatism; ^La)! i-LJI 
practical policy, "Realpolitik"; SL*-Li ^ 
iJL^ practically speaking 

4-JL^ 'amaliya pi. -a£ work; action, activ- 
ity; operation (also med., mil.); making, 
fabrication; process (also ph>js., chem., 
etc.); prooedure, method | \j>j *J^ 
(tarbawiya) educational process; Ldl *JL^ 
r a. cU-tcfallum learning process; iJU 1 
\j-a~* (qaisariya) Caesarean section; 
^UJVi 4-JL^ *a. al-intaj production pro- 
cess; j^i\ aJj- r a. an-numuw growth 
process; 4**-ij <JU*j fU to carry out a 
large-scale operation; "Liy Cj\A^ (harblya) 
warlike actions; ^jUj! CjII^ (irhdblya) 
terroristic actions 



U-^ f amla evil deed | <cU« in the very 
act, red-handedly, flagrante delicto 

llf f umla wages, pay; currency; cur- 
rent money, currency in circulation ; mon- 
ey J iiJlj *Lf counterfeit money; ~*Lf- 
U^- (sahla) soft currency; l~*~* U^ (sa'ba) 
hard currency; SL*ll *Ju> muzayyif al-'u. 
counterfeiter; £L*JI ^.j? currency smug- 
gling; ^>-! Cj^U" r umldt ajnabiya foreign 
currencies; <jj^ij ^1^ (tadkdnya) com- 
memorative coin(s) 

J~^ "amll pi. »*>U : ' 'umala' 2 (business) 
representative; agent (also pol.); com- 
mission merchant (com.); customer, pa- 
tron; patient; client 

aLj- "amila woman customer, woman 
client 

O ^L> e umaila pi. -at erg (unit of 
energy or work; phys.) 

<i\jf- r imala pi. -at employment as a 
worker, position as an employee; — 
r amala labor force ; potential labor force ; 
(pi. -at) wages, pay of workers; agent's 
fees, brokerage; prefecture, adminis- 
trative district (of a r dmil; Alg.) 



"4y? 'umula pi. -at brokerage, agent's 
commission 

Jl> 'ummdli labor, workers' (in 
compounds) | «Jl^ 4jL**» labor organ, 
labor (news) paper 

J**- ma'mal pi. J-.U. ma'amil 2 factory, 
mill; workshop, plant, works, establish- 
ment; plant unit (techn.); institute; labo- 
ratory; pi. J^U. production facilities | J**, 
<t^J\ m. al-baht research institute; J*m 
>Tj3i stabilizer (oil production); J**. 
./j&JI refinery; 'l^T J^» m. kahraba' 
electric power plant; ^111 J*^. m. al-laban 
dairy; c^J\ ^ jUJI }JA J^. farz al-g. } 
zail) gas -oil separator (oil production) 

iJLLfc* mu r amala pi. -at treatment (of a 
person); social intercourse, social life, 
association (with one another); behavior, 
conduct (toward others); business; trans- 
action; (esp. in pi.) mutual relations, 
business relations; service, dealing with 
customers, processing of customers; — 
pi. O^UU. human relations, conduct of 
people among themselves (also 1st. Law, 
in contrast with oIjLp Hbadat conduct 
of men toward God); business dealings, 
transactions, sales (com.) | SjLif aLU. 
(mumtaza) first-class service; U.UII Sjl^i 
sahddat al-m. (Eg.) certificate of status in 
re military service; Jilli U.LL1 (mitt) 
reciprocity (in international trade); \?J, 
ajUj jS' y j\ JjjJl U.U. sarin m. id-duwali 
l-aktari ri'dyatan most -favored-nation 
clause (dipt.) 

J-»jo ta'ammul affectedness, affectation, 
finicality, mannerism 

J*Lj ta'dmul cooperation; dealings, 
social intercourse (with s.o.); commercial 
intercourse, trade relations, trade, deal- 
ings, transactions; business, transactions 
(stock exchange); (pi. -at) O reaction 
(chem.) 

<S\jc*>\ isti'mal application, use, em- 



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ployment; utilization, exploitation: op- 
eration, handling (e.g., of a machine) | 
iJljoVl J4- sahl al-ist. easy to handle; 
Jl^-lM *y si? al-ist. abuse, misuse; 
Jl^Vf A?Li in general use, commonly 
used, generally accepted; 4J^iiJ *Ul 
asd'a sti'mdlahu to abuse, misuse, mis- 
employ s.th.; oVUjc-VI Ji Satta 14, 
multiple means of application or kinds 
of use 

J*U 'amil working, employed; active; 
effective; — (pi. -un) doer; maker; work- 
er, wage earner, employee; — (pi. ^j* 
'awamil 2 ) factor, constituent, element, 
(causative) agent, motive power; word 
governing another in syntactical regimen, 
regent (gram.); — (pi. J If "ummdl, *!>■ 
'amal